30 octobre 2020

CRE Notes Formulaire 1 – 4 | Notes de révision de la CRE

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Introduction à l'éducation religieuse chrétienne

L'importance de l'apprentissage CRE

Définition de l'éducation religieuse chrétienne (CRE)

L’éducation religieuse chrétienne est l’étude de la révélation de Dieu aux êtres humains à travers les Écritures, les personnes de Jésus-Christ et du Saint-Esprit.

Pourquoi les écoles étudient-elles la CRE?

Les écoles étudient la CRE pour de nombreuses raisons. Certaines des raisons sont les suivantes:

a) Vous permettre de développer une relation personnelle avec Dieu.

a) Vous aider à acquérir les principes de base de la vie chrétienne.

b) Vous aider à développer un sens de respect de soi et de respect pour les autres.

c) vous aider à développer des attitudes et des valeurs positives vous permettant de faire face aux défis de la vie.

d) Contribuer au développement moral et spirituel des étudiants.

e) vous aider à contribuer de manière positive à la transformation d'un individu et de la société dans son ensemble.

f) vous aider à identifier des réponses aux situations de la vie, y compris la mort et la vie éternelle.

g) Aidez les apprenants à identifier les réponses aux questions de la vie.

j) Promouvoir l'intégration culturelle.

k) Vous permettre d'acquérir une meilleure compréhension de Dieu.

l) Unir les gens.

m) vous guider dans le choix d'une carrière

n) Vous aider à apprécier le patrimoine religieux africain et les autres religions.

o) Promouvoir des valeurs vivantes telles que l'honnêteté envers les autres, la gentillesse, l'amour et l'unité.

La Bible

La Bible est le livre sacré contenant la révélation de Dieu aux gens. Il est
la parole inspirée de Dieu.

C'est le livre par lequel Dieu communique
avec son peuple.

La Bible comme parole de Dieu

La Bible est la parole de Dieu parce que:

a) Les Écritures écrites contiennent la parole de Dieu.

b) À travers la Bible, Dieu communique sa volonté aux humains.

c) Il contient des mots écrits par des auteurs inspirés tels que les prophètes qui ont été
envoyé par Dieu.

d) Dieu lui-même a pris part à l'écriture de la Bible. Par exemple. Dieu est cru
avoir écrit les dix commandements

e) Il contient l'histoire du salut réalisé par Jésus-Christ.

f) La Parole donne la révélation aux mystères.

g) La Bible contient un message d'espoir et de réconciliation.

h) Il révèle que Dieu contrôlait ce qui était écrit et ce qu'il voulait
les écrivains à passer au peuple.

La Bible en tant que bibliothèque

La Bible est considérée comme une bibliothèque puisqu'il s'agit d'une collection de textes inspirés
ou des livres.

La Bible contient 66 livres.

La Bible est divisée en Ancien Testament et Nouveau Testament.

L'Ancien Testament contient 39 livres tandis que le Nouveau Testament contient 27 livres.

Cependant, le romain
L’Église catholique accepte 7 livres supplémentaires dénommés Apocryphe, Deutéro ou livres canoniques.

Le mot Apocryphe signifie caché ou secret.

Ils sont Esdras (1, 2), Tobit, Judith, Ecclesiaticus, Baarch et
Maccabées.

Pourquoi la Bible est une bibliothèque

Plusieurs études montrent que:

a) La Bible contient (66) un livre, comme une bibliothèque en a beaucoup.

La Bible est une collection de livres disposés en séries.

b) La Bible est un livre de référence pour les chrétiens.

Les auteurs de la Bible avaient une orientation spirituelle spéciale; chaque livre a donc été écrit dans un but précis.

c) Les livres ont été écrits à différents moments de l'histoire.

d) La Bible a des œuvres littéraires.

e) Les livres écrits contiennent différents sujets.

f) La Bible a différents livres écrits par différents auteurs.

g) Les livres de la Bible ont été écrits dans différentes situations et circonstances.

La Bible: Les divisions principales et ses livres

Principales divisions de la Bible

La Bible est divisée en deux divisions principales.

Ce sont l'Ancien Testament
avec (39 livres) et le Nouveau Testament avec (27 livres).

Le mot
Testament signifie alliance ou accord avec Dieu.

Les livres de l'Ancien Testament sont divisés en:

une. Livres de la loi ou du Pentateuque ou de la Torah.

b. Livres historiques.

c. Livres Poétiques

ré. Livres prophétiques.

Livres de droit ou le Pentateuque ou la Torah

Les livres de droit sont

(i) Genèse

(ii) l'exode

(iii) Lévitique

(iv) numéros

(v) Deutéronome.

Moïse a écrit ces livres. Ils contiennent la loi de Dieu telle qu'elle a été donnée à
le peuple d'Israël par Moïse.

Ils contiennent également l'histoire de la
Israélites de la création au moment où ils sont entrés dans la Terre promise.

L'auteur Moïse est considéré comme un législateur, un enseignant et un prophète.

Livres historiques

 Il y a les 12 livres consécutifs de

(i) Josué

ii) les juges

(iii) Ruth

(iv) 1, 2 Samuel

(v) 1, 2 rois

(vi) 1, 2 chroniques

(vii) Esdras

(viii)
Néhémie

(ix) Esther.

Ces 12 livres racontent l'histoire des Israélites.

Ils contiennent également des informations sur la vie et les réalisations de certains
les prophètes, par exemple, l'histoire de la vie d'Elisée et Élie.

Exercice 1 – Parcourez les 12 livres et vérifiez page par page les
noms d'autres prophètes.

Livres Poétiques

Les livres sont de nature poétique.

Les livres de poésie contiennent des paroles sages,
chants et prières.

Les livres poétiques sont (1) des psaumes qui ont été écrits par
David

ii) Proverbes

(iii) Ecclésiaste

(iv) Cantique de Salomon écrit par
Salomon et

(v) Job.

Livres prophétiques

Ceux-ci sont divisés en prophètes majeurs et mineurs.

Un prophète est un messager
de Dieu, ou le porte-parole de Dieu.

 Un prophète est un porte-parole de Dieu.

Les prophètes transmettent des informations et des messages de Dieu aux gens. Ils sont des messagers de Dieu.

Leurs messages de Dieu concernent l'avenir.

Cinq livres prophétiques majeurs

I. Les principaux livres prophétiques sont de

(i) Isaïe

(ii) Jérémie

(iii)
Lamentations

(iv) Ezekiel et

(v) Daniel

. Les livres portent les noms des prophètes qui ont prophétisé et qui les ont probablement écrits.

Jérémie a écrit des lamentations. Ces prophètes sont appelés prophètes majeurs car ils couvrent une période plus longue.

Leurs prophéties sont longues et ils ont prophétisé sur une longue période.

II. Prophètes mineurs.

Il y a 12 livres de

(1) Osée

(2 Joel

(3) Amos

(4) Abdias

(5) Jonas

(6) Michée

(7) Nahum

(8) Habakkuk

(9)
Sophonie

(10) Haggai

(11) Zacharie et

(12) Malachie.

Ces livres sont des prophètes mineurs qui auraient prophétisé
une période plus courte si vous les comparez aux grands prophètes.

Les livres du Nouveau Testament sont:

une. Livres biographiques ou évangiles.

b. Livres historiques (Actes des apôtres).

c. Les épîtres

ré. Livre apocalyptique ou prophétique

a) Livre biographique ou évangiles

Evangile signifie bonne nouvelle. Les disciples de Jésus ont écrit la biographie
livres.

Ils contiennent des informations sur la naissance, la vie, le ministère, la mort et
la résurrection de Jésus-Christ.

Les livres biographiques sont quatre.

(i) Mathew
– Écrit par Mathew

(ii) Mark – Écrit par Mark

(iii) Luke – Écrit par Luke, le médecin et

(iv) John – écrit par John

(le disciple bien-aimé de
Jésus Christ)

b) Livres historiques

Il y a un livre historique, qui est les Actes des apôtres.

Luke, l’écrivain de l’Evangile de Saint-Luc, l’a écrit. Le livre des Actes nous dit la
histoire de l'église primitive.

c) Les épîtres

Il y a deux épîtres:

Épîtres pauliniennes et

Épîtres générales. Pauline
Les épîtres sont des lettres écrites par Paul.

Ce sont 13 lettres que Paul a écrites à

(1) Romains

(2,3) 1, 2 Corinthiens

(4) galates

(5) Ephésiens

(6) Philippines

(7) colossiens

(8, 9) 1, 2 Thessaloniciens

(10, 11) 1, 2 Timothée

(12)
Titus et Philémon.

Les épîtres générales sont des lettres écrites à l'église par d'autres personnes.

le
les lettres sont au nombre de 8.

Ils (1) Hébreux

(2) James

(3,4) 1, 2 Peter

(5,6,7) 1, 2, 3, John et

(8) Jude

d) livre apocalyptique ou prophétique

C'est le livre de l'Apocalypse.

C'est le dernier livre du Nouveau Testament.

Il
est différent des autres livres.

C’est parce qu’il est prophétique de
viens.

Il s'agit de l'avenir. Il a été écrit par Jean le disciple bien-aimé de
Jésus Christ.

Traductions bibliques majeures des langues originales
Vers les langues locales

Ces livres de la Bible sont acceptés comme le Canon de la Bible.

Le terme
Canon signifie Standard ou guidage ou règle.

Traduction signifie expression
des livres par des mots et des images, des poèmes et des chansons d'une langue à
un autre.

L'Ancien Testament était à l'origine écrit en hébreu, la langue
des Israélites.

Puis entre 250 et 100 av. J.-C., il a été traduit au
Langue grecque. La traduction grecque de la Bible était connue sous le nom de Septante.

Ce terme fait référence à 70 traducteurs.

Les Juifs en dispersion ou diaspora
utilisé cette traduction.

C'étaient les Juifs vivant en dehors de la Palestine.

Entre 386 et 420 après JC, Jérôme, grand érudit chrétien, traduisit le
bible entière du grec au latin, la langue des Romains.

Cette traduction
s'appelait Vulgate.

Les chrétiens ont utilisé la traduction latine du
Bible jusqu'au 16ème siècle.

Au cours de la réforme au 16ème siècle,
Les chrétiens ont été encouragés à utiliser leurs propres langues autochtones lors de leurs cultes.

À partir de ce moment, la Bible a été traduite en anglais et en allemand.

Comme
Le christianisme se répandit dans différentes parties du monde, il y avait un besoin de
traductions de la Bible dans différentes langues.

En 1804, les Britanniques
formé la Société biblique étrangère, qui a traduit la Bible dans de nombreux
langues.

Johann Ludwig Krapf a traduit le Nouveau Testament en kiswahili.

Cette
était la première traduction de la Bible en Afrique de l'Est.

Depuis ce temps, la Bible
Société du Kenya a traduit la Bible dans d’autres langues telles que
Kikuyu en 1951, Kikamba en 1956, Kimeru en 1964, Kalenjin en 1968,
et Luhya en 1974.

En 1980, la Bible avait été traduite en 29 kényans
langues. À ce jour (2010), la Bible a été traduite en 42 langues.
du Kenya.

Traduction et versions utilisées au Kenya aujourd'hui

Outre la traduction de la Bible en plusieurs langues, il existe de nombreux anglais
versions de traduction, qui sont couramment utilisés au Kenya.

Ceux-ci sont

(je)
King James Version

(ii) Bible de Jérusalem

(iii) Nouvelle Internationale
version

(iv) Bible anglaise

(v) la version autorisée

(vi) Bonne nouvelle

vii) Version standard révisée

(viii) Nouvelle version du roi Jacques

(ix)
Bible amplifiée

(x) La Bible vivante

(xi) la Bible africaine

(xii)
Bible commune

(xiii) La Bible anglaise d’aujourd’hui

(xiv) version américaine
parmi d'autres.

Écriture de la bible

En 2010, la Société biblique du Kenya avait traduit la Bible en 42
Langues kenyanes.

La nécessité de lire la Bible a conduit à l'écriture de la Bible
matériel de lecture pour l’alphabétisation dans les langues locales.

Ceux qui ont écrit
la Bible utilisait différents styles et figures de langage pour faire leur
message vif et clair.

Plusieurs formes littéraires ont été utilisées dans l'écriture de
la Bible.

Ceux-ci sont:

une. Poésie dans les psaumes

Activité

a) Lis les Psaumes et remarque la poésie utilisée par David quand il écrivait
psaumes

b) Lire le travail. Remarquez le rythme des mots

c) Tournez-vous vers votre manuel d'anglais – l'anglais intégré. Lire le sujet
4 sur le son et les motifs de la poésie.

d) Lire n'importe quel psaume et n'importe quel vers de Job. Que remarquez-vous?

Les autres formes littéraires utilisées dans la Bible sont:

i) La prose dans Lévitique, qui est un texte législatif

ii) Paroles sages dans les Proverbes

iii) discours prophétiques de Jérémie

iv) Prières de Néhémie

v) Les chansons d'amour, par exemple, les chansons de Salomon

vi) lettres. Voir Paul Epistles (Romains)

vii) Évangiles, par exemple, l’évangile de Marc

viii) Événements religieux, par exemple, Exodus

ix) Récits, par exemple, Genesis

x) Essais philosophiques, par exemple, le livre de Job.

Ici noter l'utilisation
des métaphores et des comparaisons dans des essais philosophiques.

Les effets des traductions de la Bible sur les langues africaines
Traductions de la Bible:

i) Augmentation et approfondissement de la foi africaine en Dieu.

ii) conduit à une alphabétisation accrue. Une fois que les Africains ont acquis des compétences en littératie, ils
lire la Bible et améliorer leurs compétences en littératie.

Missionnaires chrétiens
écoles établies afin d'enseigner l'alphabétisation qui a aidé l'Afrique à lire
la Bible.

ii) Facilité pour les missionnaires de répandre l'évangile en Afrique
communautés.

iii) Augmentation de la demande pour la Bible. Cela a conduit à l'écriture de livres et
mise en place de presses à imprimer dans les pays africains.

iv) Facilité l’agrandissement de l’église, c’est-à-dire que plus de gens sont devenus
Les chrétiens.

v) a conduit à l'émergence d'églises et d'écoles indépendantes.

vi) Les missionnaires et les colonialistes ont appris les langues africaines.

vii) Les convertis africains ont compris que les missionnaires étaient injustes à
leur.

Il y avait par exemple un traitement différent des Africains par les Blancs.
missionnaires. C'était l'inégalité des races, qui était et est encore aujourd'hui
contre les enseignements chrétiens.

viii) A aidé les Africains à redécouvrir leur identité culturelle.

Par exemple
l'utilisation d'instruments africains, de pansements et la pratique de la polygamie,
ce que David et d'autres rois dans l'Ancien Testament ont fait.

ix) A conduit à l'écriture et à la diffusion des langues africaines. Les missionnaires
appris les langues locales.

x) Amélioration de la communication entre les missionnaires et la population locale
parce qu'ils pourraient se comprendre.

xi) Augmentation de l'impression de matériel de lecture

Les effets de la traduction de la Bible sur les communautés africaines

Après les premières traductions de la Bible, il y a eu des effets ou influences immédiats sur certaines communautés.

Par exemple, certains leaders communautaires
n'était pas d'accord avec les enseignements chrétiens. Certains voulaient conserver des aspects
de leur religion africaine.

En conséquence, certaines communautés qui n'étaient pas d'accord
avec des traductions de la Bible ont établi leurs propres dénominations chrétiennes dans
afin de prêcher la Bible, comme ils l'ont comprise.

C'était l'émergence
des églises indépendantes.

Certaines communautés africaines construites de manière indépendante
écoles où leurs enfants pourraient apprendre à lire et à écrire sans
être forcé de pratiquer tous les enseignements chrétiens.

Questions d'examen

1) Quelle est l'importance de lire la Bible?

2) Comment la Bible est-elle utilisée dans la société aujourd'hui?

3) Comment le gouvernement du Kenya utilise-t-il la Bible aujourd'hui?

4) Nommez les principales divisions de la Bible dans le Nouveau Testament et
L'ancien testament

5) Quels sont les effets de la traduction de la Bible sur les langues africaines?

6) Pourquoi la Bible est-elle appelée (a) une bibliothèque et

(b) la parole de Dieu

7) Quel est le sens du terme inspiration?

Activités d'étude

1. Lisez les citations bibliques données ci-dessus.

2. Réalisez des jeux de rôle, par exemple le sacrifice d'Isaac par Abraham.

3. Rendez visite aux personnes âgées de votre communauté et posez-leur des questions sur la
pratiques religieuses traditionnelles.

Création et chute de l'homme (Genèse 1-3, 6-9, 11)

introduction

Dans ce sujet, vous en apprendrez davantage sur la création et la chute de l'homme. Cette
l'information est dans la genèse.

Récits bibliques de la création et de leurs significations

Le livre de la Genèse commence par deux histoires de création.

La première création
l'histoire est dans le chapitre 1 de la Genèse.

La deuxième histoire de la création est dans la Genèse
chapitre deux.

Les deux histoires de création
La première histoire de création est dans le chapitre 1 de la Genèse.

La deuxième création
l'histoire est dans le chapitre deux de la Genèse. Cette histoire est comme une chanson ou un poème.

Ses
écrit: «Que ce soit…» et «Dieu vit qu'il était bon… de se séparer»
et "il y avait le soir et le matin sur …" Chaque création est prise comme un
journée.

La création s'est déroulée dans l'ordre suivant.

C'est ordonné:

1er jour – Dieu a créé jour et nuit (lumière et ténèbres)

2ème jour – Les cieux (ciel)

3ème jour – La Terre, Eau / Mer, Végétation (Plantes, arbres, herbe)

4ème jour – Soleil, lune et étoiles

5ème jour – oiseaux, créatures marines

6ème jour – Animaux, Bétail, L'homme était la dernière création (êtres humains)

7ème jour – Dieu s'est reposé et a béni le 7ème jour et l'a sanctifié.

Dans cette histoire de création, nous voyons Dieu créer les choses de manière ordonnée,
jour après jour jusqu'au 6ème jour.

C'était la dernière fois dans le premier compte.
Dieu a créé l'homme de la poussière et a respiré ses narines avant tout
le reste est mentionné.

Dieu a ensuite mis l'homme dans le jardin d'Eden, qu'il avait
fait pour lui afin que l'homme puisse le cultiver et le garder.

Le jardin a été planté
vers l'est en Eden.

De la terre, Dieu a fait pousser chaque arbre.

dans le
Au milieu du jardin, il y avait l'arbre de la connaissance du bien et du mal.

L'homme a été chargé de cultiver et de conserver le jardin.

On a commandé à l'homme de manger de chaque arbre dans le jardin sauf l'arbre de
 connaissance du bien et du mal.

Une rivière coulait du jardin et ensuite
séparés en quatre tributaires.

Dieu a vu que l'homme ne devrait pas être seul
par conséquent, il l'a fait un assistant / compagnon; une femme de l’une des côtes de l’homme.

L’homme a également reçu la responsabilité de nommer tous les animaux du
jardin.

Il est fait mention du repos de Dieu après le travail

Différences entre les deux histoires de création

Premier compte

Deuxième compte

Mentionne ce qui a été créé ce jour-là. Chaque création prend un jour.

– Cette histoire est comme une chanson ou un poème. C’est écrit: «Que ce soit…» et
«Dieu a vu que c’était bien… séparer» et «il y avait une soirée
et le matin…

– C'est ordonné.

– Mentionne ce qui a été créé ce jour-là.

– Les rivières et le jardin ne sont pas mentionnés.

– Homme et femme ont été créés ensemble.

– Aucune mention de la connaissance.

– Le mariage est pour la procréation.

– Le soleil, la lune, les étoiles, le ciel sont mentionnés.

-Dieu s'est reposé le septième jour, donc le jour du sabbat.

– ne mentionne pas les activités quotidiennes de DIEU.

– L'histoire est en prose. Par exemple «… et Dieu a dit… et c'était le soir…»

– Pas ordonné était dernier dans le premier compte

– Ne mentionne pas ce qui a été créé ce jour-là

– Mentionne rivières et jardin pour labourer

– La femme a été créée à partir de côtes d'homme

– Mention du savoir

– Le mariage c'est pour la compagnie

– Le soleil, la lune, les étoiles, le ciel ne sont pas mentionnés

– Mention de repos après le travail mais

– Le jour du sabbat n'est pas mentionné

Similitudes entre les deux récits de création

Dans les deux comptes de création:

a) Les hommes et les femmes sont créés par Dieu et ont des références spéciales.
L'homme et la femme sont spéciaux pour Dieu.

b) Dieu s'est reposé après la création.

c) Dieu a fourni la source de nourriture.

d) Dieu est décrit comme l'unique créateur de l'univers et de tout ce qu'il contient.

e) L'homme a la responsabilité de contrôler les animaux, les oiseaux et les plantes
que Dieu a créé.

Activité

Découvrez les différences entre les deux histoires de création et écrivez-les
vers le bas. Maintenant, comparez-les avec ma réponse.

Attributs de Dieu de la création biblique
Comptes

Les histoires de création nous disent que Dieu est:

(i) Le créateur unique et l'unique source de vie

(ii) immortel et éternel

(iii) il est auto-existant

(iv) Dieu d'ordre

(v) Source de bonté et de vrai bonheur

(vi) Saint, miséricordieux et juste

(vii) fournisseur et soutien de l'univers et de tout ce qui s'y trouve

(viii) Tout savoir (Omniscient)

(ix) Tout puissant (Omnipotent)

(x) Partout (Omniprésent)

(xi) un Dieu personnel.

(xii) il a un esprit et une volonté

(xiii) Dieu moral. Il s'intéresse au comportement de l'homme et de la femme. Il
lui commande de faire les bonnes choses.

Compréhension africaine traditionnelle de la création

La vision africaine traditionnelle de la création est mise en évidence à travers
histoires de création (mythes).

Les Agikuyu, Akamba, Gusii et autres
Les communautés kényanes ont des histoires qui expliquent leur origine.

Ces histoires
donner à chaque communauté un sentiment d'appartenance et d'identité.

Les histoires
expliquer les mystères de la vie.

Ces histoires ont des caractéristiques communes
ou des enseignements.

Ainsi, toutes les communautés africaines croient que Dieu: –

(i) Est l'architecte en chef du monde

(ii) existait depuis le tout début des temps.

(iii) Tout créé à partir de rien.

(iv) répond aux besoins des êtres humains.

(v) a été désobéi par des êtres humains qui avaient vécu dans le bonheur éternel.

Cette
Le bonheur a pris fin lorsque les êtres humains ont désobéi à Dieu.

(vi) Les communautés africaines avaient différents noms pour décrire Dieu.

Dieu
n'était pas connu comme Dieu mais comme le Créateur de tout ce qui existait
la terre et les cieux.

Il était Mumbi et «Mungai» pour Gikuyu.

Il était maître
de l'univers.

Les Kamba l'appelaient… Ngai wa Matu.

Ils croyaient
que Dieu continue de créer à travers les êtres humains.

Exemples d'histoires de la création africaine

1. Les Kamba croyaient que Dieu créa l'homme et la femme puis les jeta
eux à la terre.

2. Les Bukusu disent que Dieu le créateur (Étaient Khakaba) a créé le monde
seul.

une. D'abord, Dieu créa le ciel puis créa deux assistants, Mukhaba et
Murumwa.

Est-ce que Dieu a fait le soleil, lune, étoiles, un grand coq rouge qui
des corbeaux chaque fois qu’il gronde, les pluies, l’arc-en-ciel, les montagnes, les rivières,
lacs, ruisseaux et toutes les autres choses sur la terre.

b. Créé une femme pour l'homme.

c. Plantes créées, animaux, oiseaux et autres créatures.

ré. Le travail de création a pris six jours. Le septième jour, on s'est reposé.

Activité

Demandez à vos parents de vous parler de l'histoire de votre communauté.

Les enseignements des récits bibliques de la création

I. Dieu est responsable de toute la création. Il est le seul créateur.

Bonne création
c'était bien.

Tout ce qu'il a créé Dieu a dit que c'était bon.

C'était sans
défauts et erreurs.

Dieu est le fournisseur.

Dieu a créé tout ce que l'homme
Besoins.

Il a également créé de la nourriture pour tous les animaux et autres créatures. Dieu est
ordonné.

II. L’homme occupe une place particulière dans la création de Dieu. L'homme a été fait comme
gardien de la création de Dieu.

L’homme est co-créateur et gardien de la création de Dieu
puisqu'il a été créé à l'image et à la ressemblance de Dieu. L'homme a été commandé
travailler.

III. Une femme a été faite à partir de la chair de l'homme. Elle rejoint l'homme en mariage
et ils deviennent une seule chair. Dieu ordonne le mariage.

Les êtres humains étaient
créé pour socialiser.

IV Le péché est le résultat de la désobéissance de Dieu chez l'homme et la femme.

Responsabilités données à l'homme par Dieu dans les récits de la Genèse
de création

Après avoir créé l'homme puis la femme, Dieu a demandé à l'homme de:

une. Reproduire et multiplier.

b. Réglez sur le reste de ses créations.

c. Soyez responsable des poissons, des oiseaux et de tous les animaux.

ré. Cultivez le jardin et gardez-le.

e. Mangez des fruits du jardin sauf de l'arbre de la connaissance de
le Bien et le Mal.

F. Nommez les animaux.

g. Soumettez la terre.

h. Transformer la création que Dieu a fournie aux êtres humains.

je. Utilisez la création – forêts, rivières, montagnes avec responsabilité et respect.

j. Soyez un gardien de la création de Dieu

k. Ingénieur la création de Dieu en créant des choses de la création

l. Domine la terre

Travail de groupe

Travaillez par deux ou par trois et répondez à ces questions.

je. Comment l'homme remplit-il le commandement de soumettre et de remplir la terre?

ii. Comment l'homme est-il un co-créateur avec Dieu?

Enseignement biblique: la chute de l'homme, l'origine du péché
Et les conséquences

introduction

L'homme et la femme sont tombés du jardin d'Eden.

Cette expérience est expliquée
dans la genèse chapitre 3 verset 4; chapitre 6 verset 9 et chapitre 11.

Dans
ces versets, la Bible enseigne sur le péché, ce qui a amené Adam et
Eve Fall.

Le péché est défini comme l'iniquité et la culpabilité.

C'est manquer une marque, transgresser. Péché
est une rébellion ou une offense à Dieu. Le péché a commencé avec le
la désobéissance d'Adam et Eve.

On leur avait commandé de ne pas manger de
les fruits de l'arbre de la connaissance du bien et du mal – l'arbre dans le
milieu du jardin d'Eden.

Mais Adam et Eve ont mangé le fruit après avoir été
trompé par le serpent.

L’homme avait le pouvoir de résister à la tentation mais céda.

Genèse
Le chapitre 3 verset 6 déclare que l'homme voulait être sage et pensait comment
merveilleux ce serait de devenir sage… "donc le péché provient du manque
de la connaissance de Dieu, de la négation de la confiance de Dieu.

Les conséquences du péché

Après le péché, nous, la race humaine et les pécheurs:

1) Remplacé l'amitié avec Dieu avec la peur de Dieu.

2) innocence perdue. Ce qui était innocent et bon devint honteux.

Adam et Eve ont eu honte de leur nudité, quelque chose qu'ils avaient
jamais ressenti avant d'avoir péché contre Dieu.

3) Perdu de bonnes relations avec Dieu.

La bonne relation entre Dieu
et l'homme a été trahi.

Les êtres humains – ont été aliénés de Dieu. "Le
Seigneur Dieu l'a envoyé du jardin d'Eden… »

4) Endommagé la relation parfaite entre homme et femme.

Le Seigneur
dit à la femme «Tu désireras pour ton mari, mais tu le feras
être soumis à lui ".

5) La douleur est devenue une partie de l'expérience humaine. «Je vais grandement multiplier votre
douleur chez les enfants ».

6) L’homme a commencé à travailler dur et à lutter pour subvenir à ses besoins…
travailler dur et transpirer pour que le sol produise n'importe quoi »

7) La maison de l'homme, et la terre elle-même a été placée sous une malédiction.
"Maudit est la terre à cause de vous."

8) L'inimitié entre l'homme et les animaux sauvages a émergé.

9) L'homme a commencé à mourir. La peine de mort est prononcée sur tous les hommes. "Vous serez
retourne au sol… tu es poussière ”

10) L'homme a commencé à détester. L'homme a développé des sentiments meurtriers dans son cœur,
Par exemple, Caïn a tué Abel, son frère cadet.

11) L'homme a changé et est devenu sujet au péché.

12) La durée de vie de l'homme a été réduite (voir Genèse 6: 3) «Je ne permettrai pas aux gens
pour vivre éternellement, ils ne vivront pas plus de 120 ans »

13) Le langage de l’homme a été confondu par Dieu après le déluge (lisez Gen.11: 7)

14) Le péché a conduit à l’embarras, à la méfiance, à la souffrance, à la douleur, à l’orgueil, à l’arrogance
et la mort.

Sommaire

La désobéissance de Dieu par Adam et Eve a eu de graves conséquences pour le péché
aux êtres humains.

Le péché apporte la tristesse et la souffrance à l'homme, même aujourd'hui.

Activité

Par groupes de deux ou trois, discutez de l'origine et des conséquences du péché.

Concept du mal

introduction

Dans cette leçon, nous discuterons du concept de mal tel qu’il a été expliqué par le
Religion africaine et les écrits bibliques.

Nous étudierons les similitudes
et les différences de mal des deux religions.

Quel est le mal?

Dans la société africaine traditionnelle, le mal était une offense à Dieu, aux esprits
et ancêtres.

Il a également été considéré comme un délit contre une autre personne ou
communauté.

Le mal était aussi un malheur qui peut arriver à un individu ou à un
communauté.

Quelles sont les causes du mal?

Beaucoup de sociétés africaines traditionnelles n'associent pas Dieu au mal.
Dieu n'est pas le créateur du mal.

Certaines communautés croient que le mal est un
pouvoir externe qui existe par lui-même.

Ainsi dans le traditionnel africain
société, le mal a été compris ou expliqué comme quelque chose de mystérieux qui
a été causée par plusieurs personnes et choses.

C'étaient:
a) mauvais esprits

b) Esprits ancestraux – en raison de leur désobéissance

c) Certains animaux comme le caméléon sont des sources du mal.

L'Akamba
croyait que les caméléons apportaient le mal. D'autres communautés croyaient que si
une chouette qui pleure près de son homestead, c’est un signe du mal.

d) Les gens avec des pouvoirs mystiques comme la magie, la sorcellerie et
la sorcellerie sont des maux.

e) Si un membre d’une communauté brise un tabou en étant désobéissant, cette
l'action peut amener les mauvais esprits.

f) les esprits des morts; causer le mal; si on ne s'en souvient pas ou
respecté.

Les mauvais esprits causent des dommages et de la violence.

Conséquences du mal dans la société africaine traditionnelle

Celles-ci étaient nombreuses et allaient de

a) stérilité

b) Sécheresse

(c)
Épidémies

(d) la folie

e) Maladie

f) la mort

(g) noyade

h) Brûlure
dans une maison

(i) guerre

j) Enfants handicapés physiques et mentaux

(l)
Enfants rebelles

Le plan de salut de Dieu

Après la chute de l'homme, Dieu prit des mesures pour guérir la situation endommagée et
relation entre lui et Adam et Eve.

DIEU:

1. Fourni des vêtements de peau à Adam et Eve.

2. A cherché Adam et Eve puisqu'ils se cachaient de sa présence.

3. Donné à Adam et Eve les connaissances nécessaires pour trouver différents aliments.

4. Inimitié déclarée entre l'homme et le serpent.

5. fait allusion à la victoire finale de l'homme quand il a dit que la graine de la
femme écraserait le serpent ou la tête du serpent.

Le serpent attaquerait
le talon de l'homme et de la femme.

Tout au long de l’Ancien Testament et du Nouveau Testament, nous voyons les
plan du salut étant manifesté.

Par exemple, DIEU a choisi et
séparé Abraham des autres communautés.

Les enfants de
Israël dirigé par Moïse (ont été livrés) d'Égypte.

Dieu a envoyé des prophètes pour
enseignez et avertissez les Israélites des dangers du péché.

Finalement, Dieu a envoyé son
seul fils Jésus-Christ à mourir sur la croix pour sauver le genre humain.

Similitudes et différences entre les traditions
Vision africaine du mal et concept biblique du péché

La vision africaine biblique et traditionnelle ou conviennent que

1) Dieu est suprême. Dieu n'est ni le créateur ni l'auteur du mal

2) Le péché vient de la désobéissance de Dieu par l'homme

3) Le mal et le malheur sont la malédiction de Dieu à l’homme (Biblique), tandis que
La société africaine traditionnelle considère le mal comme une malédiction d'ancêtres et d'aînés.
Les deux malédictions mènent à des malheurs.

4) Le résultat du péché et du mal est la souffrance humaine

5) Le péché et le mal conduisent à séparer l'homme de Dieu

6) Dieu est le gardien de la loi et de l'ordre

7) Les êtres humains ont la capacité de vaincre le mal

Différences

1) Le récit biblique insiste sur la nature personnelle du péché en Afrique
concept; le péché est plus social et communautaire

2) Un récit biblique attribue le mal à la désobéissance alors que le concept africain
attribue le mal non seulement à la désobéissance, mais à d’autres forces extérieures.

3) Les récits bibliques offrent un message d'espoir pour vaincre le mal tout en
Le concept africain n’offre pas de solution au péché et au mal.

4) Le concept africain traditionnel toutes les formes de souffrance résultant du péché
alors que dans la Bible, la souffrance n'est pas toujours le résultat du péché.

Questions d'examen

1) Expliquez les différences entre les deux histoires de création

2) Énoncer la vision africaine traditionnelle de la création

3) Expliquez comment les êtres humains continuent à travailler pour la création

4) Quelle est l'origine du péché et du mal selon les traditions africaines?
société?

5) Donner trois conséquences du péché comme indiqué dans la Genèse

6) Exposer les conséquences du mal selon les sociétés traditionnelles africaines

7) Tracer le plan de Dieu pour le salut du genre humain

Comparez la compréhension africaine biblique et traditionnelle du mal et du péché.

9) Qu'est-ce que la commande “Soumettre la terre” dans Genèse 1 verset 28
signifier?

La foi et Dieu promet à Abraham

Contexte de l'appel d'Abraham (Genèse 11: 24-32,12)

introduction

Le fond de l'appel d'Abraham se trouve dans le premier livre de la
Bible. Ceci est la Genèse qui est un mot grec qui signifie «début».

le
la relation entre Adam et Dieu était bonne mais après Adam a désobéi
DIEU, leur relation a changé à cause du péché commis par Eve et Adam.

Après
parfois, Dieu a réparé cette relation en appelant Abraham et en offrant
salut.

Contexte

-Abraham a vécu avec son père Terah à un endroit appelé Ur. Abraham
père a vécu parmi les gens qui ont adoré de nombreux dieux.

Un des dieux
que les gens d’Ur adoraient était la lune.

Ce culte de beaucoup
les dieux sont appelés polythéisme.

– La famille de Terah a déménagé d'Ur à Haran.

À Haran, Dieu
appelé Abraham à 75 ans. On lui a dit de… «Quitte ton pays,
votre famille et la maison de votre père et allez dans un pays que je vais vivre
te montrer". Abraham obéit à l'appel de Dieu.

Il a quitté Haran pour une terre qui était
inconnu pour lui.

Il a pris sa propriété, son épouse Sarah et son neveu.

Au moment de l'appel d'Abraham, il était connu comme Abram et sa femme
Sarai. Dieu a changé leurs noms en Abraham et Sara.

Abraham signifie
Père de nombreuses nations alors que Sarah signifie mère des nations.

– À son arrivée à Canaan, il a voyagé et s'est rendu à un endroit appelé Schechem.

Dieu lui apparut une fois de plus. Abraham a construit un autel pour le seigneur à ce
endroit. Les autels sont des lieux de culte.

Ils étaient considérés comme saints et étaient
manifestations de la présence de Dieu.

Un autel était fait de pierres.

-Après quelque temps, il s'est séparé avec son neveu Lot en raison de leurs serviteurs
avoir des conflits au-dessus de l'eau pour leur bétail.

Abraham a quitté Canaan à cause de
féminin. Il est allé en Egypte.

Activité

1. Où Lot s'est-il installé?

2. Lire GENESIS, chapitre 11 (24 – 32) et chapitre 12 (1 – 9)

La foi et les promesses de Dieu à Abraham (Hébreux 11: 1 – 6)

une. Le sens de la foi

– La foi est une croyance forte, une confiance totale ou la confiance en quelqu'un ou
quelque chose. C’est aussi une conviction qui ne repose sur aucun fondement scientifique ou scientifique.
preuve logique.

La foi en Dieu est une attitude de confiance totale en Dieu.

Il ne repose pas sur des objets concrets ou tangibles.

La foi se manifeste dans le
les modes de vie d'un croyant.

– Abraham est un exemple de quelqu'un qui avait foi en Dieu. Il a montré
sa foi en action de plusieurs manières.

b. Comment Abraham a démontré sa foi en Dieu

1. Bien qu'Abraham soit vieux, il a quitté Haran pour aller à un inconnu inconnu
terre de Canaan.

2. Après s'être installé à Canaan, Abraham fut assuré par Dieu de son
protection et a reçu d’autres promesses telles qu’il aura un fils, et
Abraham a cru en Dieu.

Sarah a donné naissance à un fils quand elle était
90 ans et Abraham avait environ 120 ans.

C'était comme le seigneur
avait promis Abraham.

3. Le fils s'appelait Isaac, ce qui voulait dire «rire» – parce que Sarah
laughed when she was told that she would have a child in her old age.

le
child Isaac was circumcised when he was eight (8) days old.

4. Abraham was told by God to circumcise all males in his household
including himself. He obeyed.

5. When Abraham was asked to sacrifice his son Isaac to God, he was
ready to do so.

6. Abraham believed that God would fulfill all the promises he had given
to him.

7. Abraham demonstrated his faith by building altars.

c. God’s Promises to Abraham (Genesis 12:2-3, 15:1-21,21, 17:1-8, 17:15-18)

A promise is giving an assurance of something to someone.

The promises God gave to Abraham were that:

1. God told him he would give him a land. His descendants would be
given the land of Canaan to dwell in

2. His name would be made famous

3. His descendants will be many. Abraham would be made a great nation.

4. God would protect him.

5. He was promised a son of their own.

6. God would bless him.

7. God would bless those who bless him and curse those who curse him.

8. Abraham was promised that he would die in peace and in an old age.

9. His descendants would be strangers in a foreign land but afterwards
would come out with great possessions.

ré. The Relevance of the Promises Made by God to
Abraham to Christians Today (Gen. 12: 2 – 3, 15: 1 – 21,
21:1 – 7, 17: 15 – 18)

God called Abraham from idol worship in the same way God continues to
call people to serve him.

1) Through Abraham, God had a plan to restore the relationship between
man and God.

2) Christians receive the promises of blessings from God through
Abraham (Gods promises to Abraham fulfilled through Christians).

3) As Abraham left his own people, Christians should leave their sinful
lives and put their whole trust in God.

4) Abraham is seen as the descendant not only of the Israelites but also of
Christians.

5) Christians have faith that God fulfils promises to them as he did to
Abraham.

6) Christians are assured of God’s protection.

7) Through God’s dealing with Abraham, God shows that he values a
personal relationship with human kind.

Through Jesus Christ Christians enter into an everlasting covenant with
God. Just like Abraham entered into a covenant with God.

9) The promise to Abraham of Canaan Promised Land is to Christians the
hope for new land – heaven.

10) God continues to make promises to those who believe him.

11) Abraham is the ancestor (Father) of all believers)

e. Define the Term Covenant

i. Definition.

A covenant is a solemn agreement between two persons or two groups of
personnes. An agreement is between two separated parties.

It’s a pact, a
treaty. When it is a covenant, it conveys a union or partnership.

ii. Characteristics / components of a covenant

There are components or features that must be in a covenant.

A covenant
must have a ceremony, sign, witnesses, promises/vows/oaths, obligations
/ consequences, and participants.

A covenant establishes a sacrificial bond
between the parties involved.

There are obligations or rules by which the
parties must abide by, adhere to and observe in order to keep the
covenant.

A covenant is an agreement and if it is broken, there are
consequences for breaking it.

In the Bible, there are many covenants.

iii. Examples of covenants in the Bible

1. Adamic covenant – Agreement between God and Adam

2. Noahlic Covenant – God’s covenant with Noah where God promised to
preserve life of man and not to destroy it with water.

The sign of the
covenant is the rainbow.

In Gen 9 verse 3, GOD told Noah, “Everything
that lives and moves will be food for you…Just as I gave you the green
plants, I now give you everything.

Verse 4 says, “But you must not eat
meat that has its lifeblood still in it”

3. Abrahamic covenant – Gods covenant with Abraham.

He promised to
fulfill promises He gave to Abraham.

These promises were:

(1) Increase
numbers of descendant of Abraham.

He will be father of many nations,
(2) Be GOD of his descendants

(3) Abraham will have a son an heir,

(4)
Given land of Canaan and other lands from the river of Egypt to River
Euphrates, and all for heirs of Abraham (Gen. 15: 17 – 18)

(5) Circumcision
of all males at 8 days after birth even none Israelites living in their
terre

(6) Covenant with Isaac

4. Mosaic Covenant – is a covenant between the Israelites and GOD.
Moses led Israel to Mt. Sinai. God promised to be their God. Israelites
were given the law written by GOD in “tablets of stone, with law and
commands I have written for…. instruction”. (Read exodus 23).

5. Davidic Covenant – covenant between David and God – God promised
him that his dynasty would rule forever.

6. Messianic Covenant – new covenant between Christians and God
through Jesus Christ.

iv. God’s covenant with Abraham and its importance (Genesis 15:1- 19)

The covenant was established after God appeared to Abraham in a vision.

During the visitation of God, Abraham was 100 years old and Sarah 90
years. He was promised a son.

Abraham wanted assurance from God.

Dieu
told him to bring him the following items for sacrifice.

v. Items for sacrifice

  • Three (3) years olds: heifer, goat, ram and a dove and a pigeon.
  • Abraham then cut these animals into two halves and placed them
    opposite each other.
  • The birds were not split.
  • After it was dark, smoking fire and a flaming torch suddenly appeared
    and passed between the pieces of animals.
  • Towards evening, Abraham fell into a deep sleep.

    While he slept the
    Lord appeared to him and told him that:

  • His descendants will be strangers in a foreign land and be slaves for 400
    years.

    But they will come out of this land with a lot of wealth and God
    will punish the nation that will enslave Israelites.

  • He, Abraham will live up to a ripe age, and die in peace.

    Then the Lord
    made a covenant with Abraham and promised to give him and his
    descendants the land of Canaan.

    God himself passed through the sacrifices
    and bound himself to keep the promises.

    f) Importance of the Covenant Between God and Abraham (Gen. 15: 1- 19)

  • God bound himself in a personal relationship with a human being
  • As God passed through the meat, he showed Abraham he would always
    protect him.

    This passed on to the descendants of Abraham.

  • This covenant between God and Abraham begins a lasting relationship
    between God and all the nations of the earth.
  • Throughout this covenant God was initiating his plan of salvation for
    human kind.
  • The promises made to Abraham were fulfilled in New Testament blood
    of the lamb – death of Jesus Christ.
  • It emphasized the importance of faith followed by obedience that
    Abraham shared.

    g) Covenants in Modern Life and Their Importance

    Modern covenants are

    Covenants in Modern Life and Their Importance

    (a) Marriage

    (b) Baptism

    (c) Oath of loyalty and

    (d) Ordination of clergy

    Marriage ceremony:

    In marriage, the bride, bridegroom and their families
    come together. When the two families come together a relationship is developed.

    They make an agreement and both sides are seriously involved
    in the ceremony, whether the marriage is civil or religious.

    During the
    marriage ceremony the couple makes vows/promises to each other, before
    a priest/ pastor and the congregation.

    Two officials witness these agreements.
    Rings are exchanged as a sign of a lasting relationship.

    Une attestation
    is given in some cases as a testimony (sign) of this agreement.


    is eating and drinking.

    Baptism:

    In a Christian baptism, a covenant is entered into between the
    believer and God. The believer makes vows before God.

    The priest and
    the whole congregation witness this agreement.

    In some churches, a card
    is issued to the person who has been baptized as a sign of Christian membership.

    The baptized can now take the Holy Communion, which is a
    Christian Ceremony.

    But when an infant is baptized, parents take the
    vows on behalf of the child.

    Loyalty /oath:

    Leaders in public service for example the president,
    ministers, Members of Parliament, and chief officers are sworn in before
    they take over their new responsibilities.

    They swear (take an oath) and
    promise to carry out their duties firmly and without fear or favour.

    Ordination of the clergy: Church leaders, nuns and priests take oaths and
    make vows to God and to the congregation in a ceremony attended by
    worshippers.

    The importance of modern day covenants

    • They bind different groups

    • They act as a security

    • They strengthen relationships

    • They unite people together

    • They create loyalty

    • They create peace, harmony and bring a sense of permanence

    h) The Testing of Abraham’s Faith (GEN. 22: 1 – 18)

    God tested Abraham’s faith by asking him to go and sacrifice his only son
    Isaac.

    This was the son he loved so much.

    He was to travel to Mount
    Moniah.

    On reaching Mt. Moriah, he built an altar, and arranged wood on
    il.

    He tied up his son Isaac and placed him on the altar on top of the wood.

    He lifted a knife to kill him.

    “But the Angel of the Lord called out to him
    from heaven.

    Abraham! Abraham! Do not lay a hand on the boy…Do not
    do anything to him.

    Now I know you that you fear God, because you have
    not withheld from me your son, your only son” (v 11-12). Abraham had
    obedient reverence for God became he did not keep back his only son
    from God.

    God provided a ram for sacrifice.

    He named the mountain “the
    Lord provided” God was pleased with Abraham and promised him
    blessings, many descendants’ victory, and protection.

    Activity

    Read Genesis 12:1 – 9, 15:1 – 6, 17:23 – 24, 21:1 – 7, 22:1-19

    Importance of Faith in Christian Life Today

    1. A Christian today is acceptable to God through his faith in God through
    Jesus Christ. Without faith it is impossible to please God.

    2. A Christian can only serve God if he has faith in him. Faith enables a
    Christian to serve God.

    3. Faith enables a Christian to accomplish what appears to be impossible.

    4. Through faith, Christians are able to trust God to fulfill his promises to
    leur.

    5. Faith is the foundation of the Christians salvation.

    6. Faith in God gives a Christian the power to overcome all temptations.

    8. Christians should expect to have their faith tested just like Abraham
    was.

    9. Faith enables Christians to patiently wait on God’s promises.

    10. Christians through faith in God help the poor, make right decisions
    and are able to understand and know God better.

    Jewish and African Practices of Circumcision

    A. Importance of Circumcision to Abraham and His Descendants (Gen. 17: 1 – 16)

    The rite of circumcision was started by Abraham and has been practiced
    by the Jews up to the present times.

    In the Old Testament, it was important because:

    (i) Through circumcision: God assured Abraham that he would fulfill His
    promises to him.

    (ii) Circumcision was a sign that Abraham and his descendants had
    entered into a covenant with God. It was an outward sign of inner faith.

    (iii) Circumcision was a mark of identity for the Jews.

    (iv) It was a sign of obedience to God.

    (v) It was an acceptance of God as the only true God and their willingness
    to remain faithful to him In the New Testament.

    (vi) Circumcision doesn’t qualify one to be a child of God. L'un est
    accepted as a Christian without circumcision as long as they have faith in
    God.

    (vii) A true descendant of Abraham is the Christian who truly believes in
    God and lives according to His will regardless of colour, race or creed.

    b. Circumcision in African Communities

    Circumcision is one of the rites of passage among the African people.

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    marks the transition from one stage to another.

    Many ethnic communities
    in Kenya still practice the rite of circumcision.

    During circumcision
    ceremonies, prayers are offered to God for the well being of the initiates
    (those who are being circumcised) and the prosperity of the whole
    community.

    Initiates learn secrets of their community and society.

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    are taught myths, origin, religious beliefs, and sex education.

    In some
    communities, initiates are given new names or ornaments to signify their
    new status.

    C. Jewish and African Practices of Circumcision

    Similarities In both Jewish and African communities, circumcision:

    (a) is a mark of
    identité

    (b) provided a sense of belonging

    (c) was observed as a religious
    expérience

    (d) was compulsory

    (e) was a tradition passed from one
    generation to another

    (f) is a time for shedding blood

    (g) was a time for
    offering prayers to God for the well being of the initiates

    (h) was a time
    for giving gifts

    (i) was a ceremony for initiation

    (j) was a time for giving
    the initiates names

    (k) took place in sacred places.

    Differences In Jewish community,

    i. Circumcision was a rite for boys while in African society it was for both
    boys and girls. But it was for boys in a few communities.

    ii. Boys were circumcised when aged 8 days while in the African society;
    it was between 15 to 25 years old.

    iii. Circumcision was for boy’s organ while in African societies several
    forms of initiation were done, for example, removal of teeth, and body
    piercing among others.

    iv. Circumcision was a command from God while for the African
    communities it was in obedience to customary law where ancestors were
    invoked to protect the initiates.

    Among the African societies

    v. Circumcision was a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood while
    for the Jews it was not.

    vi. The initiates were given specialized education while the Jews were
    not.

    vii. The initiates were grouped into age groups, and were secluded from
    the community while among the Jews it was not so.

    viii. The rite of circumcision according to seasons while the Jews once a
    child is born, they are circumcised on the 8th day.

    ix. After circumcision, the initiates were allowed to marry, enter a warrior
    group, own property but for the Jews the initiate was still a child.

    Revision questions

    1.Explain why Abraham is referred to as the father of faith

    2. Give five actions from the life of Abraham that shows his faith to God.

    3. List some of the promises God gave to Abraham.

    4. Compare and contrast the Jewish and traditional African practice of
    circumcision.

    5. What is the importance of faith to Christians?.

    6. State the elements of a covenant.

    7. Give examples of covenants in the bible and the modern society.

    8. Discuss the circumstances that led God to enter into a covenant
    relationship with Abraham.

    Sinai Covenant

    The Call of Moses

    One day, Moses was looking after or tending the flock of Jethro his
    father-in-law.

    Jethro was a priest of Midian.

    When Moses came to mount
    Horeb, the mountain of God, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in
    flames of fire from within a bush.

    Moses saw that although the bush was
    on fire, it was not burning.

    Moses went over to the burning bush to look. God called him out within
    the bush… “Moses! Moses!” He replied, “Here I am”.

    God then told
    Moses not to come closer and to take off his sandals for the place where
    he was standing was a holy ground.

    God introduced himself as the God of his father, the God of Abraham, the
    God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.

    God then said he had seen the misery
    and sufferings of the Israelites in Egypt. He had heard their cry.

    God had
    come down to rescue Israelites from the hand of Egyptians.

    God was to
    take them to their home, the land of the Canaanites, a land flowing with
    milk and honey.

    God told Moses that He was sending him to go to Pharaoh and bring out
    the Israelites, the people of God, from Egypt.

    Moses resisted the call.

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    asked God “Who am I, that is should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites
    out of Egypt?” God promised to be with him.

    God said to Moses…
    Say to the Israelites… the Lord.

    The God of their fathers, God of
    Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob has sent me to you.

    Moses was told to assemble the elders of Israel and inform them that God
    was going to deliver them from Egypt.

    Moses was then to go to the king
    of Egypt with the elders.

    He was to tell the king “the Lord, the God of the
    Hebrews has met with us.

    (Exodus 3:1 – 22) God’s sign to Moses

    Moses was given several signs by God In case the people of Israel did not
    believe in him.

    a) First sign was his staff turning into a snake when he threw it down.
    When he touched the snake’s tail it turned into his staff.

    b) Second sign was God asked Moses to put his hand inside his cloak and
    it was as white as a snow – leprous.

    He was asked to put it back into his
    cloak and it was restored.

    c) Moses further complained that he was a stammerer. God then appointed
    Aaron, his brother, as his spokesman.

    Reasons Moses gave against the call

    1. He felt unworthy of the call.

    2. He wondered who he was to tell the Israelites that God had sent him.

    3. Moses said that he was a stammerer so he let God choose a
    spokesperson.

    Moses however heeded to the call and went back to Egypt together with
    his family.

    God promised to be with him and perform signs before Pharaoh.

    What does the name Moses mean?

    It means drawn out of water.

    What did Moses learn about God from his Calling?

    Moses learnt that:

    1. God is caring, merciful and concerned about the welfare of his people –
    Israelites.

    2. God is transcendent – he is beyond human understanding. He cannot be
    limited to time and space.

    3. God chooses whomever he wills to carry out his plans.

    He chose
    Abraham an old man, a moon worshipper and now Moses, a murderer, a
    fugitive and a stammerer.

    4. God expects total obedience and faith from those that He chooses.

    5. God is powerful, eternal and omnipresent.

    6. God is holy.

    7. God is a God of history, which means He is concerned with His
    people’s welfare.

    8. God is mysterious – He manifested Himself in the burning bush that
    was not being consumed.

    How did God prepare Moses to be the future leader of Israelites?

    1. His life was spared when he was rescued by Pharaoh’s daughter

    2. He was nursed by his own mother who taught him about Yahweh and
    his own true identity

    3. Life in the wilderness hardened him to be bold and to persevere
    les difficultés

    4. He learnt to be patient, keen, and responsible as a shepherd

    5. He acquired leadership skills while living at pharaoh’s palace

    6. He learnt literacy and numeracy skills (Educational skills) at the palace.

    7. He was not a stranger to Pharaoh hence he could approach him freely.

    The Ten Plagues Exodus 7:14-11:10

    During the call of Moses at Mount Sinai, God gave Moses a rod with
    which he could perform mighty signs before the Israelites and before
    Pharaoh.

    Aaron was to be his spokesman.

    Moses and Aaron gathered the
    Israelite elders and leaders to tell them what God had said to them. Après
    Moses had performed the miracles that God had showed him; the Israelite
    leaders believed him.

    They then approached Pharaoh so that he may release the Israelites.

    However instead of releasing the Israelites, Pharaoh became crueler.

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    gave Israelites harder work.

    When Pharaoh refused to release Israelites, God instructed Moses to bring
    ten plagues upon Egypt.

    These plagues brought; great trouble and suffering to Israelites.

    Ten plagues

    1) The plague of blood (Exodus 7: 14 – 25)

    Moses and Aaron used the rod. They struck the waters of the river as God
    instructed them.

    All the water in the rivers, canals, and pools in Egypt
    turned into blood.

    All the fish died and there was no water to drink.

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    situation lasted for seven days. However Pharaoh’s heart was hardened.
    He did not release the Israelites.

    2) The plague of frogs (Exodus 8:1 – 15)

    God then sent Moses to tell Pharaoh that if he refused to release the
    Israelites the whole land would be covered with frogs.

    At the command of
    Moses, Aaron held out the rod of Moses and frogs covered the whole
    land. On seeing this, Pharaoh pleaded with Moses and Aaron to pray to
    the Lord to get rid of the frogs and he would release them.

    They prayed
    and all the frogs died.

    Pharaoh, however, changed his mind and refused to
    release the Israelites.

    3) Plague of gnats (Exodus 8:16 – 19)

    The lord instructed Moses to tell Aaron to strike the ground and Aaron did
    so and all the dust in Egypt turned into gnats or small flies that bites.

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    magicians of Egypt could perform the first two plagues.

    They could not bring the plague of gnats.

    Egyptians acknowledged that
    the presence of gnats or small flies that bites was God’s work.

    Mais même
    with this information, Pharaoh still refused to release the Israelites.

    4) Plague of flies (Exodus 8:20 – 32)

    The Lord warned Pharaoh through Moses once more.

    He was told that
    God would send swarms of flies to the Egyptian houses. The Israelites
    houses would be spared.

    Even after bringing the plague of flies, Pharaoh’s
    heart hardened even more.

    5) Death of cattle (Exodus 8:1 – 7)

    A plague of disease befell the Egyptian cattle.

    Not a single Israelites’
    animal died. Pharaoh was not moved; and he refused to let Jews go home.

    6) Plague of boils (Exodus 9:8 – 12)

    Moses threw ashes into the air as God had instructed.

    This produced boils,
    which became open sores on the skin of the Egyptians.

    Unmoved by the
    suffering of his people, Pharaoh still refused to let the Israelites leave.

    7) Plague of hail (Exodus 9:13 – 35)

    Moses raised his rod and there was a hailstorm with lighting and thunder.

    The people, animals and plants that were struck by the lightning died.

    Pharaoh then promised to let the Israelites go but as soon as Moses prayed
    for the hailstorm to stop, pharaoh hardened his heart and refused to let the
    Israelites leave.

    8) Plague of Locusts (Exodus 19:1 – 20)

    Locusts covered the whole land and ate all the crops in the fields.

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    locusts ate all that had not been destroyed by the hailstorm.

    When Moses
    prayed to God, for locusts to leave; Pharaoh hardened his heart and refused
    to let the Israelites leave.

    9) Plague of darkness (Exodus 10: 21 – 29)

    God then instructed Moses to stretch out his hand to heaven.

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    total darkness in Egypt for three days.

    But there was light where the Israelites
    they were living. Pharaoh remained unmoved and would not release
    the Israelites out of Egypt.

    10) Death of Egyptian first-born males (Exodus 11: 1 – 31).

    After the plague of darkness, God sent Moses once more to Pharaoh.

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    was told that this time even his family would be affected.

    The Lord would
    kill all the first-born Egyptian sons and first-born male animals at midnight.

    This plague occurred during the night of Passover.

    Pharaoh was
    moved and allowed Israelites to leave Egypt.

    What do the plagues tell us about God’s attributes?

    GOD:

    1. Empowers His people to perform miracles and to do His work

    2. Is Almighty and more powerful than the Egyptian gods.

    3. Is determined to fulfil His plans.

    4. Is a God of justice. He protects the oppressed.

    5. Gives everyone a chance to repent. Notice that each time Pharaoh
    promised to release the Israelites; God relieved the Egyptians from the
    plagues.

    6. Fulfils His promises – He had promised Abraham to deliver his descendants
    from foreign lands.

    7. Expects total obedience and faith.

    8. Communicates His will through natural events.

    9. Is caring and loving.

    Passover (Exodus 12:1-30, 19, 20, 34)

    The tenth plague is called the Passover. It happened on the fourteenth day
    of the month. The Israelites were to offer one-year-old lamb per family.

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    a family was too small, they were to share the lamb with their neighbours.

    If a lamb was not available, a one-year-old goat could also be used.

    They were told to:

    1. Slaughter the lamb/goat; smear some of the blood on the sides and tops
    of the door- frames of their houses.

    2. Roast the meat and eat it with bitter herbs and unleavened bread (bread
    without yeast).

    If there were any leftovers they were to burn them with
    fire.

    3. Eat in a hurry while fully dressed and having packed their belongings.

    They were told to borrow silver, clothings, jewellery, and gold from the
    Egyptians.

    4. That on the same night, the ‘angel of death’ would kill every first born
    both males and animals in the houses without blood.

    5. The angel of death would pass over the houses with blood sparing
    leur. The blood was a sign to indicate this is a house of Israelites.

    Quand
    the Lord sees the blood, He will pass over that house (V.13).

    6. The Israelites were told to celebrate / commemorate from generation to
    generation the Passover as a festival to the Lord.

    7. The Israelites were not allowed to come out of their houses on the night
    of Passover.

    8. At midnight, the Lord struck down all firstborn in Egypt from Pharaoh’s
    household to the firstborn of the prisoners and firstborn of livestock.

    9. There was loud wailing over Egypt. Every house had someone dead.

    Significance of items used during the Passover

    1) Roasted Meat

    – this is the easiest method of preparing food since the
    Israelites were to leave in a short time.

    2) Bitter herbs

    – was a reminder of the suffering and hardships and slavery experienced in Egypt.

    3) Eating while standing.

    Deliverance was near, hence the need to leave in a hurry

    4) Eating while fully dressed with their stuff at hand

    .

    This signified a quick deliverance; hence Israelites should be ready to leave Egypt at once.

    5) Eating unleavened bread

    – the bread was to be eaten and none left over hence there was no need to add yeast for preservation.

    6) Collecting Jewellery

    – God had promised Abraham that after slavery for four hundred and thirty years, his descendants shall be freed with great possessions.

    7) Remaining indoors

    – for security from death. Anyone outside was killed.

    8) Blood on doorposts

    – a sign for deliverance. The angel of death would pass over doors with blood.

    The Exodus

    introduction

    Exodus means movement of a large number of people.Crossing the Red Sea

    During the night of the Passover, Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron
    and told them to leave, to go and worship their Lord.

    All the Israelites,
    their flocks and herds were urged to leave in a hurry.

    Pharaoh took his
    chariot army and followed the Israelites and found them camped by the
    Red Sea.

    God led the Israelites over the desert towards the Red Sea.

    Moses took the
    body (bones) of Joseph, as Joseph had requested the Israelites to do.

    “When God rescues you, you must carry my body with you from this
    place” (Ex 13 vs. 19).

    During the day the Lord went in front of them in a pillar of cloud (angel
    of God) to show them the way, and during the night the lord went in front
    in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel night and
    journée.

    This pillar of cloud led the Israelites by day and night.

    The Egyptian army followed Israelites and caught up with them by the
    Red Sea where they had camped.

    Moses asked the scared Israelites to move near the sea.

    God told Moses to lift up his stick, and hold it over the sea.

    The waters of
    the Red Sea divided and the Israelites crossed the sea on dry ground with
    walls of water on both sides.

    The angel of God, and the pillar of cloud
    (who had been in front of the army of Israel) moved behind the Israelites
    and provided light to them as they cross.

    The Egyptians army pursued Israelites.

    The pillar of cloud made it dark
    for Egyptians who could not see where they were going.

    Just before
    daylight, the Lord looked at the Egyptians from the pillar of cloud and fire
    and God threw the army of the Egyptians into confusion.

    Moses was
    asked by the Lord to stretch out his hand. He did so and waters returned to
    its normal level drowning Egyptian army and their horses.

    God protected the Israelites during the Exodus by:

    1) Making them cross the red sea on dry ground.

    2) Providing water in the wilderness.

    3) Providing manna and quails.

    4) Defeating Amalekites – their enemies.

    5) Protecting them from snakes and diseases in the wilderness.

    Provision of water in the wilderness

    Israelites travelled in the desert for three days without water.

    The water,
    which they found at Marah was bitter and could not be drunk.

    They called
    the place ‘Marah’ meaning ‘bitter’.

    This made them complain. Moses
    prayed to the Lord.

    The Lord showed Moses a piece of wood. Moses threw it into the water
    and it became fit to drink.

    God continued providing Israelites with water.

    Again the Israelites lacked water and complained bitterly (Ex.17:1 – 9).

    God instructed Moses to strike a rock and water came out of it. Moses
    called that place ‘Massah’ – which means ‘testing ‘and ‘Meribah’ –
    meaning ‘rebellion’. This was because the Israelites quarreled and tested
    God.

    Provision of manna and quails (EX 16:1 – 35)

    As the Israelites were travelling through the desert, they ran out of food.

    They were hungry and complained to Moses.

    Their complaints displeased
    the Lord for they often told Moses they wished he had let them die in
    Egypt instead of dying in the wilderness.

    This showed that the Israelites
    did not trust God to provide for them.

    In the morning, they were given Manna, which is a Hebrew word for the
    type of bread given to Israelites by God.

    The bread looked like wafers or
    flakes and tasted like coriander seed.

    In the evening, GOD provided Israelites with quail’s meat.

    The provision
    of manna and quails (meat) lasted for 40 years.

    On the 6th day of each week, God gave them food for two days one for
    the 6th day and the other for the 7th day (Sabbath).

    Defeat of the Amalekites (Exodus 17: 8 – 16)

    Challenges faced by the Israelites during the Exodus
    During the Exodus, the Israelites faced the challenge of the Amalekites.

    These were desert Nomads who attacked the Israelites in the wilderness.

    When the Amalekite army came against Israelites, Moses ordered Joshua
    to gather men and fight.

    God promised to destroy the Amalekites forever.

    During the battle, Moses
    held up his rod.

    And each time he raised his hands with the rod, the
    Amalekites were defeated.

    When he brought his hands down, the Israelites
    were defeated. Because of this, Aaron and Hur supported Moses’
    hands until the Amalekites were defeated.

    In the wilderness God protected the Israelites form snakebites.

    He also
    used a cloud to protect the Israelites from the scorching heat during the
    journée.

    At night, the pillar of fire provided warmth to protect them from the
    harsh cold of the wilderness.

    The importance of the exodus in the history of the Israelites

    The exodus showed Israelites that:

    1) God loves and tolerates His people.

    2) God did not abandon the Israelites despite their lack of faith.

    3) God gave the Israelites encouragement through his servant Moses.

    4) It was the end of the oppression of Israelites in Egypt.

    5) Moses was God’s chosen leader.

    Making the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 19: 24 1 – The Sinai covenant)

    God and Israelites.

    God had specific instructions on how the Israelites
    were to prepare to make the new covenant.

    Before making the covenant,
    God brought Israelites to the foot of Mt. Sinai and asked Moses to ask
    them if they were willing to make the covenant with HIM. GOD asked
    them to enter into a personal relationship as a community with HIM.

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    Israelites agreed to make a covenant.

    They agreed to obey all God’s comm
    ands.

    God then promised to make them;

    i His people

    ii. A kingdom of priests

    iii. A holy nation

    God and Moses.

    God wanted to confirm that Moses was His true prophet.

    He therefore told Moses that He would come in a thick cloud to
    meet Israelites.

    In preparation for God’s coming on Mt. Sinai

    The Israelites were to:

    I. Make themselves holy by washing their clothes (garments)

    II. Mark the boundaries on the foot of the mountain to prevent any person
    or animal from climbing the mountain.

    III. To abstain from sexual relations.

    At Mt Sinai, God manifested His presence in the form of thunder,
    lightening, earthquake and a thick cloud of smoke that covered the whole
    mountain.

    In addition, there was a loud trumpet blast that made the people
    tremble.

    Moses climbed the mountain.

    God gave Moses the Ten Commandments
    after sealing the covenant.

    Sealing of the covenant. The Lord told Moses “Come up the mountain to
    me, you and Aaron, Nadab, Abibu and 70 of Israel leaders.

    At a distance
    bow down in worship, and come alone to me.”

    A ceremony was then prepared to seal the covenant. This is how it was
    sealed:

    une. Moses built an altar at the foot of the mountain.

    b. He set up twelve stones, which represented the twelve tribes of Israel.

    c. He then sent young men to burn sacrifices to the Lord and sacrificed.

    some cattle as fellowship offering and peace offerings to God (EX 24 vs.
    5).

    ré. Moses took half the blood of animals and poured it in bowls; et le
    other half he threw against the altar (vs. 6).

    He then took the book of the
    covenant, and read it aloud to the Israelites who responded by saying “all
    that the Lord has spoken we will do; and we shall be obedient”

    e. Moses then took the blood in the bowls and sprinkled it over the
    people; saying “This is the blood that seals the covenant which the Lord
    made with you when he gave all these commands.”

    Theophany. God’s presence manifested itself in several ways such as:

  • The burning bush (during the call of Moses).
  • Pillar of fire and a pillar of cloud – Exodus story.
  • The mighty wind, earthquake, still small voice – story of Elijah.
  • Thunder, lighting, smoking mountain – Exodus of Israelites from the
    wilderness.

    These were physical manifestations of God’s presence.

    Breaking the Sinai Covenant (Exodus 32:1 – 35; 34:6 –8)

    Israelites dishonored their pledge to obey God upon sealing the covenant;
    Moses went back to talk to God in the mountain.

    He left Aaron in charge
    of Israelites’ affairs.

    He stayed in the mountain for forty days.

    The lord
    revealed His glory to Moses at Mt. Sinai and declared His character.

    ”The
    Lord the compassionate and glorious God, slow to anger and forgiving
    wickedness, rebellion and sin (Ex 34:6 –
    The Israelites urged Aaron to make them gods that they could see.

    Aaron
    agreed.

    He melted the rings of gold and moulded a bull calf god.

    Israelites
    were happy and said “this is our god who took us out of Egypt”.

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    offered burnt offerings and peace offerings to it and indulged themselves
    in eating, drinking and sex.

    By accepting a bull calf as their god, the
    Israelites expected bull calf of gold to give them the same strength and
    fertility like the Egyptian gods.

    Through this act, they broke their
    covenant with God.

    When Moses came down from the mountain, he found Israelites
    worshipping the gold bull calf.

    He got annoyed. He threw down the stone tablets he was holding;

    on which the 10 commandments were written.

    Moses then took the golden calf, and burnt it into powder and mixed it with water.

    He then made those worshipping the calf to drink the mixture.

    Moses ordered those who had sinned to be killed.

    Lesson Eight: Renewal of the Covenant (Exodus 34:1 –
    14).

    Learning outcomes.

    After studying this lesson, describe conditions for the
    renewal of the covenant.

    The renewal of the covenant came after Moses pleaded with God not to
    destroy the Israelites after they broke the covenant.

    God spared the Israelites. God agreed to renew the covenant with the Israelites.

    He gave them several conditions for its renewal.

    Conditions for the renewal of the covenant

    The Israelites were:

    a) To obey God’s commandments

    b) Not to make any treaty with those who lived in the land where they were going.

    c) To break down their altar, smash their sacred stones and cut down their Asherah (Idols).

    Not to worship any other god and not to make idols for worship.

    d) To keep the feast of unleavened bread (Passover).

    e) Not to marry people form other tribes.

    f) To rest on the Sabbath day.

    g) To sacrifice and offer their best produce and animals to God.

    God in turn promised to

    a) Bless them. Protect and preserve the Israelites.

    b) Make them prosper so much that the surrounding nations would
    enquire about their source of wealth and success.

    With these conditions, the covenant between God and the Israelites was
    renewed.

    From the making and renewal of the covenant, it is clear that:

    (i) God expected the Israelites to obey and have faith in Him

    (ii) God wanted a personal relationship with Israelites.

    (iii) God is the only one to be worshipped.

    (iv) God is powerful.

    Lesson Nine: Worshiping God in the Wilderness

    Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson
    une. Explain God’s purpose in delivering the Israelites from Egypt

    b. Describe features of worship

    une. God’s purpose in delivering the Israelites from Egypt was to worship
    and offer sacrifices to Him in the wilderness.

    He also intended to fulfil his promises to Abraham.

    b. Features of worshipping God in the wilderness.

    (i) The Israelites: Worshipped God through intermediaries.

    These were
    the priests who came from the tribe of Levi.

    (ii) The Israelites: Were guided in their worship and in daily living by the
    Ten Commandments and other ordinances.

    (iii) The Ark of the Covenant was made in the wilderness. It was God’s
    dwelling place.

    It was a special box put into the tabernacle. A tabernacle was a portable tent.

    The ark symbolized the presence of God and the Israelites carried it wherever they went.

    (iv) Offerings of farm products or agricultural produce were given to God.

    These included among other farm products; vegetables, flour. Oil and fruits.

    (v) Other offerings to God were drinks, and incense. The offerings could
    be burnt, baked, boiled or roasted.

    (vi) There were several Sacrifices.

    They included:

  • Burnt offerings (Holocaust) – burning a whole animal completely
  • Sin offering /atonement – sacrifice offered when one had sinned and
    wanted to have his sins forgiven.
  • Peace offering – part of an animal was offered, while the people ate part
    of the meat.
  • Gift offering – the best animal was given to God. It was offered as a
    thanksgiving.
  • Animals such as sheep, goats, bulls and birds were sacrificed to God.

    (vii) Festivals and feasts. Israelites observed several festivals and feasts.

    Ceux-ci inclus:

  • Feast of Passover and unleavened bread.
  • Harvest festival – feast of weeks or Pentecost.

    It marked the celebration
    of the harvest of wheat.

  • Feast of gathering / shelters.

    It was celebrated during the season when
    the Israelites gathered the fruits from the Orchards.

  • Feast of tabernacles that was celebrated to remember when the Israelites
    dwelt in tents.
  • The Israelites kept the Sabbath day. They worshipped God through singing, worship and dancing.

    Lesson Ten: the Ten Commandments (Exodus. 20: 1 – 17)
    Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson,
    une. Recite the ten commandments

    b. Apply the ten commandments in your life

    c. Describe Israelites new understanding of the nature of God

    ré. Explain to yourself and others the nature of God

    une. The Ten Commandments

    While on Mount Sinai, God gave Moses Ten Commandments written on a
    stone tablet.

    The first four commandments deal with relationship between man and God.

    God said:

    1. You shall have no other gods but me.

    2. You shall not make yourself a graven image.

    3. You shall not mention Gods’ name in vain.

    4. Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy.

    The last six commandments give man’s relationship with fellow human
    beings.

    God said:

    5. Honor you father and mother that your days may be long on earth.

    6. You shall not kill.

    7. You shall not commit adultery.

    8. You shall not steal.

    9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.

    10. You shall not covet your neighbor’s property.

    These are my thoughts.

    (1) Worshipping God

    (2) Being faithful to God

    (3) Resting

    (4) respecting parental authority

    (5) love humanity

    (6) Be faithful to your wife or husband

    (7) respect other people’s property

    (8) be truthful always

    (9) be satisfied with what God has given you.

    b. Israelites understand the nature of god

    The Israelites had a new and wider revelation about God.

    Besides GOD
    being a caring, loving, and a provider,

    they learnt that:

    une. God is a jealous God.He does not allow the worship of others gods. Il
    alone should be worshipped.

    b. God does not condone evil. He punishes those who cause/engage in it.

    c. God values a personal relationship with his people.

    ré. God wants people to live in harmony among them.

    e. God forgives those who repent. He is loving, merciful and compassionate.

    f. God is a healer – he healed Israelites in the wilderness when a snake
    attacked them.

    g. God is a God of victory. He defeated the Amalekites, perizzites, and
    Hittites etc.

    h. God is faithful and can be depended upon.

    i. God is holy, slow to anger, powerful and just.

    j. God demands obedience to His commands.

    Revision questions

    une. What are the qualities of Moses as a leader?

    b (i). Describe the call of Moses (exodus 3:1-22)

    (ii). Why was Moses hesitant to God’s call?

    c (i). What is the significance of the items used for the Passover feast
    (similar to what is the meaning of the Passover meal)

    (ii). Compare the lord’s supper to the Passover feast

    ré. Describe how the Sinai covenant was made

    e. Describe the circumstances that lead to the breaking of the Sinai
    covenant.

    f. How was the broken covenant renewed?

    g. Describe how the Israelites worshipped God in the wilderness.

    h. What is the relevance of the ten commandments?

    i. What did the Israelites learn about god in the wilderness?

    Topic Five: Leadership in Israel: David and Solomon
    Learning outcomes.By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    une. Explain the reasons for and against kingship in Israel.

    b. State king Saul’s achievements, failures and lessons learnt from Saul.

    c. Explain the importance of David as King of Israel and ancestor of Jesus
    Christ.

    ré. Describe the qualities of a good leader drawn from King David’s
    leadership.

    e. State King Solomon’s achievements and failures.

    f. Explain the importance of the temple in Israel.

    Lesson One: Reasons for and Against Kingship in Israel
    introduction

    Yahweh remained the God of Israel and the sovereign ruler of his people.

    Learning outcomes.

    By the end of this lesson, you should

    une. Define leadership.

    b. Name Israel judges in Canaan.

    Leadership refers to the manner in which a community’s way of life is
    ruled or controlled.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, Judges ruled them for the first 200 years.

    Some of the judges were

    (i) Othniel,

    (ii) Ehud

    (iii) Samson

    (iv) Deborah

    (v) Gideon

    (vi) Shamgar

    (vii). Samuel

    (viii). Barak

    Duties of judges

    une. Leading Israelites to war against their enemies.

    b. Settling disputes among the people.

    c. Acting as religious leaders and leading Israelites in worship.

    ré. Offering sacrifices on behalf of the people.

    e. Some of the judges acted as God’s prophets.

    f. They anointed kings, for example Samuel anointed King David.

    Demands for a King in Israel

    After Israelites settled in Canaan, the Promised Land, they started
    demanding for an earthly king to rule over them.

    These demands for a king ruler were brought about by:

    i Samuel’s sons Joel and Abijah were corrupt and took bribes.

    The sons of
    Samuel, who were judges,lacked his good leadership qualities.

    ii The Israelites wanted a warrior king who could lead them to war against
    their enemies.

    iii The Israelites wanted to be like the other nations around them who had
    kings.

    iv The Israelites wanted a human leader whom they could see, approach,
    and talk to him face to face.

    The Israelites wanted security, which could be provided by a stable
    political government ruled by law and order.

    vi They wanted a government that had a regular army.

    vii They also wanted an established law court system.

    Reasons against Kingship in Israel (Samuel 8:10 – 20)

    By demanding for a king, the Israelites were seen as rejecting Yahweh –
    their unseen ruler.

    Two, there would be danger of hereditary kingship which would lead to oppression / dictatorship.

    God told Samuel to give Israelites strict warnings against Kingship by explaining how the king would treat them.

    A king
    would: –

    (a) Recruit Israelites sons forcefully into the army.

    (b) Grab peoples land.

    (c) Force people to pay taxes to the government.

    (d) Turn people into slaves.

    (e) Introduce forced labour.

    (f) Force their daughters to work for his wives, sons, and for the royal
    house in general.

    The people of Israel were distinct from other nations.

    Asking for a king
    meant rejecting God as their unseen king.

    Further to this, Israel could become like other nations, which did not worship Yahweh.

    Then the covenant with God and the people of Israel would cease.

    Lesson Two: Achievements and Failures of King Saul (Israel 13:8 – 14; 15:7 – 25)

    Learning outcomes. After reading about King Saul, you should

    une. State his achievements

    b. Identify his failures

    c. Suggest lesson we can learn from his failures

    Samuel was directed by God to choose and anoint Saul as the king of Israel.

    Saul was from the tribe of Benjamin.

    He became the first human king of the nation of Israel. Il
    accomplished several things.

    Successes of King Saul

    1) He was anointed by God; as king to rule the Israelites.

    2) He was chosen even though it was not God’s idea for a king over his
    personnes.

    3) He was a great warrior. He led the Israelites to war and defeated their
    ennemis.

    Failures of King Saul

    1) God told Saul through Samuel to destroy the Amalekites completely.

    Saul however disobeyed God. He spared the king and the fat livestock.

    He claimed to have spared the fat animals for sacrifice to God.

    Because of this disobedience, God rejected Saul as king.

    2) The Israelites were faced with many enemies.

    The worst were the
    Philistines.

    It was a custom for the king of Israel to enquire from God whether to go to the battle or not.

    The priest/prophet gave permission to the king to go to war. When Saul was faced with the dilemma whether to fight or not, Samuel enquired from God.

    Saul did not wait for permission to go to war from Samuel the priest.

    He decided to bypass Samuel by offering a sacrifice to God before going to war.

    This action displeased God
    because it was not his work to offer sacrifice to God.

    It was the work of
    priests.

    3) After God rejected Saul as the king of Israel, Samuel was guided by
    God to go to Bethlehem.

    He was asked to go to the home of Jesse who had eight (8) sons.

    In that home,God was to show Samuel the next king of Israel.

    Samuel would then anoint the chosen son of Jesse.

    Seven of Jesse’s sons were brought before Samuel one by one.

    God told Samuel that he had not chosen any of them.

    When David, a shepherd, was brought before Samuel God said to him ’this is the one – anoint him!” (1 Samuel 16:12).

    David was anointed (poured oil on) as the next king of Israel.

    However he
    had to wait until Saul died before he could take over kingship.

    4) After Samuel anointed David to become the next king of Israel, Saul
    was jealous and plotted many times to kill him.

    David was employed to serve Saul. He played the harp, lyre wherever an evil spirit
    possessed Saul.

    5) When Samuel died; the Philistines gathered to fight Israel. Saul was
    filled with terror.

    Saul enquired from God whether he should go to war, but did not get an answer.

    Saul disobeyed God by asking a
    medium (witch) to consult the dead for him.

    This act led to the death of
    Saul together with his son Jonathan in battle.

    6) Saul was concerned with what people thought of him than pleasing
    God.

    He wanted to please people and not God.

    He was disobedient with God (1 Samuel 15:24)

    Lessons, which Christians can learn from King Saul’s failures

    1) Value of being patient.

    2) Christian should obey God, follow His commands and not be afraid of
    personnes.

    3) Christian should obey religious leaders placed over them by God.

    4) Christian leaders should be humble.

    5) It is against the teachings of God, against the will of God to consult the
    spirits of the dead through mediums.

    7) Without faith, it is impossible to please God.

    8) God desires sincere worship.

    9) Political leaders should consult and listen to religious leaders.

    10) Christians should not turn against their enemies or rivals.

    They should
    not plot to have them destroyed and killed.

    Lesson Three: Importance of David (1 Samuel 16: 1 – 23, 2 Samuel 6:1 – 15)

    Learning outcomes. After reading about King David, you should

    une. State his importance to God and the Israelites

    b. Analyse achievements and failures of King David

    c. Trace David lineage up to Jesus Christ

    ré. Narrate fulfillment of the promises to David in the New Testament

    e. Give reasons why God rejected David’s offer to build him a temple

    David took over kingship of Israel though some people resisted his rule.

    At first he ruled the house of Judah.

    Later on the other tribes rallied behind him.

    Importance of King David

    David became king after the death of Saul.

    He ruled for over 40 years as
    king of Judah and Israel.

    Achievements of David

    1) He was a brilliant military commander.

    2) He captured the old fortress of Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it his capital city.

    3) He removed the ark of covenant from the house of Abinadab in Shiloh
    and brought it to Jerusalem.

    4) He expressed great faith in God. Through his faith in God, he was able
    to kill Goliath, the great Philistine warrior.

    5) He was a skilled musician and composed marry psalms that were used
    and are still being used in temple and church worship.

    7) He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel through conquests.

    8) He was a great diplomat and established good political relations with the
    neighboring kings.

    9) He was a shrewd administrator who chose wise elders and counselors
    to advice him.

    10) God promised to establish an everlasting kingdom for David.

    11) David ruled over Israel, administering law and justice to all people.

    12) He took a census of the Israelites and used the information to

    (une)
    recruit young men into military
    service et

    (2) decide on the policy of taxation.

    13) David had remarkable leadership qualities. He was kind. He spared
    mephibosheth, Saul’s grandson.

    14) David was humble. He was ready to accept sins he had committed and
    repent e.g. he repented after committing adultery with Bathsheba.

    David as an ancestor of Jesus Christ (2 Samuel 1 – 29, LK 1:26 – 33)

    David intended to build a splendid temple for God in Jerusalem. He felt it
    was not fair for the Ark of the Covenant to continue dwelling in a tent while he himself lived in a magnificent palace.

    To achieve this goal, David consulted Nathan, the prophet on whether to build the temple.

    The prophet approved the idea.

    But that night, Nathan received a revelation form God that stated that David was not to build a house (temple) for God.

    David’s son would build the temple of God (2 Samuel 7:5 – 6). Prophet Nathan gave David God’s message to David.

    The message was that

    a) His son will build the temple

    b) God would give David’s descendants a place to settle

    c) God promised to raise up an heir from the house of David to sit on the
    trône

    d) God promised to make David’s name great or famous among all other
    leaders of the earth.

    Reasons why God rejected David’s offer to build him a temple

    Here are some of the reasons:

    une. David had been involved in a lot of wars with the Israelites’ enemies
    and had thus shed a lot of blood.

    b. God was a God of the people and could not be confined to a house.

    c. It was the will of God to establish the house of David (build David a
    house) rather than David builds a house for him (God). The human body is the temple of God. God dwells in the hearts of people.

    ré. David had grown old. God wanted him to rest.

    e. God had planned that David’s son would build a house for him – a
    place to house the Ark of the Covenant.

    King Solomon, David’s son built the temple and fulfilled.

    God’s promises to David. Solomon’s rule was peaceful and prosperous.

    The New Testament is a fulfillment of God’s promises to David

    1) The gospel writers tell us that Jesus was born in the family of David
    (Luke 1:26 – 27)

    2) The angel of God during the annunciation of the birth of Jesus said that
    He will be like his ancestor David (Luke 1:32 – 33)

    3) Jesus was born in Bethlehem which was also the birthplace of David
    (Luke 2:4)

    4) Bartimaeus the blind man of Jericho hailed Jesus as the son of David.

    5) During his triumphal entry to Jerusalem, Jesus was hailed by the crowd
    as the messiah descended from David.

    6) In his genealogy, saint Mathew says that Jesus was a descendant of
    David (Matt.1: 1)

    Failures of King David.

    Although David had many virtues:

    1) He ordered Uriah to be placed at the battle forefront so that he can be
    killed.

    2) Uriah was the husband of Bathsheba. David had committed adultery
    with her.

    3) He took Bathsheba as his wife.

    Lesson Four: Leadership of King David

    Lesson outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should assess leadership
    qualities demonstrated by king David

    David showed

    1) Courage and bravery.

    David was courageous and brave. Moderne
    leaders should be ready to die with and for their subjects.

    2) Gratitude

    Thankful and grateful. David always thanked God for any
    success or favors he received.

    Good leaders should be thankful and grateful to God as well as to their
    fellow human beings.

    3) Loyalty.

    David was loyal to God and to the Israelites. A good leader
    should be loyal, and never betray his people.

    4) Justice.

    David administered justice to all his subjects without favoring
    anyone. No tribalism or nepotism.

    A leader should be fair to all (2 Samuel 8:15).

    5) God – fearing

    Having faith. David was God fearing. He expressed his
    total trust in God. Modern leaders need to emulate this quality.

    6) Humility.

    A leader should be a humble person. Though David had been
    appointed as the king, he continued to serve Saul until Saul died. He accepted his failures and asked for forgiveness.

    7) Kind.

    David was a kind leader. Leaders should be kind. David spared
    the life of Saul twice yet Saul wanted to kill him.

    8)Wisdom.

    David was careful when choosing legal advisors to assist him in
    his rule. He was also wise.

    He reduced tribal jealousies by choosing Jerusalem; a neutral spot for administrative purposes.

    9) Delegation

    – A shrewd administrator. A good elder should be able to
    delegate duties. David delegated duties.

    He involved others in advising, and administering

    Lesson Five: Achievements and Failures of King
    Solomon (1 King 3 – 12)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:

    une. Analyse achievements of king Solomon

    b. State failures of king Solomon

    After David died, his son Solomon became the next king.

    Kingship in Israel was hereditary.

    Solomon was chosen by David to be his successor.

    He took over from David at a time of peace and security established by David.

    Réalisations

    1) He made Israel rich by establishing trade with other countries

    2) He was a good trader and a successful merchant. He traded in copper,
    horses, timber, silver and gold.

    He established international trade with the neighboring countries.

    Pour
    example, he traded with Tyre in cedar and pine logs.

    3) He established a well equipped large army for Israel

    4) He was a builder. He built a magnificent temple for God in line with
    God’s promise to David.

    He also constructed other cities (Megiddo) and a palace for himself.

    5) He is remembered for his amazing administrative skills.

    He had 550
    officials in charge of labour force.

    6) He was a diplomatic ruler. He established friendly ties with his
    neighbours.

    This ensured continued peace. For instance he married the daughters of the kings of Egypt, Moab,Eden and Sidon so as to establish strong ties with those nations.

    7) He had great wisdom. He judged a difficult case between two women
    who were claiming ownership of the same child.

    He composed many wise sayings known as the proverbs of Solomon. Il
    also composed songs like Song of Solomon and Song of Songs and poems in Ecclesiastes.

    9) He dedicated the temple of God with great rejoicing.

    10) He brought the Ark of the Covenant to the temple of Jerusalem.

    Failures of King Solomon

    1) He married women from many foreign countries.

    These actions made
    Solomon break the Torah as Israelites were not supposed to marry foreigners.

    Through these
    marriages, idol worship started in Israel.

    This was because he allowed his wives to worship their gods, build temples and altars for them.

    This led to introduction of idolatry in Israel.

    2) Solomon constructed his palace for 13 years. He then built God’s
    temple for 7 years.

    This showed that he probably loved himself more than God.

    3) He killed his own half brother Adonija on suspicion that he could be a
    rival to the throne.

    4) Solomon lived lavishly, and expensively. He thus burdened the
    Israelites with high taxes.

    5) He used forced labour. This was the same as enslaving the Israelites.

    6) He worshipped idols. Solomon’s heart was turned to such other gods as
    Ashtoreth / ashitarte – goddess of Sidon and Molech – the god of the Ammonites. This was
    breaking God’s commandments.

    7) He sold part of Israelite territory to the king of Tyre He used pagan skills when designing, decorating, and furnishing the temple.

    9) He made treaties with other nations inspite of the fact that God had
    forbidden Israel from making treaties.

    10) He was extravagant. He used a lot of state wealth to entertain and
    please his many wives and concubines.

    Activity

    . Many husbands in Kenya practice polygamy. I want you to find
    out from your neighbours what are the advantages and disadvantages of polygamy.

    Then write a paper arguing either for polygamy or monogamy.

    Lesson Six: Importance of the Temple in Israel

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    a) Define a temple

    b) State the importance of the temple to Israelites.

    Definition of a temple

    This is a building dedicated to the worship of God. Solomon built the
    temple as a fulfillment of the promises that God gave to David, that his son would build a house for him.

    Importance and uses of a temple

    1) It was a centre of worship. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to God
    from the temple.

    2) It symbolized the presence of God among the Israelites.

    3) The Ark of the Covenant was kept in the temple as a symbol of God’s
    presence among his people.

    4) The temple acted as a symbol of unity in Israel. Every year all the
    Israelites had to go to Jerusalem to celebrate such feasts as the Passover, feast of tabernacles’ day of atonement. This led to the unity of the Israelites.

    5) Dedication of children and purification were done in the temple.

    6) It was a residence for the priest.

    7) It was a business centre where people bought and sold animals needed
    for sacrifice.

    The temple acted as a school to the scribes, rabbis and others who studied
    and interpreted the Mosaic Law.

    9) The temple also acted as the judicial court of Israel. Judges worked
    from the temple.

    10) It is where religious ceremonies like naming and circumcision of baby
    boys took place.

    11) It was a house of prayer.

    Revision questions

    une. Explain the reasons against kingship in Israel 1 Sam 8: 10-20

    b. Explain the importance of David as king of Israel

    c. How did Jesus fulfil the prophecies of prophet Nathan as a descendant
    of David? (i.e. areas where Jesus is mentioned as coming from David)

    ré. What are the failures of king Solomon?

    e. Which leadership qualities can modern leaders learn from David?

    Topic Six: Loyalty to God – Elijah
    Lesson One: Effects of Idolatry in Israel
    introduction

    After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel split into two countries.
    the southern kingdom called Judah ruled by King Rehoboam and the Northern kingdom called Israel led by King Jeroboam.

    Autre
    kings who ruled these two nations were King Abijah, King Asa of Judah,
    and king Nadab, Baasha, Elah,Zimri, Omri, and Ahab of Israel. During the time of Elijah king Ahab ruled – Israel.

    Learning outcomes. After studying this lesson on idolatry, you should

    une. State factors that led to spread of idolatry in Israel

    b. Analyse religious schism between Judah and Israel

    c. Describe King Ahab’s marriage to the Phoenician princess (Tyre)

    ré. Explain the failure to completely destroy temples, and places of
    culte

    e. State effects of idolatry in Israel

    une. Factors that led to spread of idolatry in Israel

    When Israelites intermarried with other communities, they worshipped
    their gods.

    The Bible makes it clear that

    i There was a lot of influence by Canaanite religion

    ii There was division /schism of Israel into 2 kingdoms

    iii Ahab’s married the Phoenician princess

    iv Israelites did not destroy all gods after settling in Canaan.
    Influence of the local Canaanite religion Idolatry is the worship of idols.

    An idol is an image representing a god made using precious materials such as gold, bronze, stone, and hardwood images kept in the places of worship.

    God had forbidden Israelites from bowing down to images and worshipping idols, intermarrying with non-Israelites, and
    making treaties.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, they forgot God’s
    commandments.

    They intermarried and were greatly influenced by the local religion.
    Israelites changed from being pastoralist to farmers.

    They therefore
    worshipped Baal the god of rain,agricultural fertility, and storms. Israelites worshipped Baal, for rain for their crops.

    The Israelites were
    also attracted to the visible gods of Canaan as opposed to the invisible Yahweh.

    This is how idolatry spread in Israel.

    However some Israelites maintained worship of Yahweh
    only (monotheistic) while others worshipped Yahweh and Baal (syncretism).

    Characteristics of the Canaanite religion.

    Canaanite religion was:

    1. Polytheistic.

    They worshipped many gods.The Israelites religion was
    monotheistic. They worshipped Yahweh and no other God. They abandoned their religion and worshipped many gods like Canaanite.This influenced the Israelites.

    2. A nature religion.

    The gods were related with the forces of nature such
    as rain, sun, storms, drought,famine, wind, water and death.

    3. Ensured continued fertility of land, people, animals

    4. Based on many families of gods.

    Il y avait

    une. EL – Chief god – who was their father, king, creator

    b. Asherah – wife of El – the goddess of motherhood and fertility

    c. Baal – also referred to as Baal Hadad, son of El and Asherah – the god
    of rain, agricultural fertility,storms

    ré. Astarte – wife of Baal -the goddess of war

    e. Anat – sister of Baal – the goddess of war and love

    f. Maat – the goddess of love

    g. Mot – most feared. The god of drought, famine and death

    5. Free and temple of prostitution. Israelites turned to temple prostitution.

    Women who wanted to increase vitality of their husbands had sexual relations with the male
    priests in the Baal temples.

    6. Had many places of worship. One could pray in the temple, under
    sacred trees, and on top of the hills among others.

    7. Based on offerings and sacrifices of human beings.

    Exercice. State differences between Israel and Canaanite religion.

    b. Religious schism between Judah and Israel

    Schism occurred among the Israelites because there were sharp
    differences within them.

    These differences were religious, political and social. After the death of Solomon, the nation of Israel was split.

    Rehoboam ruled one group while the other was ruled by Jeroboam.

    Because of this split, Jeroboam could not go to Jerusalem to worship in the temple. He thus set up other places of worship one at Bethel, and another at Dan. Jeroboam also set up images to represent Yahweh.

    Though he had no intention of Idol worship, it turned out to be so because he made his subjects to offer sacrifices to these golden calves, which he had designed as images representing Yahweh.

    He also built places of worship on
    hilltops like the Canaanites.

    He chose priests from other families in
    addition to the Levite Family.

    Furthermore, he organised religious festivals and feasts in the month of
    his choice.

    As it were, they coincided with the Canaanites calendars.

    He then burnt incense at the altar of idols.

    Jeroboam therefore started idol worship and gave room for idolatry.

    Kings who succeeded him followed this idol worship.

    c. King Ahab’s marriage to the Phoenician/Tyre princess

    Ahab married Jezebel, the daughter of the King Ethbaal of Sidon (Tyre) to
    strengthen ties with Tyre/Phoenicia.

    Queen Jezebel was ambitious, and a strong follower of
    Baal religion.

    Ahab allowed her to bring her gods to Israel.

    She forced Israelites to worship Baal and not Yahweh.

    She imported prophets of Baal and supported them using public treasury.

    Ahab built a temple to Baal In Samaria.

    He also put up an image of goddess – Asherah. ré.

    When Israelites settled in Canaan, they did not destroy temples, places
    of worship, idols, images that they found there.

    As a result Canaanite’s religious practices influenced Israelites’ worship of Yahweh leading to idolatry.

    The effects of idolatry harmed Israelites as:

    1) Syncretism developed. This was a process of mixing beliefs andbpractices from different religions.

    Israelites worshipped Yahweh and the gods of Canaan.

    2) Former places of worship for the Canaanite gods were used as places of
    worship for Yahweh.

    3) The Canaanite agricultural calendar was adopted by Israelites.

    4) Names of the Canaanite gods were used for Yahweh. For example, EL
    was referred to as Yahweh.

    5) Parents began naming their children after Baal.

    6) Feasts and celebrations were changed to correspond with those of
    Canaanites when they celebrated their feasts.

    7) King Ahab declared worship of Baal as the state religion.

    8) Queen Jezebel ordered the destruction of the altars of Yahweh

    9) Prophets of Yahweh were killed. Elijah went into hiding.

    10) The 450 prophets of Baal were made the officials of the royal court in
    order to promote and protect Baal religion

    11) Israel started to experience long droughts because Yahweh withdrew
    his blessings.

    This made Israel worshippers of El

    Lesson Two: Elijah’s Fight Against Corruption and
    False Religion in Israel

    Learning outcomes. After studying Elijah, you should

    une. Describe the contest at Mount Carmel

    b. Explain how Elijah fought against corruption

    c. Explain the relationship between Ahab and Naboth

    ré. Describe God’s sentence to Ahab.

    e. Relate Elijah’s encounter with Yahweh at Mt. Horeb

    f. Identify forms of corruption

    a) The contest at Mount Carmel (1 King 18:17 – 46).

    Carmel refers to the vineyard of the Lord.

    King Ahab brought trouble to Israel because of worshipping the idols of Baal. Elijah told Ahab that the problemsIsrael was facing were due to worship of Baal,
    The decision.

    Elijah requested king Ahab to call a meeting at Mt Carmel.

    In attendance would be all Israelites, 450 prophets of Baal, and 400 prophets of the goddess Asherah who were supported by Queen Jezebel and Elijah.

    Elijah told Israelites it was decision time.

    They had to choose their God.
    Would it be Yahweh, the God of Israel or Baal the god of Jezebel of Phoenician/Tyre. If it was to be Baal, then they were told to follow him, if they select Yahweh as their God then they were to follow him (1kings 18 vs. 21).

    The choice.

    Elijah proposed a contest between him and Baal prophets.

    Il
    asked for two bulls one for him, the other for 450 prophets of Baal.

    The contest was who can light fire? Yahweh or Baal? He proposed that Baal prophets and himself be given each a bullock.

    Both shall cut the bull into pieces and put them on wood without lighting fire.

    The Baal prophets shall pray to their god and Elijah shall pray to
    the Lord.

    The one who sends fire to consume the sacrifices .. he is God.
    The people of Israel accepted Elijah’s proposal.

    Actions.

    The prophets of Baal prayed first because they were many. Ils
    took the bull, prepared it and prayed to Baal until noon (vs. 26).

    They prayed louder, and cut themselves with knives and daggers; but there were no answer.

    The prophets of Baal kept on ranting and raving until evening but there was no answer (vs. 29).

    Elijah asked people to gather near him.

    He prepared the altar of the Lord to repair work. He took 12
    stones representing the 12 tribes of Israel (who were named after the 12
    sons of Jacob or Israel) and used them to rebuild the altar.

    He then dug a trench around the altar.

    This trench could hold 14 litres of water.

    He placed the wood on the altar; cut the bull into pieces and laid them on the wood.

    He asked for
    four barrels of water and poured it on the offering and wood.

    He poured water on the altar three times until the water overflowed, run around the altar and filled the trenches.

    Elijah then called on the Lord “O Lord, the God of Abraham, …prove now that you are the God of Israel and that am your servant and have done all this at your command” (vs. 29).

    The Lord sent fire down and it burnt up the sacrifice, wood, stones, and
    dust and licked up the water that was in the trench. When people saw this, they proclaimed ‘The Lord, is God; the Lord alone is God”.

    Elijah asked people to arrest the prophets of Baal, led them down to the
    river Kishon and killed them.

    And after this there was rain in Israel (vs.40).

    Lessons learnt from Mt. Carmel.

    Israelites acknowledged that Yahweh is:

    i Is their only God and that Baal was not God

    ii Is powerful

    iii Is a merciful God

    iv Is a jealous God as He will have no other gods but him

    v Is a God of justice who punishes idolaters and sinners

    vi Answers prayer

    vii Is a forgiving true God

    viii Protects his servants

    b) Elijah’s fight against corruption (1 Kings 21: 1 – 29)

    Corruption is defined as dishonesty.

    It’s a form of injustice when dealing
    with either an individual or the community for selfish gain and benefit.

    In a corrupt society people in leadership or with wealth take advantage of the weak, and the poor.

    The powerful exploit the poor and the powerless by denying them their rights. An example of corruption in Israel is the story of the Naboth’s Vineyard.

    Naboth’s vineyard. Ahab wanted Naboth to either sell to him his vineyard or exchange it with another vineyard.

    Naboth refused to sell his inheritance. Jezebel, on seeing that Ahab was sorrowful told him that she will get him Naboth’s vineyard.

    Jezebel sent out letters in Ahab’s name to the elders of the city.

    She found two witnesses who could bear witness that Naboth had blasphemed God and king Ahab.
    Witnesses testified that Naboth had blasphemed God. He was stoned to death.

    God then sent Elijah to meet with Ahab as he went to possess the vineyard of Naboth.

    God’s sentence to Ahab.

    God pronounced to Ahab through Elijah that (1)
    dogs shall lick his own blood from the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth

    (2) His sons shall be killed

    (3) Dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel

    (4) Evil shall be brought upon Ahab’s house.

    This was because Ahab had broken these commandments:

  • The 6th commandment – which forbids murder
  • The 9th commandment which forbids bearing of false witness.

    Ahab
    allowed his wife to bear false witness against Naboth.

  • 10th Commandments – you shall not covet your neighbor’s property.

    Elijah’s encounter with Yahweh at Mt. Horeb (Mr. Sinai) 1 Kings 19
    After killing the prophets of Baal, Elijah was threatened by Jezebel.

    Elle
    vowed to kill him.

    Elijah ran away to the wilderness.

    The angel of God fed him with a loaf of bread and a jar of water.

    After eating and drinking Elijah walked to Mt. Sinai – the holy mountain of God.

    He stayed there for 40 days and 40 nights. In the mountain God appeared to him.

    There was a strong wind, an earthquake, a fire but the Lord was not in them. Then the lord spoke to Elijah in a still small voice.

    God told Elijah “ return and anoint Hazael as king of Syria, Jehu as king of Israel, and anoint Elisha as a prophet and your successor.
    Self-assessment question.

    How can Christians help reduce corruption in
    Kenya?

    Répondre

    First is to recognize the various forms of corruption like: tribalism,bribery, cheating in business, stealing, misuse of public funds, grabbing public land, robbery with violence and
    dishonesty Self-assessment question.

    How can Christians fight corruption? Christians
    can fight corruption by:

    a). Employing life skills

    a) Applying their critical thinking.

    This is the ability to make appropriate
    decisions; by weighing in the consequences of actions before taking decisions.

    b) Creative thinking and being imaginative.

    This is the ability to explore
    new ways of handling issues.

    c) Decision making

    which is the ability to make the right choices.

    d)Assertiveness. This is the ability to express ones opinion with
    confidence.

    e) Praying for the corrupt to change their behaviour.

    f) Setting a good example by acting as a good role model.

    g) Educating people on the evils of corruption.

    h) Reporting those who are engaged in corrupt dealings / practices to the
    relevant authorities.

    i) Obeying the laws of the society /country.

    Voting for morally upright leaders.

    Lesson Three: Reasons Why Elijah Faced Danger and
    Hostility as a Prophet of God

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall

    une. Explain why Elijah, faced hostility

    b. Show relevance of Elijah’s prophetic mission to Christianity today

    It’s not easy for a person to oppose the government and its policies.

    le
    person normally faces danger and hatred.

    Elijah faced hostility from King Ahab, his wife Jezebel and the 450 prophets of Baal.

    Elijah faced hostility because
    une. He pronounced a three years drought in Israel, which brought sufferings.

    b. He put to death 450 prophets of Baal.

    c. He boldly condemned king Ahab for taking away Naboth’s vineyard.

    ré. He preached at a time when there was idolatry, and Baal was the official religion in Israel.

    e. He identified himself with Yahweh in the midst of prosecution of God’s
    prophets by Jezebel.

    Relevance of Elijah’s prophetic mission to Christians today
    Lessons Christians learn from the life of Elijah

    1) Elijah was courageous. Church leaders should remain courageous and
    condemn any form of social injustice.

    2) Modern Christians learn to remain faithful to God through word and
    deed even if it would cost them their lives.

    3) As God helped Elijah in difficult times he will also help the Christians
    hence they should not despair.

    4) Elijah was a man of prayer Christians should pray to God always.

    5) Christians should advocate for the rights of the poor and speak out
    against any form of oppression.

    6) Christians should not give false evidence against their neighbours.

    7) Christians should be persistent like Elijah was in their struggle against
    injustice.

    God communicated with Elijah in a still small voice indicating his intimacy with the prophet.

    This means that God is able to establish an intimate relationship with his faithful.

    Review questions

    a) Describe the qualities of Elijah that led to his achievements

    b) What is schism and syncretism

    c) What are some of the characteristics of Elijah that a modern Christian
    should strive to emulate?

    d) What are the effects of idolatry in Israel today?

    e) Describe Elijah’s fight against false religion in Israel

    f) Describe Elijah’s fight against corruption 1 kings 21

    g) What can Christians learn from the teachings of Elijah?

    Topic Seven: Selected Aspects of African Religious Heritage.
    introduction

    All Traditional African Communities believe in a Supreme Being who is the origin and sustainer of all things:

    He is the creator of the university and all that it contains.

    All Africans agree that nobody has ever seen God.

    Therefore, nobody can really describe Him, yet through their religious insights, Africans have formulated ideal about the
    nature of God.

    These ideas concern His real being and His activities.
    “Traditional religion” refers to African culture that existed in the sub – Saharan Africa.

    African traditional culture had no scriptures or texts because most of it was oral.

    C'était
    preserved and handed down from generation to generation-through oral traditions; ceremonies; rituals, and leading personalities.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to

    a) Explain and appreciate the African concept of God spirits and ancestors

    b) Identify attributes of God

    c) Explain the African understanding of the hierarchy of beings

    d) Describe the role of God, spirits and ancestors

    e) Explain the responsibilities of the living towards God, spirits and
    les ancêtres

    f) Describe the traditional African way of worshipping God, venerating
    and communicating with the ancestors and spirits.

    Lesson One: African Concept of God, Spirits and
    Ancestors

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    une. Describe the African concept of his/her religion

    b. State attributes of God

    c. Draw a diagram showing hierarchy of beings

    Africans believed in existence of a supreme being who lived in mountains, clouds and the sky. God was the creator of the universe.

    In African traditions, religion was integrated in every aspect of life and daily activities.

    For example, farming activities involved God, spirits and ancestors. People would pray to God,spirits ancestors so as to ask for blessings in order to have a good harvest.

    Livestock keepers believed that fertility of their animals is a result of the blessings of God.

    If God was appeased, animals would increase.

    Natural phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain; good harvest, and birth were linked to the Supreme Being and the invisible world.

    If there were calamities such as drought, disease, famine, and death, it was an indication that God, spirits and ancestors were displeased with humankind. Many communities
    have invocations uttered through out the day Nature or Attributes of god God is described with many names, which are God’s attributes.

    Ceux-ci sont
    among others:

    a) God is Good

    – Nearly all-African communities describe God as being
    good to all people and things.

    He gives rain, sunshine and life among many other gifts.

    b) God is merciful.

    The Akamba refer to God as “God of pity”, the‘merciful one’.

    God shows mercy in times of danger, illness, difficulty or anxiety.

    c) God is holy.

    He is pure, holy and does not make mistakes. Yoruba call
    him God who is pure, without blemish.

    The Kikuyu say God is “Possessor of whiteness” and the Bukusu – ‘master whitewash’. African traditions all approach God with reverence, fear, respect and honor.

    For example when offering sacrifices, they would offer a one-colour animal either white, black, or brown and not a spotted animal.

    d) God is powerful i.e.

    Omnipotent. God is described as almighty. Le sien
    power is expressed in natural occurrences like thunder, lighting, earthquakes, rains, and floods.

    e) God is all knowing (Omniscient).

    God knew all things; nothing can be
    hidden from him. He discerns hearts.

    f) God is all present (Omnipresent).

    He is present everywhere in the
    univers.

    g) God is limitless.

    God has no limit. He is both very far and very near,
    beyond and within.

    h) God is transcendent.

    God cannot be exhausted by human imagination.
    He is unexplainable, beyond human experience and understanding.

    i) God is all understanding

    j) God is self existent

    .He made all things but he himself is not made.
    He exists on his own. Zulu explain that God is ‘he who is of himself.

    k) God is a spirit He is invisible, and everlasting.

    . Shilluk of Sudan refer
    to him as ‘great spirit’ ‘the formless spirit.

    l) God is everlasting.

    God is eternal, never changes, and never dies. le
    Yoruba call him ”the mighty immovable rock that never dies.

    m) God is God created the creator .

    The world Kikuyu call him “Mumbi”

    n) God is just. Kikuyu refer to God as “Mugai” meaning “divider”. ‘One
    who shares out’.

    God judges fairly, punishes those who do wrong and rewards the good with blessings.

    o) God is the provider.

    All communities acknowledge that God provides
    them with everything they have.

    Africans built representation of the power of God.

    They identified sites,
    places and things that represented the presence and power of God.

    For example things like big trees, thick forest, high mountains, unique rock formations and large rivers and animals. In these places they built sites, and shrines.

    Shrines were regarded as holy and people approached them with reverence Spirits.

    They were believed to exist between God and human beings in the universe.

    Spirits were diverse and created by God.

    Some spirits were dead human beings. Spirits were divided into nature, sky, earth
    and human spirits that were either long dead (ghosts) or recently dead (ancestors).

    There were different types of spirits. These were:

    une. Divinities.

    These are spirits created by God. They are close to God and
    act as his agents.

    They are in charge of natural phenomena like the sun, moon and stars. They are intermediaries between God and ancestral spirits, human beings and other creatures.

    They reveal God’s plans through diviners and mediums.

    b. Human spirits / common spirits.

    These are inferior to divinities but
    higher than human kind.

    They are remains of human beings after their death. These spirits monitor human activities.

    Human spirits have lost their names and are not longer remembered by the living.

    They are believed to live in the under
    world, undergrounds, in thick bushes, forests, rivers, mountains, lakes,
    skies, and caves among other places.

    These spirits can bring harm to the living if disrespected.

    They appear to people in dreams or in form of shadows.

    They can also enter or possess a person and cause abnormalities.

    3. Ancestors / living dead

    These are spirits of the recently dead. They are remembered by the living when children are named after them.

    They are actively involved in the lives and activities of the living.

    Their offerings (food or drink) are poured on the ground for them to receive.

    Ancestors are in a period of transition between the living and the higher categories.

    They are believed to know the problems of the living and therefore consulted constantly.

    They are also associated with evil such as revenge for burying them without honor, or not following the instructions they gave before they died or failing to pour them libations.

    When they are happy with the living, they are a source of blessings.

    Ancestors who did evil things or committed suicide are forgotten and ignored.

    Hierarchy of beings.

    Hierarchy means the order or ranking from the highest to the lowest of created beings.

    At the top is
    Divinities

  • Ancestors

  • Human Beings

  • Animals and Plants

  • Non-living Things

    Lesson Two: the Role of God, Spirits and Ancestors

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson: –

    une. Write a description of God from an African perspective

    God is the creator.

    The Akamba community believed that God whom they
    called Mulungu created man and woman.

    He then tossed them to the earth. The Luhya claim God created them from the black topsoil hence their skin complexion.

    God is the source of life and giver of life.

    Barren women pray to God to
    ask for children. Human beings depend on God for life, rain, air, and sunshine.

    God is the provider.

    He gave domestic animals to human beings for their
    utilisation.

    Domestic animals have many uses such as repayment of dowry, food, and sacrifices to God,payment of a fine by an offender.

    Many wild animals are used in folk songs and tales to discourage cowardice, and laziness
    God is a protector of human beings from evil.

    God is the giver of moral laws and a judge of people

    God offers solutions to man’s problems through mediums, and prophets

    God gives power to the specialists such as medicine men, women and
    priests.

    God punishes people for wrong doing

    Wild animals such as hyena are used in folk stories to discourage
    cowardice. Stories of tortoise illustrate the importance of being slow but sure.

    Snakes in some communities such as the Luhya were not killed.

    The community believed snakes were immortal ancestors coming to visit
    the living.

    Plants were used as food for people and animals.

    Trees were used for fuel
    and building materials. Some trees were used as sacred places of worship.

    Non-living things such as the rain, rocks, and rivers had a religious
    importance.

    Rain is seen as a blessing from God. When rain fails, diviner/rain maker was consulted.

    Rocks, and mountains were believed to be dwelling places for the living, the dead and the spirits.

    The spirits were viewed as neither good nor evil.

    Human beings feared them.

    Their roles were many.

    They;

    i Appeared in dreams especially to diviners, priests, medicine men and
    women, and rain makers to relay information.

    ii Were consulted by religious specialists to find the cause of a problem in
    a given situation.

    iii Were bad (naughty) spirits, which disturbed people. africain
    communities believed that bad sprits could call out one’s name but on turning there’s no one.
    iv Were manipulated by some human beings to cause harm to others.

    v Relayed God’s messages to human beings.

    vi Sometimes possessed a person causing the person to be sent away from
    the village to the forest, or away from home.

    vii Acted as intermediaries between humans,’ divinities and God.

    Role of ancestors is to: –

    1) Appear to families in dreams, and visions.

    2) Give family instructions i.e. what should be done.

    3) Rebuke those who fail to honor them and warn them of impending punishment.

    4) Act as mediators between the living and God.

    5) Enquire about family affairs as they considered as members of the family.

    6) Request for sacrifice of an animal which is slaughtered for them

    7) Cause illness or mental disturbance to members of a family if they are disregarded or disobeyed.

    8) Preserve the culture of a community

    9) Welcome those who die to the spirit world.

    Lesson Three: Responsibility of the Living Towards God, Spirits, and Ancestors

    Learning outcome. After studying this lesson, you should

    une. State responsibilities of the living to God, spirits, and ancestors.

    b. Explain the various forms of worship.

    Responsibilities of living include

    Human beings are expected to worship God, spirits and ancestors and
    spectacle

    (i) reverence and respect or veneration to God.

    They are also expected to

    (i) pray

    (ii) sing and

    (iii)
    dance.

    Worship. This is our major responsibility as God expects us to meet and
    communicate with the spiritual world and God.

    There are several ways of worshipping God.

    These include among others:

    (a) Sacrifices and offerings.

    Sacrifices include shedding of blood of animals and birds.

    Offerings are in the form of foodstuffs, milk, water and honey.

    God was worshipped because He is recognized as the absolute owner of life and property.

    We also worship God in order to

    (i) invoke Him for special blessings

    (ii) thank Him

    (iii) express our personal fellowship and communion with
    Dieu

    (iv) avert or prevent evil.

    Evils bring about epidemics, famine, floods, and drought.

    (b) Singing and dancing.

    Africans worshipped God through singing,
    dancing, clapping of hands,drumming, and use of musical instruments.

    (c)Prayers, invocations and blessings.

    Prayers were accompanied with sacrifices or offerings. Communauté
    leaders prayed to God, spirits and ancestors.

    (d) Invocations are shortened form of prayers e.g.

    “Help me oh God” ‘Oh
    great God”. These are prayers at the spur of the moment. They are few words full of meaning and calling for help form God.

    (e) Formal blessings.

    An elder or older person gave blessings. Il est
    believed that the person blessing the other one is doing so on behalf of God.

    (f) Venerations.

    Africans treated their ancestors with great respect and
    honor.

    They for example worshiped ancestors daily.

    Worshipping included placing food or pouring libation of beer, milk, water and honey for the spirits.

    As this act was done, they uttered words to accompany the offerings. Libations were done daily by some communities.

    (g). Ancestors were honored by:

  • Mentioning their names at prayers was offered to God.
  • Naming children after them.
  • Inviting them to participate in family ceremonies and rituals. Pour
    example during birth, and initiation.
  • Maintaining their graves well.
  • Giving the dead a decent burial.

    Communication with spirits

    Diviners and mediums talk with ‘spirits”. To do so, they sit quietly in a
    place; singing, dancing and clapping their hands. As they dance, sit and sing, diviners lose their senses and get possessed by the spirit.

    The spirits speak give them messages for individuals and communities.

    Spirits communicate on issues such as

    (i) lost property

    (ii) revealing by name the enemy in the society

    (iii) making demands on
    les vivants

    (iv) giving advice

    (v) giving warnings on impending danger and

    (vi) making promises to bless a family or clan.

    Spirits that possess mediums are not harmful.

    There are bad evil spirits harmful to people whom they possess. Some evil
    spirits cut themselves; others throw themselves into a fire, river, and lake.

    Revision questions

    a) Explain African beliefs about god ( or qualities)

    b) Describe the African understanding of the hierarchy of being

    c) Describe the role of the ancestors to the living

    d) What was the responsibility of the living towards God?

    e) Describe the T.A. ways of worshipping God.

    Topic Eight: African Moral and Cultural Values
    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Explain the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional African
    société

    b Explain the African concept of community and kingship system

    c Outline the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in
    the African communities

    d Describe rites of passage and their role inculcating moral values in the
    traditional African society

    e Explain the role of religious specialist and their relevance in modern
    société

    f Explain the African moral values

    g Discuss and evaluate continuity and change in the African understanding of leisure, dress, old age, widows, orphans, dowry, community, land, medicine, worship and property.

    Lesson One: Meaning of Life and Its Wholeness in the
    Traditional African Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

    1. Describe the meaning and wholeness of life in the traditional African
    société

    2. Describe the African understanding of a community Life originates from God and it progress from one stage to another with a certain rhythm each person has to follow. Each stage of life is marked by rites of passage. Life is continuous and unending.

    Each person is expected to value life and to be responsible. Life involves sharing.

    It is immoral to be greedy
    and self centred. People are to be hospitable, warm and caring toward other people.

    Unity and harmony are to be upheld.

    Life is viewed as whole only if a person went through all
    the stages or rites of passage Life was propagated through bearing children.

    Life cannot be divided into religious and secular.

    Every element of life has a religious meaning.

    Life is communal.

    Life was celebrated at every stage.

    Everyone depends on others. Labour was divided. There were duties for men, children and women.

    In African traditional society, human life is precious.

    Murder was
    condemned harshly.

    Suicide was considered the worst thing anyone could do.

    It was seen as a curse on the family.

    If one died at childhood, it was regarded as abortion. Death did not mark the end of life.

    Death is referred to as ‘saying
    goodbye to food”, “sleeping,” “going home”, “being called by the
    ancestors”.

    African concept of a community

    A community is a group of people who share a common language, religion, and culture and may live in the same geographical location.

    This group of people or an ethnic group
    shares common interests and characteristics.

    For example, African communities:

  • Share common features, and interests
  • Have the same origin and are likely to be related by blood.
  • Share a common language.
  • Live together and inhabit the same geographical location.
  • Are divided into smaller units called clans

    A clan is made up of people who have the same forefather.

    A clan is
    composed of families.

    A family is made up of members (living or dead) who are related by blood and marriage.

    Family members therefore include the ancestors and the unborn.

    Lesson Two: Kinship System in African Communities

    Learning outcomes. After studying African kinship system in African
    communities, you should be able to:

    une. Explain the importance of kinship system

    b. Give factors that contribute to harmony and mutual responsibility

    Kinship refers to the relationships between people. These can be by blood,
    marriage or adoption.

    People that belong to the same kinship system are referred to as kin.

    Importance of kinship system and ties

    Kinship relationships were and still are important among African
    communities.

    This is because these ties:

    i Provided company. This ensured that people were not lonely.

    ii Provided a sense of belonging which one of the human needs. We all
    want to belong.

    iii Controlled social relationships between people related by blood or
    marriage.

    iv Promoted mutual responsibility and help.

    v Enhanced a sense of security which is a human need.

    vi Regulated marital customs, rules and regulations.

    vii Enabled people to live peacefully and in harmony.

    viii Bind the community together enhancing social cohesion and loyalty
    to each other.

    ix Facilitated care for the disadvantaged members of community.

    x Ensured that all members of the community are have knowledge of
    community beliefs and practices.

    xi Provided a peaceful way of settling disputes.

    xii Provided mechanisms for proper inheritance of property for example
    land.

    Factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African
    communities.

    These are many.

    Some of them are

    (i) rites of passage

    (2) good morals

    (3) participation in
    communal activities such as ceremonies, work, leisure activities and worship

    (4) sharing of property and ideas

    (5) division of labour.
    Tasks were distributed according to one’s age, gender and status. (6)
    rules/social norms regulated how people grew up; knowing what is wrong and right.

    Good morals help people to live in peace and harmony.

    Lesson Three: Rites of Passage

    Learning outcomes. I expect you to read this lesson and

    une. Name the main stages of human life

    b. Explain the rite of circumcision in your community

    c. Narrate initiation rituals

    ré. Discuss the importance of marriage in your community with peers

    e. State the importance of funeral and burial rites.

    In traditional African society, there were four main stages of life.

    Celles-ci
    étaient

    (i) birth and

    appellation

    (ii)
    initiation

    (iii) marriage and

    (iv) old age and death
    Birth and naming.

    When a woman conceived, and pregnancy was visible, she was treated
    specially.

    She wore charms to keep away evil eyes. She ate special food and avoided sexual relations.

    The family and husband did not expect her to perform heavy task. When she was ready to deliver, mid wives helped in delivery.

    After delivery, the placenta was seen as a sign of fertility hence it was buried in the fertile land such as a banana plantation.

    Some communities preserved placenta while others threw it into a running stream.
    Birth The arrival of a baby and its sex was announced through ululations or
    shouts.

    The placenta was disposed off ceremoniously. The mother was purified and baby protection rites were conducted. Once purified, a mother could wear charms to protect herself and the baby from malicious spirits, sorcery, witchcraft, and evil eyes.

    Thanksgiving ceremonies were performed to show gratitude to God. le
    hair of the mother and child was shaved as a sign of purification and newness of life.

    Naming

    Naming of babies was carefully chosen. A baby could be named after
    either a season, weather, ancestors, place or time of delivery, occasion, experience of mother during delivery, significance events such as war, and drought, personality of the child, and names of heroes and gods.

    A good example is the name ‘Were’ amongst the Luhya.
    Twins had special names.

    Initiation

    The second rite of passage.

    There were different types of initiations such as circumcision for boys and clitorisdectomy for girls, excision of teeth and body marks.

    Initiation rites were important and
    every individual was expected to go through them or be rendered an outcast. Initiation practices were seen as tests for courage and bravery.

    They helped the communities when identifying future leaders and warriors.

    Initiation was very important in communities where it was practiced.
    Initiation marked a transition from childhood to adulthood. In this transition, the initiate acquired new rights, new status in life, and privileges.

    For example the new initiates were allowed to marry, own property, and inherit the father’s property.

    In addition the initiates received specialized education.

    Ils
    were taught how to behave as adults, warriors, future husbands and parents.

    The education brought families, relatives and friends together.

    This act
    strengthened kinship ties.

    It also prepared the initiates to face the difficulties and challenges of adult life.

    In addition, initiation helped to structure the community. Initiation was programmed to fit an age set; and it marked passage of specific
    temps.

    Thus each initiation ceremony was held regularly, normally between
    16 – 21 years of age.

    If you calculate, you can see that 16 to 21 years introduced a new age set or group of young people.

    The age
    set held power for 16 to 21 years and handed over to the new generation.
    Initiation was therefore a mark of identity.

    It gave the initiate a sense of belonging. It bonded the initiates together with the ancestors.

    Initiation rituals are not popular today as they were in the past.

    C'est
    because many communities have undergone social and cultural changes because of modern education.

    As a result some families take their sons to hospitals to be circumcised to prevent HIV/AIDs and to avoid infections because of unhygienic traditional initiation practices.

    Other reasons are

    (i) urbanization and migration,

    (ii) individualization

    (iii)Christians religious values.

    These have made some communities abandon some rites e.g.

    clitorisdectomy and

    (iv) some countries have made girl’s circumcision illegal and an issue of human and health rights.

    Attitude to birth and naming

    There has been a change in attitude to birth and naming. This is because initiation is no longer a community but a family affair.

    In addition, pregnant women attend
    antenatal clinics.

    Majority of pregnant women give birth in hospitals and health centres.

    Thus a doctor and not a midwife announce the sex of the baby. In modern society, the mother and child are no longer secluded.

    Lastly most parents prefer western names for their babies.

    Marriage was a requirement for all members of the community.

    It was a
    source of status in the community. Since a leader had to be married.

    Young men and women married after initiation. Marriage was a happy
    occasion and a source of wealth.

    The father gave young initiates some animals for dowry. Fathers of girls
    received dowry payments, as bride price was mandatory.

    It was given to the parents of the girl in form
    de

    (a) Cows

    (b) Goats

    (c)
    Camels

    (d) Jewellery

    (e) Poultry.

    The young men inherited the father’s
    property.

    Importance of dowry.

    Dowry unified the community. When young
    women were married, their parents lost their labour.

    Dowry payments compensated for this loss.

    Men paid dowry as a sign of commitment to their wife and parents.

    Importance of marriage

    Marriage was sacred. It was and ordained by God. Marriage created new
    social relationships and expanded web of kinships.

    During the marriage ceremonies the whole community rejoiced, and feasted together.

    The newly married couple learnt new knowledge and skills.

    The community and society respected the newly married couple.

    Children born from this union propagated and ensured continuity
    of family, and the community.

    Modern community and marriage.

    There has been a change in attitude
    towards marriage.

    As a result:

    marriage is no longer seen as sacred and divorce is common. In addition, dowry has been commercialized, as it is no longer seen as important.

    Some young men do not pay dowry.

    In fact marriage is no longer seen as a sign of status
    Children were important in marriage.

    Barren women were frowned upon.

    Polygamy solved issues of

    childlessness. Couples without children can now adopt them from the
    Child Welfare society.

    Divorce. This was very rare.

    It happened only if the girl

    (i) was not a
    vierge

    (ii) practiced witchcraft

    (iii) and did not show respect towards her husband.

    Old age and death.

    This is the age of wisdom. Old people were respected.
    Grey hair was a sign of respect and wisdom.

    In all culture, the elders were the custodians of the law,norms and regulations. Social and religious specialists were seers, rainmakers, priests, diviners, and medicine men among others

    Death.

    Old age is followed by death. It was seen as a transition into the
    spiritual life.

    Besides old age, many cultures believed that death was due to either breaking of the traditional customs and taboos, curses, evil spirits, witchcraft, war, diseases and epidemics.

    Burial rites were performed in many African communities.
    Disposing of the dead body. Several methods were used to dispose the body.

    These were burials, leaving bodies in the forest, and throwing body to animals or placing the body in
    an abandoned house.

    African communities believed that animals carried the spirit of the dead person to the next life.

    Burial rites were performed by the bereaved. They buried the body with ones person belongings and tools.

    Thus if a person was a great warrior, he was buried with a war coat. Celebrations accompanied funeral rites.

    Funeral songs (dirges) were performed.

    There was drinking and eating.

    Importance of funeral and burial rites

    Burial rites created a good relationship between the dead and the living.

    They were therefore given to appease the world of spirits, express unity in the society, cleanse the remaining relatives and obey the customs of the community.

    Rituals that were performed depended on the community.

    Certains
    rituals for the dead included.

    a) Shaving of heads. Some mourners shaved their hair completely, while
    others shaved in a specific pattern.

    b) Dancing and singing, and giving gifts to the bereaved family

    c) Mourning

    (d) Drum beating

    (e) Horn blowing

    (f) Grave side fires

    Here are some questions to make you think about marriages

    1. In your opinion, what has brought changes in modern marriages?

    2. Explain why divorce is rising in Kenya and Africa.

    3. What changes do we see in contemporary marriages?

    4. What has brought about these changes?

    5. What are the major causes of death in Kenya today?

    Lesson Four: Religious Specialists and Their
    Relevance in Modern Society

    Learning outcome. After studying this lesson,

    1. Identify religious specialists

    2. State the role of medicine men, priests, mediums, prophets, diviners,
    and seers

    3. Describe roles of herbalists, elders, and rainmakers

    4. Explain the role of religious specialists in your culture

    Religious specialists include Medicine men / healers, Herbalists, Diviners,
    Mediums, Prophets / Seers, Rainmakers, Priests and Elders.

    Religious specialists were given power by their parents who taught them religious duties.

    Others received divine call through dreams and visions.

    A few learnt from experts via apprenticeship.

    This is learning by observing and practicing what one sees the master teacher doing.

    Roles of the medicine women/men in the Community.

    Medicine
    women/men are healers who were and are respected by the community. This is because they were and are able to:

    1) Treat and heal the sick

    2) Solve serious and complicated chronic illnesses

    3) Give medicine in form of powder, herbs, minerals or liquid form and observed patients swallowing, drinking, sniffing, and applying on the skin.

    4) Offer prayers and sacrifices to God.

    5) Give charms to protect individual persons from evil spirits.

    6) Perform specialized medical roles in some communities in spite of the
    fact that we have modern hospitals, counselors and psychologists.

    Elders were and still are community leaders.

    They were not religious
    specialists but the community gave elders duties, which made them close to religious leaders.

    Herbalists and their relevance.

    Herbalists were synonymous with witch
    doctors.

    They cured people through herbs just like the medicine women/men. Communities’ belief:

    that herbalists are witchdoctors and possess magical powers. Herbalists continue to be consulted as ‘witch doctors’ or “waganga”.

    Today herbalists do religious tasks that were traditionally done by diviners.

    Diviners were able to find hidden secrets and knowledge; reveal witches and thieves.

    They communicated with spirits and enhanced the work of healers and medicine people.

    They worked as medicine people and were healers of people.

    They used magic powers and predicted future occurrences.

    They used items such as pebbles, water, bones or gourds in divination.

    They also warned of future calamities.

    They were mediators between God, ancestors and the people. To be a diviner, one had to be trained.

    There was a specialized curriculum prepared by diviners.

    Relevance of diviners in modern society.

    Diviners (‘witchdoctor’“mganga”)

    are not popular today and are hardly consulted. But the unfortunate Kenyans consult them who:

    need a job, promotion, and children.

    This consultation is secret.
    Mediums were channels of communication between the living and the
    spirits of people’s ancestors.

    The ancestor spirits possessed mediums and through them ancestors gave information and messages to their relatives.

    Priests were religious leaders and functionaries.

    They were intermediaries between people, ancestors,spirits and God. Their work was to make sacrifices and give offerings on
    behalf of the people.

    They officiated during planting and harvesting rituals. They offered prayers and blessed the needy.

    They cared for the shrines and poured libations to the ancestors.

    They led the community in public worship.

    Ils
    were political heads and judges.

    Today, traditional priests are not relevant
    since most Kenyans follow several religious practices like Christianity, Hindus, Islam and many others.

    But there are however, a few traditional priests who take care of community shrines.

    Prophets / Seers predicted the future. They foretold events such as
    invasions, wars, drought, and epidemics.

    They gave advice.

    They also performed religious duties.

    They could bless and curse.

    Religious
    prophets are common today but traditional prophets are not common.

    Rainmakers were responsible for bringing or withholding rain to a community.

    They interpreted weather
    conditions.

    They performed certain rituals like asking God for rains.

    Ils
    were highly respected in the society.

    Modern science has replaced rainmakers
    Meteorological departments have made the rainmakers redundant.

    Elders were custodians of community values and secrets.

    They acted as
    educators.

    They gave punishment to offenders of social norms/rules. They acted as counselors and guided the youth on matters of sex and marriage. They helped in maintaining roles for important religious functions, such as rites of passage.

    They were political leaders in the community.

    They were negotiators and solved conflicts since they settled family disputes especially agreements concerning land.

    They were custodians
    of the traditional values, customs and history of the people.

    Relevance.

    Elders are relevant in modern society.

    They are referred to as
    village elders and are recognized by the government of Kenya.

    Lesson Five: African Moral Values
    Introduction.

    African communities were regulated by a strict code of laws
    and moral values.

    In this lesson we shall study moral values, which regulated individual members of society as well as the community itself.

    Learning outcomes.

    After reading this lesson, you should

    1. Give examples of cultural values

    2. Define moral values

    3. Identify forms of misconduct

    3. State a punishment for each misconduct

    What is a cultural value?

    These are community practices and beliefs. Each
    community has cultural values that it accepts and upholds. These cultural values are laws, customs, and forms of behaviour, regulations, rules, observances and taboos.

    The cultural values form a moral code, which regulates the community.

    For example, if the culture, values private property, it will have laws that forbid theft of property.

    These laws are cultural values. Cultural values influence the social order and peace.

    God gives
    peace and harmony. God is seen as the giver and guardian of the law.

    Disobedience was and still is regarded as evil, wrong and was and still is punishable by law.

    What is a moral value?

    Moral values are standards of behaviour towards others. They are based on what is valued by the community.

    Moral values are also positive attitudes. Each
    community decided what is important to it and what is desirable for its members to practice and uphold.

    The moral values that communities observed were many.

    Ils ont inclus
    amongst others:

    1. Hospitality and Love for self and others. This is the habit of welcoming
    all people, treating oneself and others well.

    Members of the community were taught how to be hospitable to visitors, strangers and how to assist the needy.

    2. Honesty. This is developing good habits like telling the truth, Loyalty,
    Respect, Co – operation with all.

    3. Obedience to parents, elders, community leaders and elders. Cultural
    regulations were followed and adhered to leading.

    4. Caring for others. This is being responsible to members of the
    community,

    5. Developing social moral behaviour like Humility, Sharing, Responsibility, Chastity, Integrity, Tolerance,Perseverance, and Courtesy.

    6. Working Hard. Do chores. These were according to sex, age and socialeconomic
    status.

    7. Cooperation. Members cooperated and worked together with others.
    Moral values were learnt in the process of socialization.

    Leisure activities
    helped in acquisition of moral values.

    Learning moral values was a lifelong process. The most valued behaviour was obedience.

    Children were to obey their parents; wives obey their husbands;
    community obeys their leaders, and elders.

    Learning to obey was a life long process. An obedient person was
    respected and rewarded.

    Misconducts. There were taboos that the community observed. Failure to
    obey community laws resulted in punishments.

    The community did not allow stealing of
    livestock. Domestic animals were the most valued private property.

    Individuals owned livestock while land ownership was communal.

    There were many forms of punishment for stealing livestock and committing other crimes.

    Par exemple

    une. Payment of heavy fines to replace stolen livestock

    b. Being beaten in a sack

    c. Thrown down a hill

    ré. Cast out of community. Thieves and murders built their homes at the
    outskirts of the community.

    They were not allowed to interact anymore with the members of the community.

    e. Being covered with dry banana leaves and then set on fire.

    Lesson Six: Continuity and Change
    introduction

    Learning outcome. From this lesson, you should be able to:

    1. Compare traditional and modern way of life

    2. Trace property ownership in traditional and modern communities

    3. Explain how money economy has affected the traditional way of life

    4. State how communities can look after orphans, widows, and old people

    Community. Formal education introduced the western way of life.

    Employment and trade forced

    Africans to leave their villages to look for employment and markets in
    towns.

    These actions led to urbanization and pluralism.

    As a result different communities came to towns and lived together.

    1. Paid employment.

    Workers were paid by money. The concept of
    money changed community life.

    Individualism ownership of money replaced communalism.

    2. Land used to be communal.

    There was plenty of land for everyone. Mais
    changes were brought by modern life.

    For example, health improved and people lived longer.

    There were fewer deaths and population increased. With money, there was an expansion of trade.

    Individuals started buying land with money instead of clearing forests.

    Modern life changed the concept of land. Individual started owning land.

    The colonial governments introduced policies about land ownership in different African countries.

    In communities where education was accepted and money economy took over from livestock economy, communal land disappeared.

    Parents did not have land for inheritance.

    As a result, people moved and
    bought land away from their ancestral birthplaces. This resulted in both migrations and immigrations.

    3. Property.

    Traditionally property included land, cattle (Livestock),
    women/ wives, and children.

    In African traditional culture, this property belonged to men or the first-born son in paternal societies.

    In maternal communities, it belonged to wives and daughters.

    Today property or wealth is in different forms such as money, buildings,
    vehicles, land, shares, stock, jewels, insurance, and others. Women, men and children own property.

    Because of this, the status of a person is measured by:

    property.

    Dowry – Bride price / bride wealth

    In African societies, bride price was very important.

    It was given in
    various forms. For example cows, animals skin, and camels.

    Today dowry is commercialized. It’s mainly in form of cash money.

    This has made marriage costly for the poor.

    Some young people are staying together without a formal wedding in church or in the community. Others do not want to pay dowry.

    Young couples are living together in
    what is called – come – we – stay arrangements.

    4. Health Medicine

    In traditional society, Illness was caused by witchcraft, sorcery, bad
    omen, or curses. Diviners, herbalists, and healers treated the sick people.

    Today bacterial, viruses, or environmental factors, cause illnesses. Celles-ci
    are treated by nurses, and doctors; in hospitals and health centres. There is however a craze for herbalists.

    The communities are consulting herbalists and are taking herbal tea, and medicine

    5. Dress

    Mode of dressing varied between countries.

    It was dependent on the type of climate. African communities were clothes made from skins or hides, leaves of bananas and trees.

    Women wore beads, and necklaces for decoration. Modern mode of dressing is a mixture of African, Asian and European wear.

    There are clothes for men,women, and unisex. African and western ornaments are worn for beauty and style.

    6. Worship.

    Worship is an important activity in African communities.
    There are different forms of worship, which are done in various places. Those who were converted to Islam worship in Mosques.

    Those converted to Hinduism worship in temples. Christians worship in
    churches.

    The few traditional African communities continue to worship their ancestors in shrines.

    These are very few. But a few groups are turning back to traditional worship and reviving worship of ancestors and spirits, and their traditional God. For example “Mungiki” a cult in Kenya, made up of young people, worship the traditional Ngai and practice traditional culture.

    Traditional religions have many offerings such as foodstuffs and
    sacrifices such as goats, cows, sheep and chicken. Human sacrifice has been discarded.
    It is illegal, and it is murder.

    In the news, we have heard of cases of body parts being stolen from a dead body in mortuary probably for religious rituals.

    This is illegal and a
    criminal offence.

    Modern offerings in most religious institutions consist of money.

    7. Death

    changes immediately the status of families. Mothers and fathers
    become widows and widowers. Children become orphans. Many parents, wives and husbands
    have died because of HIV /AIDS, road accidents, diseases and other modern calamities. They have left orphans, widows and widowers.

    Orphans used to be looked after by grandmothers, brothers and uncles.

    Today government, churches,charities, NGOs, well-wishers, and guardians, the elder sibling looks after orphans.

    Some orphan sisters
    and brothers drop out of school to look after the rest. Some orphans have
    ended up in the streets because there is no one to look after them
    Widows.

    Traditionally brothers inherited widows. However, widow
    inheritance is being discouraged to prevent HIV / AIDS.

    But on the other hand, widows are encouraged to remarry as society has become individualistic and no longer assists community
    Widowers are not inherited and many of them remarry soon after the death of their wives.

    8. Old age.

    In traditional African communities, old people were respected.

    But now old age is not respected.

    The aged are seen as a burden to their children.

    This is because the need medical care, food,
    and other forms of care to meet their needs.

    Most of them are neglected
    and mistreated.

    In traditional communities, children took care of their aged parents. Today some children care for their parents.

    Fortunately, churches have set up homes for the aged.

    An example is
    “Nyumba za wazee”.

    A few old people can look after themselves since they have pension schemes, life insurance policies, income generating projects, investments and bank deposits. They can care for themselves.

    Revision questions

    a) What is the significance of the kingship system

    b) Outline and explain factors contributing to harmony and mutual
    responsibility in the traditional African society

    c) What was the purpose of the bride wealth in the traditional African
    society?

    d) Explain the role of medicine men in the African communities and their
    relevance today.

    Study Activities

    Read the Bible quotations given

    Carry out role-plays e.g. the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham

    Consult the aged to assist in the understanding of African traditional practices

    Form one answers
    Topic: one

    1.What is the importance of reading the Bible?

  • Strengthens people’s faith.
  • Helps in spreading the gospel.
  • Helps in composition of songs and hymns.
  • Acts as a reference when we write its translations and other books.
  • Promotes good relationship between God and man.

    2. In society, people in schools, crusades, churches, lodgings, homes, and
    hospitals read the Bible.

    3.In the government, the Bible is used for swearing in the Courts,
    Parliament and Cabinet when members of parliament are nominated to become ministers of the
    government.

    4.The major divisions of the Bible are the old and the new testaments.
    Read 1.3.4. Above for more information.

    2. What are the effects of Bible translation on African languages?
    The Effects of Bible translation into African languages

    The translations increased and deepened people’s faith in God.

    They also
    led to the establishment of schools.

    The Gospel spread to local communities and many of them became Christians.

    The missionaries and colonialists learnt African Languages. This led to the promotion of African languages.

    This helped the African converts to judge when the missionaries were unfair or when they practiced inequality of races.

    8. Why is the Bible referred to as (a) a Library and

    (b) the Word of God

    (a) The Bible is referred to as a Library because its:

    1. Books are arranged in a series and in order.

    2. A reference book

    3. Is a book of literary works

    4. Books were written under different situations and circumstances

    5. Books are many

    1. Inspiration is a process through which God took the initiative to prompt
    and enlighten the writers of the Bible its Godly influence.

    Topic Two: Creation and the Fall of Man

    1. Find answers on the differences between the two creation stories in
    lesson four

    2. Traditional African view of creation is in lesson four. Africans’ view
    was that:

  • God is the architect of the world
  • God existed from the very beginning of time
  • God created everything from nothing
  • God provides for the needs of human beings, animals, and all creation
  • God continues to create through human beings

    3. Human beings continue with the work of creation in lesson four

    4. The origin of sin and evil read again lesson five

    5. Consequences of sin in lesson five

    When Adam and Eve sinned

  • Man’s friendship with God changed to fear of GOD
  • What had been innocent and good became shameful
  • Relationship between GOD and man was damaged and became spoilt
  • Man began to toil for food, safety and other basic needs
  • Pain became part of human experience
  • Death sentence was passed
    6. Consequences of evil are in lesson six
    Africans understand evil as barrenness, war, drought, epidemics, madness,
    sickness, death, burning in a house and others.

    7. God’s plan of salvation is lesson seven.

    The lesson tells us that GOD
    saved human kind by providing:

  • Clothing for Adam and Eve
  • Means to find food
  • A decree to defeat serpent through the seed of the woman
  • A solution in which he choose Abraham and separated him from others
  • A delivery of Israelites from Egypt
  • Prophets with messages for Israelites
  • The Messiah to die on the Cross to save humankind

    8. Compare the biblical concept of sin and the African concept of evil.
    Similitudes:

  • Both agree that God is good and did not create evil.
  • In both, sin is a result of disobedience, greed and selfishness of
    humankind.
  • In both cases, sin leads to human suffering.
  • Both hold the view that sin/evil befalls humankind in the form of a
    curse.
  • Sin brings separation between God and man.
  • In both, there is reconciliation and forgiveness between God and man.

    Thus sin does not end a relationship.

    Différences

  • In the bible, the serpent is seen as the cause of sin whereas in many
    Traditional African communities, the spirits of the dead causes evil.
  • In the bible, there is external punishment (hell) for sinners while the
    African communities believe that punishment is here on earth.
  • Biblically, human beings are born sinners because they are descendants
    of Adam (1st parents’ sin).

    In Traditional African Community, a child is born free of evil.

  • Biblically had taken the initiative to end sin but in Traditional African
    Community, man does through sacrifice to the ancestral spirits.

    9. Subdue the earth in genesis 1 verse 28

    Topic Three: Faith and God’s Promises to Abraham.

    Qn 1. Explain why Abraham is referred to as the Father of Faith

    Faith is complete trust in somebody or something.

    This is because he
    demonstrated faith in his life’s actions.

  • Accepting to move from his homeland to an unknown land.
  • By accepting circumcision at an old age and change of name.
  • Being ready to sacrifice his only son – Isaac.
  • He made altars for the worship of God at Bethel etc.
  • He believed in a God he did not know/see.
  • By accepting to enter into a covenant relationship with God where he
    gave his best animals as a sacrifice.

    Qn 2. Give five (5) actions from the life of Abraham that shows his faith
    in God

  • Abraham obeyed God’s call and left his homeland Haran to go to an
    unknown land.
  • He believed in the promises God gave him.
  • Build altars for the worship of God, one at Schecher and the other at
    Bethel.
  • Covenant – accepted to make a covenant with God where he sacrificed
    the best of his animals.
  • Circumcision – accepting the command to circumcise himself and all
    male children in his household.
  • Sacrifice of son – willing to offer his only son Isaac as a burnt offering
    to God.

    Qn 3. List some of the promises God gave to Abraham.

  • Abraham and his wife Sarah would have a son.
  • Abraham would be famous.
  • He would become the father of a great nation.
  • God would curse those who cursed him and bless those who blessed
    him.
  • God assured Abraham of a personal protection.
  • Many descendants – like stars on the sky.
  • The descendants would be slaves in a foreign land but God would
    deliver them.
  • He would live to a ripe old age and die in peace.
  • God would establish an everlasting covenant with him and his
    descendants.
  • Some of his descendants would be kings.
  • God would give him and his descendants land.

    Qn 4. Compare and contrast Jewish and Traditional African practice of
    circoncision

    A. Similarities

  • In both communities, circumcision is taken as a physical sign of
    membership to the community.
  • It involves the cutting of the foreskin.
  • Members who refuse to be circumcised are treated as outcasts in the
    community.
  • The shedding of blood is symbolic as it binds the people with God and
    ancestors.
  • It has a religious significance.
  • Special people in both do circumcision.
  • The occasions are accompanied by a ceremony which being kinsmen
    together.
  • The rite is compulsory for males.
  • The practice is handed down from one generation to the next.
  • Names are given during the occasion.
  • In both cases, it is done in special or religious places e.g. temple/under
    mugumo tree/ shrine etc.
  • It is a command from God/ancestors.

    Différences

  • For African, initiation leads to adult responsibilities such as marriage,
    becoming a warrior, decisionmaking and property ownership. In Jewish community, the boys are too young to take up responsibility.
  • In the Jewish community, only males are circumcised while in the
    Traditional African Community, both boys and girls are.
  • For Jews, one remains a child while in the Traditional African
    Community, they move from childhood to adulthood.
  • Jewish community circumcise at the age of eight days while in the
    Traditional African Community, it is at puberty.
  • Among the Jews, it is a sign that they have become God’s people, but in
    Traditional African Community, one is bound to the ancestors.
  • The Jewish circumcision is a command from God as a sign of their
    covenant with him while Traditional.

    African Communities do it in obedience to the customs and traditions of
    their duty.

  • The rite, taken place on the 8th day of both in Jewish community while
    in the Traditional African Communities, it occurs after every four – six years.
  • Done to individuals in Jewish community while it is done to a group of
    age mates in the Traditional African Communities.
  • No seclusion period among Jews as is the case in most African
    communities.
  • In African communities, the ceremony enables them to choose future
    leaders, which is not the case with the Jews.
  • Helps one endure suffering (pain) in future in the African communities
    unlike in the Jewish communities.
  • Only one form of initiation (cutting of foreskin) is done. Various forms
    are practiced in the Traditional African communities.

    These include:

  • Cutting of foreskin
  • Lib/ear piercing
  • Removal of lower teeth
  • Scarification (putting marks on face/body)

    Qn 5. What is the importance of faith to Christians?

  • Faith is the foundation of Christian life today. It makes Christians part
    of the great nation of God.
  • Through faith in Jesus, Christians became the chosen people of God.
  • Faith enables Christians make correct choices in life e.g. Quand
    choosing a career, marriage partners etc.
  • Faiths help them to face temptations and challenges in their lives and
    are able to overcome them.
  • It gives them perseverance in prayer as they wait for God’s answer.
  • It gives them the courage to commit their lives to God totally.
  • It is through faith that Christians obey God.
  • They are able to achieve impossible things through faith.
  • They are able to believe what they have not seen through faith.
  • They are able to serve the world, help the needy because of their faith in
    Christ.

    Qn 6. State the elements of a covenant

  • Partners two or more partners are involved.
  • A physical reminder – a certificate/sign.
  • Promises: – given by both partners.
  • Ceremony – whose blood seals it or an oath taken.
  • Witnesses – must be present.
  • It requires faithfulness, obedience and loyalty to the regulations.
  • It spells out serious consequences for those who break it.

    Qn 7. Give examples of covenant in the bible and the modern society
    The Bible

  • God’s covenant with Noah: where he promised never to destroy the
    earth with flood – rainbow is the sign of the covenant (Gen 9).
  • God’s covenant with Abraham: God promised to fulfil the promises he
    made to Abraham. The sign was circumcision (Gen 15 & 17).
  • The covenant between God and the Israelites on Mt Sinai – sign was the
    Law – 10 commandments (Exd 24).
  • The covenant between God and King David – promise to David’s
    kingdom would last forever (2 Sam:7).
  • Jeremiah’s covenant: The new covenant with God’s people (Jr 31: 31 – 34).

    Modern Society

    • Baptism

    • Marriage

    • Oath of allegiance/loyalty

    • Ordination

    • The National Anthem binds all

    • The loyalty pledge

    • Employment contract

    Qn 9. Discuss the circumstances that led God to enter into a covenant
    relationship with Abraham

  • To seal the promises given unto Abraham e.g. a great nation, son, many
    descendants.
  • It was an assurance of the fulfillment of God’s promises to Abraham.
  • It was to unite God and the Israelites.
  • It was to be a source of blessings to all.
  • A starting point for the salvation of mankind, whereby he would renew
    the relationship between himself and man after the separation by the 1st parents.

    Topic Four: Sinai Covenant.

    Qn a. What are the qualities of Moses as a leader?

  • Education: he received education while in the pharaoh’s palace where
    he grew up.
  • Jewish religion knowledge: his own mother who was his maid taught
    him the history of Israel.
  • He learned leadership skills from the King as he grew up.
  • Shepherd: herding the father-in-law’s herds made him gain experience
    of shepherding people.
  • Life in the wilderness where he lived after killing an Egyptian gave him
    experience in desert life through where he would lead the Israelites.
  • Father/parent: his marriage to Zipporah helped him learn family
    leadership. Later he applied this to his work.
  • Prophet: Enabled him to foresee the future and inform the community.
  • Miracle-maker: helped him solve problem facing his people in the
    wilderness e.g. lack of food, water.
  • Lawgiver: gave laws that were used to govern the community of Israel
    i.e. the Ten Commandments.
  • Hard work: worked for his father-in-law serving the family e.g. aller chercher
    l'eau. Later he was able to serve the Jews.

    Qn b (i) Describe the call of Moses: Exodus 3: 1 – 22

  • God called Moses as he herded his father-in-law’s flock at Mt Sinai.
  • Moses saw a burning bush, which was not consumed. He drew nearer to
    get a better look.
  • God called Moses by name from the middle of the burning bush and
    told him to remove his shoes.

    because he was standing on holy ground.

  • God told Moses that he had seen the suffering of his people in Egypt
    and heard their cry.
  • He told Moses that he had chosen him to go to Pharaoh and release
    them from bondage.
  • Moses objected to the task because he felt inadequate.
  • God promised to be with Moses and to protect him.
  • Moses asked for the name of God so that he would have a point of
    reference when asked who sent him.
  • God revealed himself to Moses saying, “IAM WHO I AM”
  • God gave Moses power to perform miracles that he would use as proof
    of his work.
  • Moses protested further saying he was a stammerer.
  • God commissioned Aaron, Moses’ brother as his spokesman.
  • Moses then told God he was afraid to go to Egypt.
  • God assured him that the man he was afraid of was already dead.

    Qn b (ii) Why was Moses hesitant to God’s call?

  • It is because he was already a criminal and wanted in Egypt after having
    killed and Egyptian and ran away.
  • He was not a good speaker (stammerer).
  • He did not know the name of God who was sending him.

    Qn c (i) what is the significance of the items used for the Passover feast
    (similar to what is the meaning of the Passover meal)?

  • The Lamb: reminded the Israelite of the sacrificial lamb whose blood
    saved their 1st born from the angel of death.
  • The unleavened bread signified purity.
  • It too signified the hurry they had to leave Egypt, as unleavened bread is
    easy to bake.
  • Roasting the meat was the easiest method of cooking.
  • Not breaking bones and spilt blood signified forgiveness.
  • Bitter herbs symbolized the bitterness of slavery in Egypt.

    Other Meanings:

  • Eating while standing symbolized the haste with which the Israelites
    were to leave Egypt.
  • They were not to leave any meal to avoid profanation in the form of
    flies. Burning was the simplest way of disposal & sacred.

    Qn c (ii) Compare the Lord’s Supper to the Passover feast

    Similitudes:

  • Both are acts of salvation from suffering. Passover saved Israelites from
    slavery while the Lord’s Supper saved people from bondage of sin.
  • Both are celebrated in memory of a past event – suffering.
  • Lambs offered in both Hebrews – the Passover lamb in the Lord’s
    Supper Jesus is the paschal lamb.
  • In both a symbolic meal was taken.
  • In both cases each group is saved through a mediator – Moses and Jesus
    respectfully.
  • God’s covenant is remembered in both cases i.e. Old testament and new
    covenant respectfully.
  • In both the religious significance of the feasts is taught and emphasized.

    Differences:

  • In the Passover feast, animal sacrifice is offered while in the Lord’s
    Supper, Jesus was the last sacrifice and instead bread and wine are offered to represent his blood and body.
  • Whereas the Jewish Passover was compulsory for every few, the Lord’s
    Supper is not compulsory in all Christian churches.
  • The blood shed in the Jewish Passover is for the salvation of the Jews
    only while the blood of Jesus shed on the cross is for the salvation of the whole human race.
  • Passover lamb offered in Hebrew while Jesus was the lamb offered in
    the Lord’s Supper.

    Qn d. Describe how the Sinai covenant was made

  • The Israelites arrived at Mt Sinai through God’s saving power.
  • Moses was instructed by God to tell the elders to do the following in
    preparation for the making of the covenant.
  • All Israelites were to cleanse themselves and wash their garments.
  • Mark the boundaries of the mountain and avoid going near or crossing
    the border.
  • Avoid sexual relations between married couple.

    Note: All these happened after Moses had gone up the mountain and God had promised to make the Israelites the following if they obeyed him.

    i. His people

    ii. A kingdom of priests

    iii. A holy nation

  • On the third day after cleansing, Moses took the Israelites to meet their
    God.

    God manifested himself in the following forms: thunder, lightening, earthquake and a thick cloud that filled the mountain and a loud trumpet blast.

  • Moses came down and told people about the laws which was to guide
    them as a covenant people.
  • The people agreed to obey all the words the Lord had spoken (Ex 24: 3 – 4)
  • Thus the covenant was made.

    Qn e. Describe the circumstances that led to the breaking of the Sinai
    engagement

  • Moses went up the mountain to receive the stone tablets on which the
    Ten Commandments where written. He delayed (40 days) thus forgetting God.
  • The Israelites became impatient.

    They forgot the saving power of God
    that had delivered them from Egypt.

  • Aaron was a weak leader who failed to lead the people to uphold the
    covenant.

    He yielded to their demands to make and worship idols.

  • Availability of gold jewellery: used to make the calf image.
  • Idolatry was a practice done while in Egypt so they copied/continued
    with it.
  • They were used to God’s (idols). They could see while in Egypt unlike
    the Yahweh who was invisible.

    Qn f. How was the broken covenant renewed?

  • Moses pleaded to God not to destroy the Israelites.
  • God spared them.
  • God commanded the Israelites to cut two stone tablets where he would
    rewrite the commandments.
  • God gave conditions to be fulfilled by the Israelites in the renewal of the
    covenant.

    These were:

    a) To obey God’s command.

    b) Not to make treaties with other nations.

    c) To tear down the altars of the gods of other nations and temples.

    d) Not to worship idols.

    e) Not to make images to represent God.

    f) Not to marry foreign wives.

    g) To keep and celebrate the three festivals namely, Passover, feast of
    weeks and the feast of in gathering.

    h) To keep the Sabbath day holy.

    i) Dedicate to God 1st born male children and animals.

  • God promised that if they obeyed Him, He would:

    a) Protect and preserve them

    b) Bless them

    c) Make them prosper

  • After this Moses was ordered by God to write a new set of Laws on the
    stone tablets.
  • Thus the covenant was renewed.

    Qn g. Describe how the Israelites worshipped God in the wilderness

  • Worship is the practice of showing respect and love for God.

    The Israelites showed their respect and love for God in the wilderness in
    the following ways: –

    1) The Ark and the Tabernacle: The Ark was a wooden box where the
    Ten Commandments were kept.

    They signified the presence of God. The tabernacle was a portable tent for
    meeting between God and the Israelites.

    2) The Sabbath: They observed the Sabbath as a sacred day for resting
    and worshipping God.

    3) Festivals: Celebrated many festivals as one way of worshipping God.
    Par exemple. Passover.

    4) Altars – built them when there was need to worship God – meeting
    place between God and the people and sacrifice to God.

    5) Observance of the Ten Commandments. These guided them on how to
    live with God and man.

    6) Religious leaders: God chose priest from the tribe of Levi to organize
    worship.

    Qn h. What is the relevance of the Ten Commandments to Christian
    today?

  • Christians learn that God is a jealous God. They avoid holding other
    things in their lives strong in the place of God.
  • Christians learn that God is unique and cannot be represented by visible
    man-made objects or described in human terms.
  • They are reminded to observe the Sabbath by worshipping God.
  • They strive to have a good relationship with God.
  • They are taught to respect other people and their property.
  • They learn that long life is a result of honoring and respecting their
    Parents.
  • They strive to live upright and moral lives.
  • They learn that lust for money and other property is sinful.

    Qn i. What did the Israelites learn about God in the wilderness?

  • They learned that God is faithful. He keeps promises.
  • A provider – provided manna, water etc.
  • God is the controller of natural forces e.g. Red sea, a pillar of cloud &
    fire, earthquakes etc.
  • A jealous God – no worship of other gods.
  • Just – forgave those who broke the covenant and punished those who
    refused to repent.
  • Merciful and compassionate. Give them a 2nd chance after breaking the
    covenant.
  • A God of victory – helped them defeat Amalekites.

    God valued a personal relationship – commandments given.

    Topic Five: Leadership in Israel

    Qn a. Explain the reasons against Kingship in Israel (1 Sam 8:10 – 20)

  • The King would force the sons of the Israelites to serve him as soldiers
    in the army.
  • The King would create forced labour and enslavement by making the
    young men work in his farms and in making weapons.

    Daughters would work in his house.

  • He would also grab their land and give it to his loyal servants.
  • He would overtax them in order to maintain his administration.
  • It would be seen as a rejection of Yahweh as their King.
  • Israel would be like other nations who did not know Yahweh.
  • Yahweh would reject them when they cried to him.

    Qn b. Explain the importance of David as King of Israel

  • David was important because he was chosen by God and publicly
    anointed by elders in a religion ceremony. He too became ancestor of many communities.
  • David was a great musician and wrote many songs for promising God.
  • He killed Goliath the philistine soldier.
  • He conquered the enemies of Israel such as Amalekites, Ammonites etc.
  • He expanded Israel through his military conquests and marked the
    boundaries of the nation.
  • He captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it a capital city.
  • He too made it a religious centre by placing the Ark of the Covenant
    there, which had been housed – Abidjab’s.
  • He had good diplomatic relationship with other nations.
  • He encouraged trade with other nations thus making Israel prosperous.
  • He was a shrewd administrator who chose wise elders to advise him.
  • He was filled with the Holy Spirit.
  • He established the largest and most enduring dynasty that lasted 400
    years.
  • He composed the books of Psalms used to praise God.
  • Whenever he wronged God, he genuinely repented and humbled
    himself before God.
  • He was a just ruler.
  • He respected the prophets of God and consulted them before making
    decisions.
  • He was prayerful and consulted God in his undertakings.
  • He united the twelve (12) tribes of Israel.
  • He set a good example of faithfulness to Yahweh that he wanted all the
    Israelites to emulate.

    Qn c. How did Jesus fulfil the prophecies of prophet Nathan as a
    descendant of David? (i.e. Areas where Jesus is mentioned as coming from David)

  • Angel Gabriel announced the birth of Jesus to Mary who was engaged
    to Joseph, a descendant of David.

    The Angel referred to Jesus as the King whose wisdom would last forever (Lk 1:26-33).

  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem – the birth place of David (Lk 2: 4 – 5)
  • Abraham and David are mentioned as the ancestors of Jesus.
  • During the triumphant entry into Jerusalem, the crowds who met him
    sang with joy and shouted ‘Hosanna to the son of David.’
  • On the days of Pentecost when Peter addressed the crowd, he referred to
    Jesus as a descendant of David (Acts:2 29-35).
  • Zechariah in his Benedictus, says that God has promised a savior
    descended from the house of David (Lk 1:69)
  • The blind man at Jericho referred to Jesus as the son of David (Lk 18:38).

    Qn d. What was the failure of King Solomon?

  • Solomon was the 2nd King of Israel, succeeding his father King David.

    He failed to live according to the covenant way of life in the following ways.

  • He married foreign wives thus breaking the Toral that clearly stated that
    the Israelites should not marry foreigners because they can come with their gods – idols.
  • He allowed the wives to worship their gods (idols) thus leading to
    spread of idolatry in Israel.
  • He not only worshipped the gods of his wives but also built temple for
    their worship.
  • He, by worshipping the gods became a bad example to Israel, as King.
    They copied him.
  • Although he built God’s temple, he erred in many ways:

    i. He built his palace for 13 years but took only 7 years to build God’s
    temple. Shows he loved himself more the God.

    ii. He used foreign designs and materials in the construction of the temple,
    ignoring God’s specifications on how to build it.

    iii. He liaised pagan craftsmen from Tyre to design, decorate and furnish
    the temple.

  • He broke the sixth commandment by killing his half brother, Adonijah.
    He suspected that Adonijah would become his rival to the throne.
  • He spent a lot of Israel’s money on his lavish lifestyle. He had a large
    army and servants.
  • He overtaxed the people to meet the amount.
  • He used forced labour in his development projects.
  • He enslaved young men and women who went to work in the palace as
    servants for the wives.
  • He practiced nepotism. He exempted them from forced labour.
  • He sold part of Israel – sold 20 towns of Galilee to King of Tyre as
    payment of a debt he could not pay contrary to God’s command.
  • He made treaties with other nations that were against the condition set
    during the renewal of the Sinai covenant.
  • In the above ways, he oppressed the people of God.
    Qn e. Which leadership qualities can modern leaders learn from David?
  • Justice: A good leader is one who does not favour some people like
    David (I Sam 24: 1 – 12).
  • Courage: David showed this while fighting Goliath. Leaders need to be
    brave and courageous in their work (I Sam 17:41 – 54).
  • Fear of God and Faith: David consulted God before any undertaking.
    Leaders should do the same.
  • Gratitude: David was thankful to blessings he received. Leaders should
    be happy and grateful to God.
  • Loyalty: Modern leaders should remain loyal to their office. David was
    loyal to God and his people (2 Sam 2:7)
  • Kindness: Good leaders should show mercy to their people like David
    did e.g. he forgave Saul twice (2 Sam 19: 9 – 39).
  • Humility: Leaders should not hesitate to ask for forgiveness from God
    and people. David was humble and asked for forgiveness any time he went wrong.
  • Willingness to delegate:

    Learn to delegate future as David did (2 Sam
    20: 23 – 26)

  • Wisdom: Be wise in choosing legal advisers as David did.
  • Respect: Leaders should show respect to God and preaches those they
    serve as David did to the prophets and his people.

    Topic Six: Loyalty to God- Elijah.

    Qn a. Qualities of Elijah that led to his achievements

    • Elijah was fearless and courageous.

    His courage helped him to face king
    Ahab and queen Jezebel and condemn them for their wickedness such as corruption and idolatry.

    • He was faithful to God. Yahweh guided him in his dealings with Baal
    prophets and king Ahab.

    • He lived a simple life. For example, he wore simple clothing made of
    carmel’s skin.

    • He stood for the covenant at a time when the religion of Yahweh was in
    danger.

    • He had the power of God in him and was able to control rain.

    • He confirmed that Yahweh had authority over land and over the people.

    b) Schism is sharp religious, social, political differences within a group or
    organization Syncretism is the process of mixing religious beliefs and practices.

    c) Some characteristics of Elijah that a modern Christian should strive to emulate.

    1) Courage

    2) Faithfulness

    3) Zealousness for God

    4) Concern for the needy / poor

    5) Provision of social justice

    6) Patience

    Qn d. What were the effects of idolatry in Israel?

  • Syncretism developed where the Israelites worshipped Yahweh
    alongside the gods of Canaan.
  • The Israelites started calling Yahweh by the names used for Canaanites
    gods e.g. El.
  • The Israelites started naming their children after Canaanite gods like Baal.
  • They changed their religion calendar and celebration to correspond with
    their Canaanite celebrations and feasts.
  • They converted the high places used for worshipping Baal to Yahweh’s
    shrines without removing the graven images of idols.
  • The unity that existed between the two tribes of Israel was destroyed.
    They no longer treated one another as brothers.
  • The Kings of Israel behaved like the Canaanites leaders by oppressing
    the weak and grabbing other people’s property.
  • The people neglected Yahweh’s holy places.
  • God’s prophets were mistreated, persecuted and even killed.
  • God withdrew his blessings from the Israelites because they angered
    Him by worshipping other gods.
  • They broke God’s commandments, which forbade worship of other god
    a part from Yahweh.
  • The Israelites practiced temple prostitution and other Canaanites rituals
    and sacrifices.

    Qn e. Describe Elijah’s fight against false religion in Israel

  • Elijah rose to challenge false religion at a time when Baalism had
    become the official religion.
  • He prophesied a three and a half years drought because the people had
    turned away from Yahweh.
  • After the drought God appeared to Elijah and told him to go to King
    Ahab and tell him that the drought was as a result of idolatry in Israel.
  • Elijah requested the King to order all the people to meet at Mt Carmel
    to hold a contest.
  • Elijah asked the King to invite the 400 prophets of Asherah and Baal’s
    450, saw that they could prove who the true God is.
  • Elijah would sacrifice a bull and the false prophets would too sacrifice
    their own to call on their Gods to send fire.

    The one who could send is the true God.

  • The prophets of Baal were the 1st to pray to their god but he never sent
    fire.
  • The prophets cut themselves with knives to please their god but he
    never sent it.
  • Elijah then prepared the altar with 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes
    of Israel.
  • He dug a trench around the altar, placed wood and put the cut bull on
    top of the wood.
  • He ordered for water to be poured around the trenches until it flooded.
  • Then in the evening Elijah prayed and called upon the God of Abraham,
    Isaac and Jacob to send fire.
  • Fire came and consumed the whole sacrifice, including the water in the
    trenches.
  • As a result, the Israelites bowed down and declared that Yahweh was
    the true God.
  • Then Elijah ordered the killing of all the prophets of Baal and the
    prophetesses of Asherah.
  • Elijah went to the top of the Mt Carmel and prayed for rain. Yahweh
    sent His servant to watch for the sign of rain from the sea.
  • The servant looked towards the sea seven times after, which he saw a
    small cloud forming.
  • Then heavy rain fell, signaling end of drought.

    Qn f. Describe Elijah’s fight against corruption – 1 Kings 21

  • Corruption: Can be defined as dishonesty or misuse of power for
    personal gain.
  • In a corrupt society, the rich and powerful people tend to take advantage
    of the weak/poor by exploiting them and denying them their rights.
  • King Ahab of Israel desired a fruitful vineyard owned by a man named
    Naboth.
  • King Ahab approached Naboth to sell him the vineyard or exchange
    with another one.
  • Naboth declined the offer because in Israel, selling ancestral land was
    against the covenant law.

    The land belonged to God.

  • Jezebel, Ahab’s wife, soon learned, Naboth’s refusal and she arranged
    Naboth’s murder through false accusations.
  • After Naboth was killed, Ahab possessed the vineyard.
  • God commanded Elijah to go and declare His judgement on Ahab for
    committing such an evil act in Israel.

    Elijah declared the following judgement on Ahab:

    i. Dogs would lick Ahab’s blood at the same place where they had licked
    Naboth’s.

    ii. Ahab’s dynasty would fall kike those of the Kings before him who had
    disobeyed God.

    iii. All family members of Ahab would face violent deaths.

  • On hearing this, Ahab humbled himself before God and repented. Dieu
    postponed Ahab’s punishment to the days of his son.

    Qn g. What can Christian learn from the teachings of Elijah?

  • From the Mt Carmel incident, they learn that Yahweh controls the
    forces of nature – can bring rain or stop it.
  • Yahweh is the only true and living God – Mt Carmel.
  • Yahweh is forgiving – pardoned those who repented on Mt Carmel.
  • Yahweh is a jealous God. He will not share honor with any God – killed
    the 450 prophets worshipping Baal.
  • A prosecutor – protected Elijah.
  • A provider – provided Elijah with food.
  • Yahweh answers prayers. He is faithful.
  • They also learn that church leaders should condemn evil like Elijah did
    in the case of Ahab and Naboth.
  • Christians should work to protect the poor from exploitation.
  • They should be prayerful so that God can help them overcome
    difficulties like Elijah.
  • They should strive to lead lives free from corruption.
  • They should remain faithful even if it means costing their lives to
    Naboth.
  • Leaders should realize authority comes from God and are accountable
    to Him.
  • They should avoid idolatry, which Elijah condemned.
  • Perform tasks given by God however had they may be as Elijah did – facing Ahab, killing the 450 false prophets etc.
  • Finally, they should invite sinners to repeat and bring them back to God.

    Topic Seven: Selected Aspects of African Religious
    Patrimoine

    Question a: Explain African beliefs about God (or qualities)

  • African beliefs about their God are found in their proverbs, myths,
    songs, prayers, narratives and religious ceremonies.
  • God was believed to be a supreme being who was beyond human
    understanding.
  • The African communities believed that God was all-powerful –
    omnipotent.
  • They believed that God’s power is expressed in natural occurrences
    such as thunder, earthquake floods and volcanic eruptions.
  • God is believed to be all-knowing omniscient.
  • He is limitless and knows hears and sees everything.
  • He is also omnipresent – meaning he is everywhere at all times.
  • Transcendent – beyond human understanding.

    Because of the
    transcendent nature, Africans found it impossible to represent him using physical representations.

    They viewed him as being far yet too near them.

  • He was seen as the provider and sustainer of creation.
  • They believed that God is everlasting. He has no beginning or end.
  • God is merciful.
  • They believed he is incorruptible.
  • African communities associated God with justice.
  • Physical features were often seen as a representation of awesome power
    of God.

    This is why large mountains, thick forest, unique rock formation were used as shrines.

  • African viewed God to be mysterious.

    Qb. Describe the African understanding of the Hierarchy of Beings

    Hierarchy of Beings

    Divinities

  • Ancestors

  • Human Beings

  • Animals and Plants

  • Non-living Things

  • God as the creator occupies the highest rank in the hierarchy of being –
    creator.
  • The Divinities: Came next and control natural forces in the universe,
    created by God.
  • The Common Spirits: Comprise spirits of people who died long time
    depuis.
  • Ancestors: (living dead): Spirits of those who died recently and are still
    remembered by the living.
  • Human Beings: Consist of the living and the unborn.
  • Animals and Plants: Come next – for man’s use as food and sacrifice to
    God.
  • Last (7th) are Non-living things: Such as mountains, rocks, rivers,
    caves, dwelling places of God and Spirits.

    Qc. Describe the Role of the ancestors to the living

  • The ancestors acted as intermediaries between God and human beings.
  • They communicated the problems and wishes of human beings to God.
  • God and the spirits used the ancestors to express their wishes
    concerning human beings.
  • The ancestors welcomed those who died to the spirit world.
  • They helped to preserve the culture and standards of a community.
  • The ancestors blessed the living and corrected them through
    punishment.

    Qd. What was the responsibility of the living towards God?

  • To show gratitude to God and give thanks to him as an
    acknowledgement that He is the giver of life.
  • To honor, worship and adore God by praying to Him for their needs.
  • To pray to Him during or before a war, before planting, etc.
  • To obey and trust Him.
  • To take care of God’s creation.
  • To teach children about God.
  • Appease him through sacrifice.

    Qe. Describe the Traditional African ways of worshipping God

  • Sacrifice: They were used to ask God’s favour, thanksgiving, to avert
    evil and ask for forgiveness,before planting and after harvest, epidemics, birth, naming, invitation,weddings, funerals etc for different reasons.
  • Offerings: Foodstuffs e.g. grain, honey, beer, milk was offered in
    recognition of God as owner of property and provider.
  • Prayers and invocations: Commonest act of worship. A continuation
    activity done anytime as the need arises.
  • Song and dance: People were involved both physically and spiritually.
    This brought the city together.
  • Blessings and Salutations: Expressed in greetings and farewells e.g. “Go
    with God”, God be with you”.

    Qf. What were the African ways of venerating and communicating with
    the spirits and ancestors?

  • Venerating means showing respect to somebody
  • Spirits and ancestors were venerated because they were believed to be
    senior to human beings and closer to God.
  • Sacrifices were offered to them as the ways of venerating them.
  • Pouring libation was done.
  • The living invited them during ceremonies such as birth, invitation,
    marriage and burial.
  • They consulted diviners, mediums and medicine men to keep in contact.
  • The living named after them – thus they became immortal and members
    in the physical world again.
  • Their names were mentioned during prayer.
  • By maintaining their graves.

    Giving them proper burial ceremonies.

    Topic Eight: African Moral and Cultural Values.

    Qa. What is the significance of the kinship system?

  • Kinship means being related either by blood or marriages.

    The kinship system was important in the traditional African society
    because of the following factors.

  • The kinship system regulated people’s behavior towards each other.
    This promoted peaceful and harmonious relationships.
  • It promoted co-operation among community members especially in
    times of difficulty.
  • It helped to ensure that the disadvantaged members of the community
    were taken care of.
  • The living dead and the ancestors were part of the African kinship
    système.

    This showed concern or the families or relatives they left behind.

  • The kinship system led to the preservation of cultural identity.
  • It provided a peaceful way of settling disputes with the elders acting as
    arbitrators.
  • It ensured fairness and transparency in sharing out inheritance.
  • The kinship system united the members of a family and clan by giving
    them a sense of belonging.
  • It helped people to establish new relationship, especially through
    marriage.
  • Kinship ties regulated marital customs rules and regulations. Personnes
    who were related in any way could not be allowed to marry.

    Qb. Outline and explain factors contributing to harmony and mutual
    responsibility in the Traditional African Society.

  • Good morals: Every member of the community was expected to do the
    right thing according to the norms of the community.
  • Participation in communal activities: Means of the community were
    expected to participate in communal activities e.g. wrestling, dances and communal work.
  • Sharing: People shared ideas and even property, which created harmony
    among the people.
  • Division of labour: Tasks were distributed according to one’s age;
    gender to avoid conflicts in roles.
  • Rules: In Traditional African Communities, elders, men youth, and
    women had their respective roles to play that enhanced harmony in the community.
  • Virtues: Virtues like generosity, obedience, kindness and honesty were
    encouraged since they contributed towards harmonious living.
  • Religious beliefs and practices: A common belief in God, the spirits and
    ancestors created a sense of togetherness.

    Qc. What was the purpose of bride wealth in the Traditional African
    Society?

  • It was a way of thanking the bride’s family for taking good care of her.
  • It was a form of compensation to the bride’s parents because the woman would now belong to another family.
  • It was a sign of contract that the man would marry the girl and they
    would live together until death.
  • It represented evidence of the groom’s ability to take care of a wife and
    a family.
  • It was a sign of generosity on the side of the man.
  • It initiated a long-lasting friendship between the families of the groom
    and the bride.
  • It cemented a marriage.
  • It was a symbol of the marriage covenant between the bride and the
    groom.
  • Bride wealth served as an outward seal of the marriage contract.

    Qd. Explain the role of medicine-men in the African Communities and
    their relevant today

    1) Medicine men

  • They are also referred to as healers, herbalists or traditional doctors.
  • They identified illness and their causes.
  • They identified appropriate treatment and prevention measures for the
    illness.
  • They averted the effects of a curse.
  • They offered sacrifices and prayers to God and the ancestors.
  • They prepared charms for protection against witchcraft and evil spirits.
  • They gave medicine to increase fertility in both people and animals.
  • They acted as counselors, guiding people on all issues of life.

    2) Relevance of Modern Society

  • Modern medicine has not fully displaced herbalists.
  • Medical doctors and scientific researchers today work side by side with
    traditional healers since herbs.

    are used to make modern medicine.

  • Some people still believe that there are some illnesses that cannot be
    treated in hospitals hence; they turn to herbalists.
  • Some people also believe that medicine people who practice magic have
    the power to change their fate.

    Form Two
    God Meets Us in Jesus Christ
    St. Luke’s Gospel
    introduction

    Matthew, Mark, Luke and John record the life of Jesus Christ and his
    ministry in the four Gospel books.

    We shall trace the life, and ministry of Jesus Christ as written by St Luke
    to Theophilus. St Luke was a medical doctor.

    Topic One: Old Testament Prophesies About the Messiah
    Introduction: Read 2 Samuel 7:13, Isaiah 7:10-16

    Messiah

    The word Messiah is from a Hebrew word meshiach, which nmeans the anointed: thus a Messiah is one called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him.

    Prophecy:

    A prophecy refers to a prediction of what will happen in future.

    Messianic Prophecies:

    These are those predictions that were made by the
    prophets to describe the coming of a righteous King who will rule Israel according to God’s will.

  • The origin of the Messianic prophecies in the Bible starts with prophet
    Nathan’s prophecy to King David.

    REMARQUE:

    The Roman ruled the Israelites before the birth of Jesus. They hated the
    Roman leadership and longed for somebody of their own to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

    The prophet of Israel (the Old Testament) communicated a message that
    God would send a messiah to bring all people into a lasting relationship with Him.

    The prophets who were sent had different ideas about the Messiah.

    Their ideas about the Messiah were different from the Jewish expectations – whereby they hoped for political King to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

    But the prophets
    were talking about a religious one – to free them from sin.

    Topic Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of the
    Messiah.

    b) Relate the concept of the Messiah in the Old and New testaments.

    c) Explain the link between the Old and the New Testament.

    d) Discuss the role of John the Baptist.

    Lesson One. Old Testament Prophesies About the
    Coming of the Messiah.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    describe prophesies of Nathan

    Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah concerning the
    Messiah

    (i) Nathan’s Prophecy (2 Samuel 7:3 – 17) and (Psalms 89: 20 – 38).

    David proposed to build God a house.

    Nathan, the prophet was given a
    message (an oracle) for David.

    In this prophecy, God told Nathan to tell King David that:

  • God would ensure that the Kingdom of David would last forever.
  • An heir from David’s lineage would rule.
  • David’s heir shall build a house for God’s name.

    God would establish
    the throne of his Kingdom forever.

  • David heir shall be God’s son and God shall be his father.
  • David house and Kingdom shall be established forever.

    David died. But God’s mercy shall not depart from the heir of David.

    Hence the promise that the Kingdom of David, shall last forever referred to the messiah who was to come.

    David is an ancestor of Christ.

    (ii) Isaiah’s Prophecy – Isaiah 7: 10 – 16; 9: 1- 7; 61:1 –2; and 63.

    In these readings, Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would be:

  • Born of a virgin
  • A boy, born of a virgin and called ‘Emmanuel’ that is ” God with us”
  • A Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, The everlasting Father, and the
    Prince of Peace.
  • The Spirit of God inside him.
  • Anointed of God.
  • Sent to preach the good news to the poor, to bring liberty to the
    captives, proclaim the year of favour from God.
  • Isaiah also prophesied that the Messiah would be the suffering servant (Isaiah 53).

    Characteristics of the Suffering Servant – Isaiah 53

  • He would bear the sins of human kind.
  • He was oppressed, afflicted, despised, rejected of men.
  • He bore suffering and disgrace submissively.
  • He was mocked and spat on and wounded.
  • He was innocent of sin and yet treated as a criminal.
  • He was pierced and wounded in the sides.
  • He was crucified with thieves and made intercession for the sinners.
  • He was buried in a rich man’s tomb.

    iii. Jeremiah’s Prophecy- Jeremiah 23: 5 – 6.

    God promised to rise up a (branch) who shall:

  • Choose as King, a righteous descendant of David.
  • Prosper.
  • Rule wisely, do what is right, and just in the world.
  • Execute justice on the earth.
  • Ensure that Judah and Israel are safe and live in peace.
  • Be called ‘the God our righteousness” – “The Lord our salvation’.

    What does the term a ‘righteous branch ‘means?

    iv. Micah’s Prophesy, (Micah 5: 1 – 5).

    Micah prophesied that:

  • The Messianic King shall come from Bethlehem.
  • He shall lead with authority.
  • He will bring peace.

    v. The Psalmist Prophecy (Psalm 41:9 and 110:1 –2).

    David spoke of

  • Betrayal by a close friend.
  • Messiah is referred to as ‘ the Lord’.
  • The messiah shall rule/reign in the midst of enemies.

    Sommaire

    Nathan, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah
    prophesied of a Messiah to come.

    The Jews expected a Messiah who would be a political leader, a victorious ruler and a King. They expected a
    Messiah:

  • Who would lead his people into a time of great national power and
    prosperity;
  • In whose reign, there shall be no illness, no sorrow, no injustice,.
  • In whose reign, there shall be no fear.
  • In whose reign, land shall be filled with joy and peace
  • Who shall rule forever.

    Revision questions

    1) Describe the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning the Messiah

    2) What does the term Messiah mean?

    3) Highlight the Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old
    Testament?

    4) Did Jesus Christ fulfill the O.T. prophecies concerning the Messiah?
    Comment?

    5) Which prophets in the Old Testament prophesied about the expected
    Messiah?

    Lesson Two. The Concept of the Messiah in the New
    Testament

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament

    The concept of messiah is found in Luke 1:26 – 38; 2:1-23; 23:1 – 35;
    24:50 – 51.

    The writer of Luke’s
    Gospel makes it clear that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies
    concerning the coming of the Messiah.

    How did He do this? Well Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies because;

  • Jesus was born from the lineage of David (Mathew 1)
  • Angle Gabriel said the child to be born shall rule forever (Luke 1:32)

    Nathan’s prophecy

  • Jesus was born of Mary a Virgin, as pre told by Isaiah 7:14
  • Messiah is called Emmanuel, Isaiah’s prophecy. Mathew 1:18 – 25
  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy
  • The Messiah would be a ‘Son of David’ – Nathan, and Jeremiah
    prophesies.

    Jesus was referred to as a‘Son of David’ (Luke 18:38)

  • Jesus would bring salvation said by Simeon during dedication of Jesus.

    Luke 2:29 – 32.

    This was a fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy.

  • Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah by reading the scroll. Isaiah
    61:1 – 2. and Luke 4: 18 – 19
  • Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would perform miracles. Jésus
    performed many miracles.
  • The prophecy of the suffering servant (Isaiah 53) was fulfilled through
    the passion, death and crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
  • We see Jesus betrayed by one of his disciples – friend, fulfilling the
    Psalmist prophecy.

    Note that the Jews in the New Testament expected a messiah who would
    deliver them from the rule of the Romans.

    Jews expected Jesus to be a political leader or king.

    However, Peter called him ‘the Christ of God’ (Luke 9:20). Matthew called him King of the Jews in chapter (2 verse 2). Hence, Jesus came as a
    Spiritual Leader and King, and not as a political Leader / King.

    Self-Assessment Questions

    1. What does the name Emmanuel mean?

    2. Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament?

    Lesson Three. Annunciation of the Birth of John the
    Baptist
    introduction

    The parents of John the Baptist were Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth.
    Zechariah’s name meant ‘God has remembered’.

    Elizabeth’s name meant ‘God has sworn’.
    Learning outcome.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to
    describe the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist and Jesus.

    John the Baptist

    1. The Annunciation – Read – Luke 1:5 – 25.

    Zechariah was a priest. He and his wife Elizabeth were old, good and
    righteous people of God.

    But they did not have a child. They were barren. But God gave them a child, John the Baptist.

    His birth was announced to his father, Zechariah, when he was in the temple offering incense.

    An Angel appeared to Zechariah and told him that his prayers had been heard.

    His wife Elizabeth will bear a son.

    The angel said
    the child would be called John, which means that ‘God is gracious’.

    The child

  • Will be set aside to serve God.
  • Will be filled with the Holy Spirit As an adult, John.
  • Will be a Nazarite. He should neither cut his hair nor drink wine.
  • Shall turn many hearts of people to the Lord their God.
  • Shall also turn the hearts of the fathers to their children Zachariah expressed unbelief to these words.

    Angel Gabriel told him that he shall be dumb until the
    fulfillment of the God’s words.

    The Birth, Circumcision and Naming Of John the Baptist
    Elizabeth brought forth a son.

    This brought great joy to her and
    Zachariah.

    The cousins, and neighbours of Elizabeth wanted the Child to be named Zechariah after the father.

    But Elizabeth insisted on the name John.

    When Zechariah was asked to name the child, he wrote down the name John.

    On the 8th day, the child was named John as the angel had said.

    John was circumcised on the 8th day according to
    the Jewish traditions.

    After naming his Child John, the mouth of Zechariah opened immediately
    and he started to speak.

    He sung a song – referred to as Benedictus in Luke 1:67 – 79. As he sung the Benedictus,

    Zechariah prophesied that God has:

  • Raised up a horn of salvation on the house of David.
  • Remembered his covenant with Abraham.

    Zechariah said this about his Child John:

  • He shall be the prophet of the most high.
  • The child/John shall prepare the way of the lord by.

    (i) Calling men to forgiveness.

    (ii) Showing men the light of salvation.

    (iii) Guiding people into peace.

    Lesson Four. The Role of John the Baptist

    The role of John the Baptist is found in Isaiah 40: 3 – 5, Malachi 3:1, 4:5 – 6, and Luke 7: 20 – 35. 143

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    describe the role of John the Baptist in the Gospel.

    John the Baptist had an important role to play according to the Angel who
    announced his coming birth.

    His role was to: .

  • Be a Prophet with qualities of Elijah (see Malachi 3:1, 4:5)
  • Announce the good news to come just like Elijah did.
  • Be the link between the Old Testament and New Testament.
  • Prepare the way for the Lord.
  • Announce the coming of God’s reign that was near.
  • Preach a baptism of repentance.
  • Baptize with water.
  • Introduce people, and his disciples to the Messiah – Jesus Christ.
  • Fulfil the Prophecy of Elijah that a messenger was sent before the
    coming of the Messiah.

    John the Baptist was likened to Elijah.

    Topic review questions

    1. Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah.

    2. Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?

    3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of John
    the Baptist?

    4.describe the birth of John the Baptist.

    Topic Two: the Infancy and Early Life of Jesus – Luke 1:26 – 38

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:

    une. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

    b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

    c. Describe the birth of Jesus

    ré. Explain the dedication of Jesus

    e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

    une. Angel Gabriel announces the birth of Jesus.

    Angel Gabriel said that
    Mary would conceive and bear a child.

    Angel Gabriel called Mary ‘ the highly favoured one’. Mary was an ordinary virgin girl in Galilee engaged to marry Joseph, a descendant of David.

    The Angel said that Mary will bear

    (i) A Son

    (ii) called Jesus (which means God serves.

    (iii) The child shall be great

    (iv) He shall be called the son of the highest.

    (v) He shall be given the throne of his father David

    (vi) He shall reign
    pour toujours

    (vii) His kingdom will never end.

    Read again and explain what angel Gabriel said concerning the child to be
    born to Mary?

    b. Mary visits Elizabeth. Luke 1:39-56

    Angel Gabriel had told Mary that her cousin Elizabeth was also going to
    have a child.

    Mary went to visit her.

    The child in Elizabeth’s womb leaped when Mary greeted Elizabeth.

    The Holy Spirit revealed to Elizabeth that Mary is the mother of her Lord, the Messiah.

    Mary answered Elizabeth by singing the
    hymn “The Protector” in Psalm 121:3, The Love of God. Psalm 103:17, 98:3.

    The Magnificent. In this hymn Mary says:

    Her soul magnifies the Lord.

    The Lord has regarded the poor and those of low estate.

    God’s mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.

    God humbles the proud and mighty, and exalts those of low estate (the
    lowly) God has filled the hungry and sent the rich away empty
    Through the magnificent, Mary, expresses her joy, gratitude and favour
    given to her and the world.

    c. The birth of Jesus Christ. Luke.2: 1 – 20

    The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of
    Augustus Caesar, a Roman Emperor.

    During that time, Rome was conducting a census of the people / citizens for the purpose of collecting taxes.

    The census was ordered by the emperor to determine payment of taxes.

    The method that Rome was using was counting. Joseph, of the house of David went to his hometown, called Bethlehem; for the census. Jesus was born during this time.

    He was wrapped in swaddling clothes and
    laid in a manger because there was no accommodation in Bethlehem.

    The first people to receive the news that a Savior was born were the
    shepherds.

    An angel announced the birth of the Savior, Christ the lord, to the shepherds.

    The shepherdswent to Bethlehem and saw the child Jesus. They spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.

    How was the annunciation of the birth of Jesus extraordinary?

    ré. The dedication of Jesus – Luke..2: 22 – 38

    Like John the Baptist, Jesus was circumcised, and named on the 8th day.
    He was named Jesus which means ‘the savior’ or Yahweh or save’s.

    Mary and Joseph observed the Jewish customs according to the Law of Moses.

    For her purification and dedication of the child Jesus, Mary brought a pair of turtledoves as an offering.

    The fist born males were dedicated to God as Holy.

    Simeon took the child up in his arms for dedication and said that:

    “The child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel.

    A Sword will
    pierce Mary’s soul on account of the child.” Prophet Anna also came to the temple and prophesied that the child shall bring deliverance.

    e. Jesus at the Temple Luke 2:42 – 52

    The parents of Jesus Mary and Joseph, went to Jerusalem every year for
    the feast of the Passover.

    When Jesus was 12, he accompanied them to Jerusalem. After the feast the parents went home without realizing that their child, Jesus was not with them. But while on the way, they realized he was not amongest them.

    They returned to Jerusalem, and looked for him for 3 days.

    They found
    him sitting in the temple; listening and asking teachers questions.

    All those who were in the temple were astonished by his wisdom and intelligence.

    It is in the temple that Jesus is revealed, first as a true son of his people and also as light and salvation for all people. On being questioned by Mary and Joseph, Jesus answered thus:

    ”Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house, about my Father’s
    business?” This was an echo of Malachi 3:1 “the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple”.

    Answer these questions

    1 Trace occasions when angels appeared to people in the new testament.

    2 How did Jesus follow the customs and traditions of the Jewish people?

    Réponses
    1. Occasions when angels appeared to people in the New Testament.

    (a) Angel appeared to Zechariah to announce birth of John the Baptist

    (b) Angel appeared to Mary to announce the birth of Jesus Christ.

    (c) Angels appeared to the shepherds on the night Jesus was born.

    (d) Angel appeared to Joseph in a dream warning him to flee to Egypt
    with the child and Mary.

    2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people

    (i) He was named on the 8th day

    (ii) He was circumcised on the 8th day

    (iii) His parents took him to the temple for the annual cerebrations of the.

    Passover

    (iv) He went to the synagogue

    (v) In his dedication as a first male, his parents offered the sacrifices expected from them.

    Topic Review Questions

    1. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

    b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

    c. Describe the birth of Jesus

    ré. Explain the dedication of Jesus

    e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

    Topic Three. The Galilean Ministry – Luke 3-8

    John the Baptist and Jesus Christ

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

    a) Explain the teachings of John the Baptist.

    b) Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to
    Christians today.

    c) Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth.

    d) Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum.

    Lesson One. The Preaching of John the Baptist (Luke3: 1 – 20)

    John the Baptist preached about

    une. Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Baptism means to dip
    in water’. Repentance means‘change of heart/mind, turning around.

    Baptism was a symbol of
    repentance, which means a total change heart/mind, a confession of sins).

    Baptism of water was a preparation of the baptism of fire and Holy Spirit by Jesus.

    b. He warned people of God’s coming Judgment.

    The religious leaders stressed outward observance of the law rather than inner righteousness. John the Baptist told them to bear
    fruits worthy of repentance.

    He told them to live righteous lives and not as hypocrites (brood of
    vipers).

    Religious leaders also assumed that since they were descendants of Abraham, God would not punish them.

    He warned them that God could raise descendants of Abraham from stones.

    c) He announced the coming of the Messiah as Judge. John the Baptist became famous that some thought he is the promised messiah.

    He however pointed to a messiah who will not baptize with water but with the Holy Ghost and fire (Jesus Christ).

    d) He preached on social justice. He taught, emphasized, advised:

  • That those who have should share with those who do not have.
  • The need for fairness and honesty for example tax collectors not to collect more than what was required.
  • That soldiers should not to abuse their power by accusing others falsely,
    robbing. They were told to be content with their wages.

    e). He condemned King Herod’s immoral behaviour. King Herod had
    married Herodians – his own brother’s wife. Herod imprisoned John the Baptist and this led to his death (Luke 3 v.22).

    What does the term social justice mean?

    Find the answer in (d).

    Summary of the teachings of John the Baptist

  • He taught on repentance and forgiveness of sins.
  • He warned people of God’s coming judgment.
  • He announced the coming of the messiah who would be judge.
  • He preached on social justice. Those who have should share with the
    poor.
  • He emphasized the need for fairness and honesty.
  • He warned against abuse of power by those in power and authority.
  • He condemned taking of bribes, corruption and over taxation.
  • He condemned sexual immorality (adultery).

    Relevance of the teachings of John the Baptist to Christians today
    The teachings challenge Christians to be fair, honest, and just in their
    dealings with other people.

    Christians should avoid being hypocritical to one another.

    Christians need
    to know that God will judge them for their wrongdoing. Hence Christian should repent their sins sincerely and seek forgiveness.

    Christians should warn non-believers of the coming judgment.

    They should preach against evils without fear; and avoid corruption, and sexual immorality.

    Christians should live together in harmony.

    Baptism was important to Christians.

    Group Activity. Read Luke and find out how John the Baptist was killed,
    why and by whom

    Lesson Two. The Baptism of Jesus and Its Relevance
    Aujourd'hui

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    une. Describe the baptism of Jesus Christ.

    b. Give reasons why Jesus was baptized.

    c. State relevance or the importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

    une. The baptism of Jesus Christ (Luke 3: 21 – 22)

    When Jesus was around 30 years of age, He went to be baptized by John
    the Baptist.

    Jesus was the last to be baptized.

    Although he did not need to repent as He did not sin ; He nevertheless was baptized even though He was without sin.

    When he was baptized, the heaven opened and the Holy Ghost descended
    on Him in the form of a dove.

    At the same time, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased”.

    b. Reasons why Jesus was baptized. He was baptized because:

    une. Jesus wanted to show his approval of John’s Ministry of baptism.

    b. Jesus accepted the work of redemption of human kind to be completed
    through suffering and death.

    c. Jesus identified himself with the sinful humankind who needed redemption through baptism.

    ré. Jesus carried all the sins of humankind (baptized last).

    e. He wanted to carry sins of people/humankind upon himself in order to bring about reconciliation between people and God.

    f. God can confirm to the people that Jesus Christ was the messiah (Psalms 2:7).

    g. It was an act of preparing those who were ready to receive the Messiah.

    h. Baptism was a way of fulfilling the Old Testament prophecy.

    c. Relevance or the Importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

    1) Christians practice baptism. They follow example of Jesus baptism.

    There are many forms of baptism

    such as full immersion in water, sprinkling of water on the forehead,
    partial immersion (head only) and passing under a flag.

    2) Christians teach importance of baptism. It qualifies a new convert to
    become a member of Christian fellowship.

    3) Through baptism, Christians receive the power of the Holy Ghost.

    4) Through baptism, Christians identify themselves with Jesus Christ and
    all that he stands for.

    5) Baptism unites Christians in the body of Christ.

    6) Baptism is a symbol of death and resurrection. In some denominations,
    the baptized are given new names of other Christians and Jews.

    7) Baptism signifies the forgiveness of sins.

    Through baptism one is considered a child of God.

    9) Baptism is a form of preparation for the kingdom of God.

    10) Baptism is a sign of Christ’s forgiveness of sins.

    Lesson Revision questions

    une. What is the relevance of john the Baptist teaching to Christians today?

    b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

    c. Describe the baptism of Jesus

    ré. What is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today

    Lesson Three. Temptations of Jesus: Relevance to
    Christians Today
    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

    une. Narrate temptations of Jesus.

    b. State relevance of the temptations of Jesus to modern Christians.

    c. State lessons that Christians can learn from temptations of Jesus.

    une. The temptations of Jesus (Luke 4:1 – 13). Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit
    returned from Jordan into the desert. Like Elijah, Moses, He ate and drunk nothing for 40 days and nights.

    He was hungry after 40 days.

    It is at this time of weakness when the devil tempted Him.

    First temptation.

    The devil told Jesus to proof that He was the Son of God
    by turning the stones to become bread.

    Jesus however replied that it is written man does not live on bread alone to sustain him but on everything that the Lord says (Deut 8:3).

    Satan was telling Jesus to use his Messianic power and Spirit to obtain material security for himself and his followers for selfish, materialistic purposes.

    What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus was not seeking to establish a material paradise on earth.

    Second temptation.

    The devil led Jesus up to a high place (High
    Mountain) and showed Him in an instant all the Kingdoms of the world.

    He told Him that he would give Him all their authority and splendor, if He bows and worships Satan.

    Jesus replied… it is written worship the Lord your God and serve him only.

    Do not worship other gods (Deut.6: 13-14).

    Satan wanted Jesus to use Godly power and influence.

    This was idolatry i.e. worshipping other gods.

    What can we learn from this temptation?

    Jesus did not come to seek a
    worldwide political military reign as many Jews expected Him to do.

    Third Temptation.

    The Devil led Jesus to Jerusalem and had Him stand on
    the highest point of the temple.

    He told Jesus to throw Himself down if He was the Son of God for it is written that the Lord will command angels to guard him (Psalm 91:11 – 12). Jesus replied and said it is written, do not put the
    Lord your God to the test.

    Satan wanted Jesus to presume on God’s good
    care by jumping from the roof of the temple.

    What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus will not force belief in His
    Messiah ship through a spectacular sign.

    Notice that the temptations came after Jesus’ Baptism, where he had
    solemnly accepted the opening of his public ministry and God confirmed it.

    Therefore the temptations were a testing of his loyalty to God’s
    chosen way of life.

    b. Relevance of Jesus temptations to Christians.

    Jesus, though without sin was tempted.

    His followers must expect to be
    tested in their faith.

    Christians learn that it is not sinful to be tempted.

    Since Jesus was tempted, he understands Christian’s difficulties
    when they are tempted.

    Jesus is always ready to help Christians to cope with temptations.

    Why do you think Christians are tempted?

    Through temptations and trials, Christian’s faith in God is strengthened.
    Christians learn to refer to the Bible for guidance when tempted.

    Jesus said that it is written… in reference to scripture.

    Christians should seek the Holy Spirit to give them strength to fight any form of trials and temptations.

    Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit went to the wilderness and was tempted by
    the devil……………” In temptation, God does provide a way out.

    Thus followers of Jesus Christ
    (Christians) should not be seekers of spectacular signs.

    Lesson Four. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth
    Learning Outcomes.

    By the end of the lesson, you should

    une. Describe rejection of Jesus at Nazareth

    b. Suggest possible reasons for rejection

    une. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth (Luke 4:14 – 30).

    After the temptation, Jesus went to Galilee, His home district to begin his
    ministry.

    As a faithful Israelite,Jesus attended service in the synagogue every Sabbath day.

    During that time, it was customary for visiting Rabbis (Teachers of the law) to be given the honor of reading from the law or to address the congregation.

    When Jesus was given this opportunity, He opened the scroll and read from Isaiah 61: 1 – 3 …’The Sovereign Lord has filled me with his spirit.

    He has chosen me and sent me.’

    Luke writes in 4 18 “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has chosen me to bring good news to the poor”.

    On completion of the reading, Jesus told them that today this scripture has
    been fulfilled in their hearing.

    From this reading Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah.

    The people of
    Nazareth in indignation wanted to kill Jesus by throwing him over a cliff.

    b. Possible Reasons for Rejection.

    Jews of Nazareth rejected Jesus
    because one, they knew him as the son of Mary and Joseph. They did not know Him as the Son of God.

    Two, Jesus did not fit into the idea of a political King that the Jews were expecting.

    They were waiting for a King with an army and horses.

    Three, Jesus preaching was seen as being against that of Pharisees,Scribes and Sadducees: the religious leaders at that time.

    Four, Jesus pointed out evils of religious leaders.
    Five, a leader is never accepted at home especially in a superior or senior position.

    Six, Jesus did not follow the general rules of the Mosaic Law.

    These were fasting, healing and working on the Sabbath day.

    Worse still Jesus associated Himself with Jewish outcasts such as sinners, and the sick.

    Discussion question
    1. What are the possible reasons for rejection of Jesus at Nazareth?

    Réponses

    (i) He was known by people as son of Mary and Joseph.

    (ii) He did not fit in the idea of a political king that Jews were expecting.

    (iii) Often times one is not accepted at home and at a senior position.

    (iv) He did not follow the general rules of the law of Moses.

    (v) He associated with sinners, and outcasts.

    Lesson Five. Healing at Capernaum

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson:

    une. Describe Jesus’ healing at Capernaum

    b. Explain healing of a man possessed with an evil spirit

    c. Describe Jesus healing of Simon’s mother – in law

    une. Jesus’ healing at Capernaum LK. 4:31 – 44

    After his rejection in Nazareth and an attempt to throw him down a hill,
    Jesus went on to Capernaum.

    Here he cast out demons (Luke 4: 40 – 41).

    He was teaching people. Il
    performed many miracles of healing. Par exemple:

    i. Healing a man possessed by an evil spirit.

    A man was possessed by an
    unclean demon/spirit.

    He was in the synagogue.

    When he saw Jesus, the evil spirit shouted, “Ah! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy one of God” (Luke 4:34). Jesus replied, “Be silent and come out of him.” The Demon threw the man down and came out without doing
    any harm.

    The man was made whole.

    ii. Jesus heals Simon’s mother – in law. After Jesus left the synagogue, he
    went to the house of Simon.

    Peter’s mother in law. She had a fever, Jesus commanded the fever to
    leave and she was made whole immediately.

    Which lessons do Christians learn from the healings at Capernaum
    There are many lessons. These are that

    1) Jesus is the son of God.

    2) Jesus came to establish the Kingdom of God and destroy the kingdom
    of Satan.

    3) Jesus has power over evil spirits / demons.

    4) Jesus came to save human beings from the slavery of sin.

    5) God cares for his people.

    Lesson Six. The Calling of the First Disciples Luke 5: 1 – 11

    Introduction:

    A disciple is a learner, a student or a follower. Learners
    followed a master so as to learn about religious matters.

    Disciples were followers of Christ.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

    describe the call of the first disciples.

    Rabbis. These were teachers of law. They had special schools where they
    taught law.

    In these schools,learning was by memorization and repetition what students heard from the rabbis.

    The disciples of Jesus did not memorize. They learnt by observation.
    They were witnesses – and they spoke what they heard and described or explained what they saw.

    Call of the first disciples

    Jesus entered into Simon’s ship and started to teach people who were
    there. Later, He told Simon to “push off a little from the shore”. Jesus sat in the boat and taught the crowd.

    After speaking, he told
    Simon, and his partners James and John; “Push the boat out further to the
    deep water…and let down your nets for a catch of fish”.

    Simon told Jesus that they had toiled all night, and caught nothing.

    But if you say so, I will let down the nets. Simon obeyed.

    They let down the nets and caught a multitude of
    fish.

    They called for assistance from other fishermen. When Simon Peter
    saw this, he told Jesus “Go away from me, Lord! I am a sinful man!” Jesus said to Simon “Don’t be afraid, from now on you will be catching people”.

    On getting to the shore, Peter and his friends James and John sons of Zebedee forsook all and followed Jesus
    Thus the first disciples of Jesus were Simon Peter; James and John.

    Lessons from the call of the first disciples

    1) God can choose anybody to serve him regardless of his or her social
    status.

    2) God still calls people to serve him in various capacities as evangelists,
    pastors and others.

    3) Those called should repent their sins as Peter did.

    4) Christians should trust in God – Simon Peter trusted Jesus and cast his
    nets even though they had.

    caught no fish from the same spot.

    5) God can intervene in people’s lives through miracles (miraculous catch
    of fish).

    6) Christians should work together as a team. Fishermen worked together.

    7) There is hope for those who follow Jesus. He told them ‘follow me and
    I will make you fishers of men’.

    God reveals himself to people in everyday activities as Jesus revealed
    himself to Simon Peter, and his friends James and John through fishing.

    9) Christian’s vocation may require renunciation of family ties and
    occupations or a change of life.

    10) Those called to serve God are expected to be humble

    Lesson Seven. Opposition in Galilee

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

    une. Describe the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees.

    b. Identify the differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

    c. Explain why Jesus faced opposition from Pharisees, Sadducees, and
    Scribes.

    Jesus ministry consisted of teaching, healing and doing many miracles.
    Because of this work, Jesus faced opposition from the Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes. These were Jewish religious leaders.

    une. Opposition by Pharisees and Sadducees. Luke 5:12- 6:11

    Why did Jewish religious leaders; the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees
    oppose Jesus?

    There were many reasons for Jewish opposition to Jesus.

    These were:

    1) Jesus was becoming more famous than the religious leaders.

    2) His claim to forgive sins. This was reserved only for God.

    3) His association with tax collectors / publicans and sinners.

    Pour
    example, Jesus ate with Levi.

    4) His failure to observe the law of fasting.

    Jesus disciples did not fast like
    the disciples of the Pharisees and John the Baptist.

    5) Doing what religious leaders regarded as unlawful things on the
    Sabbath day. Par exemple,
    une. Eating on Sabbath with unwashed hands (disciples).

    b. Plucking corn on the Sabbath day.

    c. Working. Jesus healed on the Sabbath day.

    This was considered as
    work, which was unlawful.

    Jesus healed a man with a paralyzed hand on the Sabbath day.

    ré. Touching the unclean. Jesus reached out his hand and touched a leper
    and healed him.

    Religious leaders were not allowed to touch the unclean lepers.

    e. Associating with tax collectors who were regarded as sinners because
    they were corrupt.

    They collected more tax than the required amount. Jesus was supposed not to associate with them or support them in any way.

    Who were the Pharisees? These were

  • Referred to as the ‘separated ones’.
  • Religious leaders who expected people to respect and honour them.
  • Pious leaders and wanted everybody to recognize them.
  • Rich Jews and looked at their riches as blessings from God.
  • Called ones and thought of themselves as the ‘righteous’ ones.
  • Popular to the poor who respected them.

    Characteristics of Pharisees

    une. They believed in the Law of Moses and accepted the first five books of
    the Bible as God inspired.

    They insisted on strict observance of the law.

    b. They upheld and insisted on the observance of the oral traditions of the
    elders.

    c. They followed strictly 632 distinct rules and regulations broken down
    from the ten commandments.

    ré. They believed in the teachings of the prophets and other writings of the
    Old Testament.

    e. They passed religious traditions of the Jews from generation to
    generation and regarded this as a duty or obligation.

    f. They believed in the existence of angels and regarded them as
    intermediaries between God and human beings.

    g. They believed in the existence of demons and Satan.

    h. They believed in and waited for the Messiah of God to come.

    i. The believed in the resurrection of the dead.

    j. The believed in the judgment of God at the end of time for all human
    kind.

    k. They were strong nationalists and political leaders who resisted all
    foreign influences and power.

    Who were the Scribes?

    The word Scribe means ‘a writer. The work of a scribe was to rewrite by
    hand – new manuscripts of the Jewish scriptures. The copied the word exactly as it was. The scribes were either Pharisees or Sadducees.

    At the time of Jesus, majority of the Scribes were associated with the
    Pharisees. A scribe was also a ‘Rabbi’ – teacher. Some scribes managed schools called ‘Rabbinical Schools’.

    In these schools, Jewish male youth learnt the Mosaic Law from the age of 13 years.

    Scribes were represented in the Jewish religious council called the Sanhedrin. Sanhedrin was the Jewish Court of Justice, which tried those who committed religious sins.

    Who were the Sadducees?

    Sadducees were the wealthy people.

    They were an influential group.
    These were the majority in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish Court of Justice. The poor hated them. They were also members of the Jerusalem priesthood. The chief priests were mainly drawn from the Sadducees.

    They believed in the divine authority of the Law of Moses and the Pentateuch’s first five Books of the bible.

    They believed that
    Moses wrote the first 5 books of the Bible.

    They regarded all the other
    books in the Old Testament as not divinely inspired. Hence they rejected them.

    They rejected and did not believe in

    (a) The resurrection of the dead

    (b) Last judgment

    (c) Coming of the Messiah

    (d) Angels and demons and

    (e) the oral traditions of the Pharisees.

    They were enemies of the Pharisees particularly because of religious
    matters. However, they joined with the Pharisees and Scribes to oppose
    Jesus Christ.

    Lesson Eight. The Sermon on the Plain (Luke. 6:12–16, 27– 49)

    Review In the previous section, we learnt that Jesus chose His apostles. He came
    down the hill and stood on a level place.

    He gave a sermon to those present.

    This address is referred to as the sermon on the plain in Luke’s Gospel.

    The people had come to hear Jesus’ word to receive healing and for Jesus
    to exercise unclean spirits from them.

    In the sermon, Jesus talked of the characteristics of the new community.

    All those who would listen to His word would be the “New Israel”.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

    (a) Name the12 disciples.

    (b) Summarize the teachings of Jesus on true discipleship.

    © Analyse the teachings of Jesus on the plain (sermon on the plain).

    Selection of 12 disciples (Luke. 6:12 – 16)

    Jesus went into a mountain to pray. In the morning, he called his
    disciples.

    From them, he selected 12 disciples, whom he also called apostles. Apostle means one who is sent, a missionary.

    The 12 disciples were:

    (1) Simon Peter

    (2) Andrew

    (3) James

    (4) John

    (5) Phillip

    (6) Bartholomew

    (7) Mathew (Levi)

    (8) Thomas

    (9) James son of Alphaeus

    (10) Simon who was called the Patriot

    (11) Judas son of James and

    (12) Judas Iscariot who became the traitor (Luke vs. 14-16)

    Jesus teachings’ on true discipleship
    Jesus taught that a follower or disciple of Christ should:

    (a) Have unshakeable faith.

    (b) Be obedient to God’s word.

    (c) Be self-critical/analytical/self-searching.

    (d) Be kind, loyal, objective, fair, and generous.

    (e) Accept others without discrimination.

    (f) Be a disciple and show concern for others.

    The Sermon on the plain (Luke 6: 17 – 49)

    The Sermon on the plain is a lecture or lesson that Jesus gave to “ a large
    number of his disciples and a large crowd of people who had come from Judea, Jerusalem, tyre, and Sidon.

    They came to listen to the sermon of Jesus and to be healed of diseases, evil sprits.

    The purpose of the sermon was to teach the crowd the meaning of following Christ.

    Jesus covered 6 beatitudes or topics in his sermon. These are.

    1) Blessings and woes – beatitudes

    (2) Love for enemies

    (3) Judging
    autres

    (4) Giving to the needy

    (5) A tree and its fruits

    (6) Wise and foolish builders – hearing and doing the words of Jesus.

    We shall now discuss each of these beatitudes in detail.

    1. Blessings and woes. Jesus taught that:

    (i) Blessed are the poor for theirs is the Kingdom of God.

    (ii) Blessed are the hungry for they shall be filled.

    (iii) Blessed are those who weep now for they shall laugh.

    (iv) Blessed are those who men shall hate, reject, reproach for the sake of
    Christ’s for their great reward is kept in heaven.

    (v) Woe to those who are rich, for they have already received their
    récompense.

    (vi) Woe to those who are full for they shall go hungry.

    (vii) Woe to those who laugh now for they shall mourn and weep.

    (viii) Woe to those whom people speak well, for ancestors said the same
    about the false prophets.

    Those who accept to be followers of Christ are promised blessings while
    those who reject Christ are to suffer in future.

    2. Love your enemies. Luke. 6: 27 – 36.

    Love is often defined as a warm feeling / affection towards somebody or
    quelque chose.

    Jesus taught his followers to love their enemies and do well to those who hate you.

    Bless those who curse you. Pray for those who mistreat you.

    Do unto men as you expect them to do unto you.

    Lend also to your enemies.

    Love your enemies and do good to them. Lend and expect nothing back.

    Be merciful.

    From these teachings: true discipleship of Jesus Christ:

    a) Entails unconditional love even for enemies.

    b) Doing good without expecting any returns.

    c) Praying for those who mistreat us.

    d) Showing love to our enemies by exhibiting God’s love in us.

    e) Is love; because those who love are children of the most high who is
    kind and merciful to the sinners.

    (3) Judging others Luke. 6: 37– 42

    Jesus taught his followers not to judge others lest they are also judged.
    They should not condemn others lest they are also condemned. He asked disciples to forgive others and they shall also be forgiven.

    True discipleship requires acknowledging one’s shortcomings and avoiding criticism of others.

    (4) Giving to the needy.

    A true disciple should share what they have with the needy. Those who
    share shall be rewarded.

    He also said that the blind couldn’t lead the blind. There is a master and a follower.

    The disciple is not above his master.

    (5) A tree and its fruits.

    A healthy tree bears good fruits. A poor tree bears poor fruit. Neither does
    a corrupt tree bring forth good fruits.

    A tree is known by its fruits. Followers of Christ are evident to others by their actions.

    They are not hypocritical or fault finding.

    (6) Wise and foolish builders.

    A wise builder digs a deep foundation on a rock. When floods come, the
    house is able to stand.

    A foolish builder builds his house upon the sand. Without a foundation, when floods come, the house falls and is ruined.

    Wise builders are those who hear the word of God and do what is required.

    Those who do not adhere to the teachings are the unwise builders.

    True discipleship entails obedience to the teachings of
    Jesus Christ.

    Relevance of the lessons of the Sermon on the Plain to Christian Life

    Christians are urged to love even those that hate them. The challenges that
    followers of Christ.

    encountered in the New Testament are not different from those that
    Christians experience today.

    Christians should forgive others, share with the needy, avoid judging
    others, and follow the teachings of Christ.

    Lesson Revision questions

    1. Give the main teaching of Jesus on the sermon on the plain

    2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to
    Christians today?

    Lesson Nine. Jesus’ Works of Compassion

    In this lesson, Jesus’ works of compassion is discussed.

    These include the
    works of mercy for those in distress and pity for the suffering.

    Jesus’ mission lays its foundation in these works of compassion, because He came to establish the kingdom of God by conquering all forms of suffering caused by Satan.

    Compassion is a feeling of empathy for other people’s sufferings. It’s being merciful, showing concern and affection for others.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a) Give examples of Jesus works of compassion

    b) Narrate Jesus works of compassion

    c) Give reasons why Jesus used parables

    d) Identify categories of the miracles of Jesus

    e) Give lessons learnt from each example in each category

    une. Examples of Jesus works of compassion. There are many examples of
    la compassion

    i) Healing of the centurion’s servant (Luke 7:1 – 10)

    Centurion is an officer in charge of 100 men. Jesus healed the servant of a
    Roman soldier and a Gentile.

    The Centurion showed love and concern for his servant. The centurion
    sent Jewish elders to Jesus with a request to heal his servant.

    The leaders said ‘this man deserves to have you do this, because he loves our nation and has built our synagogue’ (Luke 7:5). Jesus agreed and went with the elders.

    But before
    Jesus reached the centurion’s house, the centurion sent his friends to stop
    him from coming to his house.

    He said that he was not worthy to have Jesus under his roof. He said that he was a man of authority. Hence Jesus could give an order and the servant would be healed.

    On hearing this, Jesus declared to the crowd ‘ I tell you, I have not found such great faith even in Israel’.

    When the men returned, they found the servant well.

    Lessons Christians can learn from the healing of the centurion servant.

    1. Faith in God is important for healing to occur.

    2. We should confess our faith in Jesus. The centurion declared his faith
    in Jesus by saying he believed.

    that Jesus could heal his servant by his word.

    3. Christians should have compassion like Jesus. He took compassion on
    the servant and was ready to go and heal him.

    4. Salvation was not for Jews alone, but for all who believed in Jesus.

    Centurion was not a Jew but a gentile officer in the Roman army. But he had faith in Jesus healing.

    5. Christians should love each other regardless of their background or
    social status – the centurion loved his servant dearly.

    6. Christians should learn to relate well with all around them – the
    centurion related well with the Jewish elders and others.

    7. Jesus has power to heal any form of sickness.

    ii) The raising of the widows son – Luke 7:11 – 17.

    A widow is a woman
    whose husband is dead.

    The widow was of the city of Nain.

    When Jesus neared the gates of the city, he saw the funeral procession of the widow’s son, the only son of his mother. Jesus had compassion on the widow and told her ‘ weep not’.

    Jesus then touched the casket and said ‘young man I say unto you, arise’.

    The dead sat up and began to speak.

    All the people were filled with fear and glorified God, saying God has visited his people.

    Lessons Christians learn from the raising of the widow’s son

    1) Jesus has power over death

    2) Jesus empathizes with the suffering

    3) Acts of love should not be hindered by traditions – Jesus touched the
    casket even though Jewish traditions forbid it.

    4) The Widow of Nain was a gentile. This is a sign that salvation was
    universal.

    5) The crowd acknowledged Jesus’ lordship; Christians should
    acknowledge the lordship of Jesus.

    What are the practices pertaining to the disposal of the dead in your
    culture? and community?

    iii) Assurance to John the Baptist (Luke 7:20 – 30).

    A question arose whether Jesus Christ was the Messiah. John the Baptist
    wanted to assure his disciples that Christ; was the expected messiah: and not him (John the Baptist).

    He sent his disciples to Jesus to ask “if you are the one he said was going to come, or if we should expect someone else?” (Vs. 20).

    Jesus told the disciples of John to go back and tell John of the miracles works they saw and heard.

    Jesus then gave a testimony of John the Baptist as a prophet, whose life and missions is beyond that of ordinary prophets.

    Jesus testified that John the Baptist; was the forerunner or
    messenger of Jesus Christ: as the prophets in the Old Testament had written.

    The Pharisees and the publicans (teaches of the law) however rejected the testimony about John the Baptist. They had refused to be baptized by John.

    Those baptized by John the Baptist, the tax collectors acknowledged the testimony of Jesus. Jesus rebuked the Pharisees and teachers of law for their hypocrisy.

    In what ways were the Pharisees and teaches of law hypocritical?

    iv) The forgiveness of the sinful woman (Luke 7: 36 – 50)

    Jesus was invited by one of the Pharisees called Simon to his house to
    dine with him. In that city, there was a sinful woman. She went to the house of Simon when she learnt that Jesus was in the Pharisees house.

    She brought with her an alabaster jar full of perfume.

    She stood behind Jesus. She was weeping and washing his feet with her fears. She then wiped the tears from the feet of Jesus with her hair, kissed
    his feet, and anointed them with oil (an alabaster box of ointment).

    Quand
    Simon, the host saw this he said within himself, ‘if this man was a prophet, he would know who this woman is who is touching him” a sinful woman. Jesus told Simon a parable of a man who forgave two people that owed him money –
    one 500, the other 50. Jesus asked which of the two debtors would love
    him most.

    Simon said the one that was forgiven much, Jesus then told Simon that when he came to his house, Simon did not give him water for his feet; neither did he welcome Jesus with a kiss; nor provide him with olive oil.

    But the woman washed his feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair.

    She also kissed his feet.

    Jesus told the people that her sins, being many are forgiven for she loved much. Jesus turned to the woman and
    told her ‘thy sins are forgiven’.

    ‘Thy faith has saved thee, go in peace’.

    The people who were eating with Jesus murmured. Who was Jesus? He forgives sins.

    Lessons from the forgiveness of the sinful woman

    1. The Jews believed that by associating with sinners, one becomes
    virtually defiled. Jesus however allowed the sinful woman to touch him.

    2. By her actions, the woman acknowledged that she was a sinner, and
    repented. This was in contrast to the Pharisees who were self-righteous and therefore did not repent.

    3. The Woman’s great love for Jesus led to her being forgiven of her sins.

    4. Christians need to accept their sinful nature and seek forgiveness from
    God.

    5. Faith in Jesus is necessary.

    Sommaire.

    Jesus is accepted women to be his followers unlike the Jewish
    customs which viewed women as lesser than men.

    Other women that played a key role in the ministry of Jesus include Mary Magdalene, Joann Joanna and Susanna among many others.

    Lesson Revision questions
    1. What role do women play in the church ministry?

    2. Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7: 36, 8:3)

    3. What lessons do you learn from the above story?

    4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7: 11- 17)

    Réponses

    Women play many roles in the church ministry. Some of these are:

    (i) Carrying out duties of pastors, bishops, and deacons

    (ii) Management. Some are heads of the women groups

    (iii) Leading in church service

    (iv) Participating as church ushers, choir singers, and youth leaders

    (v) Attending church. Women are part of the congregations

    Lesson Ten. Jesus Teaching in Parables (Lk. 8: 4- 21)

    introduction

    Jesus used parables to teach. A parable is a Greek word. It means
    comparing or ‘putting side by side’ in order to understand.

    A parable is defined as a short story or description, which teaches something or answers some questions.

    It is an allegory – an earthly story with a hidden or heavenly meaning.

    une. Use of parables.

    Jesus used parables in his teachings in order to explain
    unfamiliar messages in a language that his hearers could understand.

    Other reasons were because Jesus wanted to:

    1) Provoke critical thinking

    2) Make the audience understand issues from a different point of view

    3) Explain the nature of the kingdom of God by giving real life examples.

    4) Explain the nature of God. The parables brought out the attributes of an
    invisible God. For example, the parable of the prodigal son who had been lost.

    5) Attract the attention of his audiences so that they could listen and
    understand.

    6) Make people understand how they should relate to one another. Lis
    the parable of the good Samaritan.

    7) Teach God’s love to mankind. The parable of the lost sheep, lost coin.
    Separate / identify those who were sincere in seeking the kingdom of God
    from the onlookers.

    9) Challenge the imagination of his hearers since entry to God’s kingdom
    was a personal decision.

    10) Make an indirect attack on his opponents like the Pharisees, the
    scribes and the Sadducees.

    11) Teach his disciples that they should be persistent and never be
    discouraged.

    12) Make his teachings interesting and easy to understand.

    1. The parable of the sower Lk 8:4 – 15

    Jesus told this parable to the crowd that followed him. He said that a
    farmer went out to sow corn.

    He scattered seeds in the field. As he did so, some of them fell on the path, and they were trampled on and eaten by birds. Other seeds fell on the rock ground. When they germinated, they withered because they lacked moisture.

    Some seed fell among thorns bushes.

    They grew with bushes, which choked them as they grew.

    Some other seeds fell on fertile soil.

    They grew up in fertile soil and their yield was100 seed
    for each seed sown.

    Meaning or interpretation of the parable

    Jesus gave the meaning of the parable to his disciples.

    He said that the
    seed is the word of God.

    i. Seed that fell on the path represents people who hear the word of God,
    and then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts so that they do not believe.

    Such listeners are like the seeds that fell on the path.

    They hear the word but soon after the devil takes away the message to stop them from believing and being saved.

    ii. Seed that fell on the rocky ground are people who receive the word
    with joy but it does not stay with them.

    They believe for a while but when faced with trials and temptations they stop believing and fall away.

    iii. Seed that fell on the thorny bushes stands for people who receive the
    word.

    However, they fail to follow their beliefs because of interference by life’s worries, riches and pressures of the world.

    They fail to mature as believers.
    iv. Seed that fell on the good soil are those people with a noble and good
    heart.

    They hear the word, and retain it in their hearts. Such people persevere and produce good harvest.

    v. Interpretation. The different types of soil in this parable refer to
    different kinds of Hearts of people.

    The farmer is Jesus, God or Preacher. We learn that:

  • One should not despair and
  • It’s important to receive the word of God, practice it and persevere so as
    to bear fruits.

    2. The parable of a lamp under a bowl (Lk.8: 16 – 18).

    Jesus taught that
    no one lights a lamp, then covers it with a bowl or hide it under a bed. When one lights a lamp, they put it on the lamp stand so as to illuminate a room and for people to see the light. For whatever is hidden or covered up shall be revealed.

    In this parable Jesus is the light.

    The disciples had a duty to pass on to others messages they had learnt from Jesus.

    They should not keep messages to themselves.

    Interpretation.

    From this parable of a lamp under a bowl, we learn that:

    i A Christian has a duty to share the knowledge of God with others.

    ii One cannot be a Christian if this knowledge is hidden.

    iii Those who do not share may loose their beliefs.

    3. Jesus mother and brothers. Luke 8:19 – 21

    The mother of Jesus and brothers came to see him. Someone told Jesus
    that they were there.

    He told the crowd. “My mother and brothers are those who hear the word of God and obey “.

    Accepters and believers are the members of the family of Jesus.

    Lesson Revision Questions

    1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables.

    2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel
    aujourd'hui.

    3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition fro the Jewish leaders.

    Lesson Eleven: Mighty Works of Jesus

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

    une. Organise in categories miracles performed by Jesus.

    b. Narrate each miracle.

    c. Discuss the significance of the miracle and lessons to learn.

    Jesus continued to do miracles; and teach. His work is referred to as the
    mighty works of Jesus in various books.

    Miracles can be defined as acts of power whose purpose is to establish the kingdom of God.

    Miracles can also mean extraordinary events that go against the laws of
    nature.

    une. Categories / types of miracles

    Jesus performed four types of miracles. These were:

    1) Nature miracles – miracles that dealt with nature e.g. calming of the
    storm.

    2) Raising of the dead e.g. Jairus daughter.

    3) Healing miracles – healing Simon’s mother in law of fever, healing of
    the woman with the flow of blood.

    4) Exorcism miracles – casting out of evil spirits e.g. the Gerasene
    demonic.

    i) The calming of the storm.

    One day, Jesus entered a boat with his disciples to go across Lake Galilee.

    As they sailed Jesus was asleep in the ship.

    Suddenly, there was a strong wind and the boat began to sink.

    The disciples woke him up saying, “ Master, we are about to die”.

    Jesus woke up and gave an order to the winds and the raging waters.

    They obeyed and there was calm.

    He then said to his disciples ‘where is your faith?’ Disciples were afraid and amazed and wondered, “Who is this man?” Winds and waves obey him.

    This miracle teaches Christians to have faith and to depend on Jesus when they face raging temptations and persecutions. Jesus has power over nature.

    ii) Jesus Heals a Man with demons (Lk8: 26 – 39)

    Jesus and his disciples sailed to Gerasa town across Lake Galilee. On
    arrival a man who had demons in him for a long time met Jesus.

    He lived naked in tombs, and wilderness.

    On seeing Jesus, he cried out, threw himself down at the feet of Jesus and shouted; “Jesus son of the Most High God! What do you want with me?” ” I beseech thee, torment me not’. Jesus had ordered the demons to go out of him.

    Jesus asked him “what is your name?” He replied Legion or Mob.

    This was because the man had been possessed by many demons.

    The demons begged Jesus not to send them
    into the deep but to let them go into some pigs (swine) that were feeding by.

    Jesus allowed them and the devils went out of the man, into the pigs.

    The herd ran down the cliff into the lake and drowned.

    The herders run to the city and spread the news.

    The multitude found the man sitting at the feet of Jesus clothed, and in his right mind.

    The multitude asked Jesus to leave their country region.

    The healed man
    wanted to follow Jesus but Jesus declined and told him to go and tell others of the great things that God had done for him.

    The man went to town and told all “what Jesus had done for him”.

    This miracle teaches Christians that:

    1. The mission of Jesus’ was universal.

    2. Jesus mission is to teach all the people irrespective of their race, tribe
    or geographical location.

    The demon man was healed in a Gentile area.
    3. Jesus has power over evil

    4. Powers of evil (demons) are real

    5. Human life is more valuable than man’s material things

    6. The demons – evil spirits identified Jesus as the Son of the most High

    7. Christians need to fight the power of evil

    SAQ. What were the causes of mental illness and spirit possession in traditional African society and in modern society?

    iii) Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

    Jairus was an official in the local synagogue. He begged Jesus to come to
    his house and heal his only daughter who was 12 was dying.

    iv) Woman with the flow of blood is Healed (Lk. 8:43 – 48)

    When Jesus was on route to Jairus house, great crowds followed him and
    pressed him on either side.

    Amongst them was a woman who had suffered from severe bleeding for
    12 years.

    She consulted doctors and spent all her savings on physicians. But she was not cured.

    The society considered the woman unclean.

    It blamed her for her illness.

    She herself was embarrassed by her condition.

    This woman
    walked behind Jesus and she touched the hem of the garment of Jesus.

    Her bleeding stopped at once.

    Jesus asked, who touched me? Everyone denied it. Peter replied the multitude was around Jesus and it was difficult to know who had touched him. Jesus persisted someone touched him.

    The woman who had touched Jesus the woman came forward, and fell at his feet and confessed
    to all her sickness and explained why she touched Jesus and how she was healed at once. Jésus
    said to her “My daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace”.

    Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

    As Jesus was talking to her, Jairus was told that his little girl was dead.

    “Don’t bother the teacher anymore.

    Jesus told Jairus not to fear but to believe and she will be well.

    When he got to the house he went into the room with Peter, John and James and the parents of the girl.

    People around were weeping and wailing.

    But Jesus told them not to weep.

    She is not dead but asleep.

    They scorned and laughed at him for saying that she is asleep because they knew she was dead.

    Jesus took the girl by hand and called out “Get up, my child” – ‘little girl arise’. She immediately got up and
    Jesus ordered the parent to give her food.

    He commanded them not to tell what had happened.

    Teachings from these two miracles

    The miracle of raising Jairus daughter teaches Christians that Jesus is
    compassionate and the author of life.

    He has power over death, resurrection and life.

    In the miracle of healing the Woman with the flow of blood:

    une. Jesus made her healing public. This was probably because He wanted
    to acknowledge the woman’s faith in the public. Jesus made it clear that her faith made her whole.

    b. Jesus wanted to challenge the cultural practices that kept women in
    bandage and could not participate in public life.

    c. Jesus made her healing public so that the community can receive her
    back and shall not isolate her again.

    From this miracle of healing this woman, Christians learn that one; Jésus
    is the healer.

    He has power over all sicknesses even those without cure.

    Two, Christians should have faith in Jesus Christ.

    Lesson Revision Questions

    1. Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac Lk 8: 26-39

    2. What lessons can Christians learn fro the healing of the demoniac man
    above?

    3. What do the miracles of Jesus teach us about him?

    4. Compare the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the woman
    with the flow of blood

    Answers.

    A comparison of the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the
    woman with flow of blood.

    (i) Jairus daughter was 12 years old and the woman sick with the flow of
    blood had suffered for 12 years.

    (ii) Jesus referred to both of them as daughter.

    (iii) Their situation – death and flow of blood did not have a cure
    (iv) The public witnessed the miracle of the woman with the flow of
    blood.

    (v) Jesus commanded Jairus to keep secret raising of his daughter.

    Lesson Twelve. Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples Lk 9:1 – 10

    Introduction.

    Commission means to officially ask someone to do something.

    Learning Outcomes: By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    a Describe the commissioning of the twelve disciples.

    b Explain the story of the feeding of the 5000.

    c Describe the transfiguration of Jesus.

    d Explain the teachings of Jesus on faith and humility.

    une. The commissioning of the twelve disciples

    The twelve disciples or followers accompanied Jesus wherever he went.

    They were regarded as apostles.

    An apostle comes from a Greek word ‘Apostols’ which means ‘send out’
    one who is sent or a ‘missionary’.

    The commissioning of the 12 disciples meant that they were given four main duties, power and authority to:

    a) Exorcise or cast out demons

    b) Cure diseases

    c) Heal the sick

    d) Preach the Kingdom of God and proclaim the arrival of God’s

    Instructions.

    They were told to:

    i) Take nothing for the journey

    ii) Initiate attack on the forces of evil

    iii) Depend entirely on God to take care of them

    iv) Take no stick, no beggars’ bag, no food, no money and not even an
    extra shirt for their journey

    v) Whatever house they entered they were to stay there until they leave
    the town.

    vi) If they were not welcomed, they were to leave that town and shake the
    dust off their feet as a warning to that city or town.

    With these instructions, the disciples left and travelled to all villages
    preaching the Good News and healing people everywhere. King Herod was perplexed by the work of the disciples and he desired to see Jesus.

    b. Feeding of the five thousand.

    Please open your Bible and read Luke chapter 9. Verses 11-17)

    After reading these verses, about feeding of the five thousand (5000)
    people we learn that

    1. Jesus is concerned about people’s physical needs

    2. Jesus demonstrated that he is the bread of life

    3. Jesus has divine power

    4. The Church has the duty of continuing to feed its followers both
    spiritually and physically.

    5. The feeding of the 5000 people points to the Messianic banquet

    6. Christians must learn to share whatever they have with one another

    7. From this miracle, Jesus expected his disciples to appreciate their
    responsibility. Their work was not only to preach and heal but also feed the hungry.

    Feeding was both physical and spiritual.

    The personality of Jesus and his identity Lk. 9:18 – 27

    When Jesus was alone with his disciples, he asked them who people say
    he is.

    The disciples told him that some say he is John the Baptist, others say he is Elijah and others say he is one of the old prophets who
    have risen again.

    Jesus asked them who they, disciples say he is.

    Peter
    replied that he is Christ of God.

    Jesus then told them not to tell people who he is for he Son of man has first to suffer many things be rejected by the elders chief, priests and scribes, be killed and be raised the third day.

    Jesus announced to the disciples of his passion (great sufferings) Jesus is the Christ (anointed) of God – Messiah as well as
    the son of man.

    A divine nature and a human nature.

    Jesus went on ahead to tell his disciples that they should deny themselves (self – denial) take up their cross daily and be ready to lose their lives for Jesus.

    However, great is the reward for the faithful.

    Lesson Thrteen: the Transfiguration (Lk.9: 28 – 36)

    Instructions. Read. Luke chapter 9, verse 28 to 36. Then answer revision
    questions that follow.

    A brief summary from the Bible

    Transfiguration is change or transformation of form or appearance.

    Jésus
    was transformed in appearance when he took Peter, John and James to the mountain to pray.

    During the transfiguration, Moses and Elijah came down from heaven to talk with Jesus about his coming death in Jerusalem.

    Moses, Elijah and Jesus were in heavenly glory and glorious splendor.
    Peter, John and James were asleep.

    When they woke up, they saw Jesus’ glory. They also saw Elijah and Moses with Jesus.

    Peter suggested to Jesus that they build three tents for Jesus, Elijah and Moses.

    As he spoke a cloud overshadowed them.

    A voice from the cloud said ‘this is my son, whom I
    have chosen——– listen to him”.

    The cloud left and the disciples found themselves with Jesus.

    They kept what they saw and heard to themselves.

    Significance and importance of transfiguration

    une. The voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus is the Christ of God, or the
    Messiah.

    b. Moses represented the Old Testament law. Jesus came to fulfil the Law
    of Moses. It showed that

    Jesus was not against the Law of Moses.

    c. Elijah represented the Old Testament Prophets. This meant that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament.

    prophecies. He is above the prophets.

    ré. Jesus is above or greater than the law and the prophets.

    e. Transfiguration was a way of preparing the disciples for the death and
    resurrection of Jesus.

    Death is not the end of life (Moses and Elijah appeared to confirm this)

    f. The transfiguration prepared and gave strength to Jesus for what lay
    ahead of him

    g. Dazzling appearance showed the glory of Jesus

    h. The transfiguration also shows the importance of encouraging each other.

    5.0 Revision questions

    une. Explain the teachings of John the Baptist

    b. Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to
    Christians today.

    c. Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth

    ré. Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum

    e. Narrate and dramatize the temptations of Jesus from the gospel
    according to St Luke,

    f. Identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

    g. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted today

    h. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the
    contemporary world

    i. Identify lessons that Christians can learn from the temptations of Jesus?

    j. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

    k. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

    l. Define and describe the transfiguration of Jesus

    Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem – Luke Ch. 9-18
    introduction

    As Jesus travelled to Jerusalem, He prepared His disciples for the life they
    were to lead after He leaves them.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Identify duties and privileges and cost of a disciple.

    b Describe the teachings of Jesus on prayer, hypocrisy, wealth and
    watchfulness’.

    c Describe parables Jesus used to teach about prayer, hypocrisy, wealth
    and watchfulness.

    Lesson One. Duties, Privileges and Cost of
    Discipleship

    Lesson Outcomes. When you read this lesson, you should:

    1. Explain discipleship

    2. List duties given to disciples by Jesus Christ

    3. Explain relevance of Christian discipleship to modern Church
    Jesus’ teaching on faith and humility

    A brief summary from the Bible. Read (Luke 9: 37 – 50) for details. Après
    the transfiguration, Jesus used two incidents to teach his disciples about faith and humility. One incident was the healing of a boy possessed by an evil spirit (Luke 9: 37 –43). Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit out of the boy and the boy
    was healed.

    Jesus told His disciples that their lack of faith was the reason
    why they did not cure the boy.

    Jesus informed his disciples that faith in him was important when carrying
    out his work.

    Jesus’ teaching on His Work

    The next question was ….. who is to work for Jesus? All Christians can
    work for Jesus even believers who are gentiles. Read (Luke 9 vs. 49 – 50). Jesus told his disciples not to forbid others from carrying out his work for whoever is not against Him is for Him.

    This means that whoever had faith; even the Gentiles
    could carry out Jesus work.

    Jesus’ teaching on His followers

    Jesus was determined to go to Jerusalem.

    As He travelled, men
    volunteered to follow him wherever he was going. Jesus replied that foxes have holes, birds of the air have nests but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.

    Jesus had no earthly home.

    His mission on earth was only for a time.

    A man requested to follow Jesus but asked permission to bury his father. Jesus told him to let the dead bury their dead. Disciples of Jesus have to leave their families in order to do His Work.

    Mission of the 72 men. Read Luke 10:1 – 24

    On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus sent out 72 disciples on a mission to
    promote the Gospel of the Kingdom of God through preaching and service.

    The 72 disciples were sent in 2s in order to encourage or help each other.

    The 72 were given instructions. Jesus told them that He has given them power over demons, serpents, scorpion.

    They have power over all the powers of Satan.

    When disciples returned, they
    reported that demons obeyed them.

    In Luke 10 verse 20, Jesus asked the 72 to rejoice not because demons flee but because their names are written in heaven.

    Out of the
    many followers, Jesus chose 12 apostles who learnt from Jesus and became His witnesses.

    Jesus’ teaching on the greatest disciple

    Read (Luke 9: 46- 48). The disciples asked themselves– who is the
    greatest amongst disciples amongst the 12 disciples? In response Jesus took a child by His side and said to the disciples.

    Whoever welcomes this child in my name, welcomes me, as well as the one who sent me.

    For the one who is least amongst you shall be the greatest in Heaven. Lessons from this example.

    Jesus explained that His disciples needed values of humility and simplicity.

    These virtues were needed to carry out the work of discipleship.

    Teaching about Discipleship

    1. True followers of Jesus Christ must

    une. Be ready to detach themselves from families and material possessions.

    b. Be ready to face rejections because not all people will accept them or
    their message.

    c. Be ready to serve.

    ré. Be ready to cater for people’s physical needs.

    e. Be self – less.

    f. Not be hypocrites and should accept hospitality whenever it is given.

    g. Be able to exercise self-evaluation.

    2. Duties of a disciple were:

    a) To preach the good news of salvation to other people and be ready to
    suffer for the sake of Christ.

    b) Obey God’s commandments and follow teachings of Jesus.

    c) To help the needy spiritually and with material needs.

    d) To teach others about the Kingdom of God.

    e) To heal the sick.

    f) To cast out demons.

    g) Be prepared to suffer for the sake of the gospel.

    h) Being loyal to Jesus and faithful to the gospel.

    i) Commitment and loyalty

    3. Privileges of a disciple

    a) One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.

    b) They get an assurance of eternal life.

    c) They receive joy of winning other people to follow Jesus.

    d) They receive peace, and blessings of God.

    How are these teachings relevant to modern church leaders and members?

    Modern church leaders have a duty to continue preaching God’s word to
    all people.

    They should serve God in several ministries such as visiting the sick, caring for orphans, the destitute, widows, widowers, and the aged.

    They should also be ready to suffer and even face rejection for the sake of the Christ.

    Exercice

    1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Christ?

    2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus Christ.

    3. Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

    Lesson Two: a Committed Follower of Christ

    Read Luke 10: 25-37, and Luke 11: 1-13

    une. The parable of the Good Samaritan

    A teacher of law asked Jesus questions in order to tempt him. One was “
    what must I do to receive eternal life? (Read Luke 10: 25 to 28). Jesus replied with a question.

    What do the scriptures say? He replied and Jesus told him to do as the scripture say. .

    He asked another question. Who is my neighbour? (Luke 10 v 29). Jesus answered with the parable of the Good Samaritan.

    In this parable, the righteous people among the Jews, Levites and priests, did not help the injured man.

    A Samaritan whom Jews considered unclean and sinners helped him.

    After narrating this parable Jesus asked the lawyer, who of the 3 travelers was a good neighbour? The lawyer said the Samaritan.

    Lessons learnt from the parable of the Good Samaritan

    In the above parable, Jesus stressed that a follower of Jesus should be:

    (1) Committed

    (2) Show love of God by loving people in need and their neighbours. UNE
    neighbour is anybody who requires assistance or help regardless of race, ethnicity, creed, colour or gender.

    Jesus wants his followers to show love and concern to all people regardless of their background.

    A neighbour uses
    his/her resources selflessly to help the needy. A neighbour is also
    compassionate, kind, and generous to the needy.

    Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary (Read Luke 10: 38 – 42)

    Martha welcomed Jesus in her home where she lived with her sister Mary.

    While Martha prepared food, Mary sat at Jesus’ feet listening to his teaching. Martha complained.

    She was doing all the work while
    Mary sat listening to Jesus teaching.

    Jesus told Martha that Mary had made the right choice to listen to

    His teaching. Lessons we can learn from Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary

    1. A committed follower of Jesus is one who creates time to study and
    listen to God’s word.

    2. A follower of Christ should ensure that their commitment to God is not
    overshadowed by daily duties,worries and responsibilities.

    3. Jesus visit to Mary and Martha was also to teach disciples on the
    characteristics of a true disciple.

    Revision exercise

    1. From the teachings of Jesus, on the parable of the good Samaritan; qui
    do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

    Lesson Three. Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer (Read Luke 11:1
    – 13)

    Prayer is communication with God. It is talking with God. People pray to
    God all the time. For example,people pray to God when:

    1. They are in problems and in happiness;

    2. Seeking healing and wealth,

    3. Giving thanks to God,

    4. Identifying the needs to be met, and asking for favors from God

    5. Repenting and confessing their sins

    6. Thanking God

    There are many forms or types of prayers. These are:

    1. Intercessory prayer

    Praying for the needs of others.

    2. Prayer for repentance

    For forgiveness of sins.

    3. Thanksgiving prayer

    Giving thanks to God for what he has done.

    4. Worship prayer

    Prayers to worship God.

    5. Praise prayers

    to praise God, Honor God.

    6. Supplication and petition prayer

    whereby an individual makes their
    needs known to God and asks for divine intervention.

    Jesus prayed often during his life’s Ministry.

    The disciples asked him to
    show them how to pray. Jesus responded by teaching them the Lords Prayer.

    “Our Father who art in Heaven Hallowed be thy name Thy Kingdom come
    Thy will be done on earth asIt is in heaven Give us this day our daily bread
    Forgive us our trespasses As we forgive those who trespass against us
    Lead us not into temptation But deliver us from evil”

    a) Our Father who art in heaven

    The disciples were told to address God
    as ‘Our father’. God is to be seen and addressed as a Father.

    b) Hallowed be thy name

    The name of God should be respected and revered.

    c) Thy Kingdom come

    In Prayer, Christians/disciples are to pray that
    the rulership of God reign amongst them.

    d) Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven

    Christians to obey the
    will of God.

    e) Give us this day our daily bread

    Christians to pray for their needs.

    f. Forgive us our trespasses

    we ask for forgiveness of our sins and those
    of others.

    g. Jesus taught that one should be persistent in prayer

    If a man goes to his
    friend at midnight and asks for bread to give to his visitor, the friend will open the door and give his friend all that he needs.

    This is because his friend was persistent in knocking on the door.

    In conclusion, if prayers are to be effective, one must have faith and be persistent.

    Believe that God shall answer prayers.

    A committed follower of Jesus should pray at all times.

    In prayer, one should acknowledge that God is the Father and that all prayers should be addressed to him.

    Two, one should have faith that God answers prayers.

    Therefore we should be persistent in prayer.

    Reasons why Christians should pray

  • To honor God
  • To request for favors
  • To offer thanksgiving
  • To confess their sins and seek for forgiveness of sins
  • To seek God’s protection
  • To intercede on behalf of others
  • To strengthen their relationship with God

    Revision exercise

    1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

    2. What is the importance of prayer?

    Lesson Four: Use of God’s Power to Overcome Evil.
    Read Luke 11:14 – 28

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    1. Narrate Jesus teaching about demons

    2. Explain why the sign of Jonah was important

    3. Describe how God’s power overcomes evil

    une. Jesus and Beelzebub. (Read Luke 11: 14 to 28)

    Jesus drove out a mute demon. The possessed man began to talk. le
    crowd said that Jesus was casting out demons using the power of Beelzebub (the price of demons).

    Beelzebul was an evil spirit. However Jesus replied “Any country that divides itself into groups which fight each other will not last very long and a family divided against itself will fall.

    Jesus said it is by the power of God that drives out demons.

    Lessons learnt

    i. Satan cannot fight against himself therefore Jesus cannot be an agent of
    Beelzebub / Satan.

    ii. Gods Kingdom and that of Satan were two separate Kingdoms and
    could not co exist.

    iii. The destruction of Satan’s power meant that the Kingdom of God was
    in Israel and it was powerful.

    God’s power destroyed Satan’s kingdom. It is impossible to be neutral in
    the battle between Christ and Satan. One has to belong to either Christ or Satan.

    iv. Jesus has power to drive out demons.

    v. Demons occupy people. They bring disabilities and diseases.

    What makes people to be insane? Mentally sick

    b. The sign of Jonah. (Read Luke 11: 29 – 32)

    After Jesus drove out the dumb spirit, Jews demanded performance of
    greater miracles.

    They wanted Jesus to prove that he was their expected messiah. Jesus said that Jonah was a great miracle.

    But Jesus
    was greater miracle than that of Jonah, and King Solomon. King Solomon was full of wisdom. He was so great that Queen of Sheba came to listen to his wisdom. Jesus like Jonah
    had brought a message of judgment.

    Jesus is greater than Jonah or Solomon.

    If Jews refuse to receive and listen to Jesus, the Gentiles like Queen of Sheba, will bear testimony against the Jews and receive God’s salvation.

    c. The light of the body. Read Luke: 11: 33 – 36

    Jesus taught that no one lights a lamp and hides it under a bowl. A lamp is
    placed where all can see its light. He said that the human eye is the lamp or the light of the body.

    Jesus asked the listeners to make sure that “the light in you is not darkness” (vs. 35).
    What is the main message in this story?

    Lesson Five: Jesus Teaching on Hypocrisy, Wealth,
    Watchfulness and Readiness
    introduction

    Hypocrisie

    is being dishonest and insincere or pretending to someone else
    or people. What did Jesus teach about hypocrisy?

    Learning outcomes. After reading these verses in Luke:

    1. State what Jesus taught on hypocrisy

    2. Explain value of wealth

    3. Discuss how modern Christians can be watchful and ready for the
    coming of Jesus Christ

    une. Hypocrisy. Read Luke 12: 1- 12

    A Pharisee invited Jesus to his house for a meal. When Jesus did not wash
    before eating the meal, the Pharisee was surprised. Jesus told him “.. you Pharisees clean the outside of your cup and plate, but inside you are full violence and evil”, greed and wickedness (vs. 39).

    Jesus condemned the Pharisees for their hypocrisy.

    They were concerned with outward appearances and traditions such as ceremonial
    washing of cups, hands, and dishes but not the souls of people.

    Ils
    loved the outward show and public recognition. Pharisees tithed, “but neglected justice and love of God” (vs.
    42). They imposed rules and regulations for people to follow, yet they themselves did not practice what they preached. They refused to confess their sins but pointed out sins in others.

    They hinder others from entering the kingdom of God.

    They had failed to make people understand the true interpretation of the law.

    They were like
    unmarked graves – dead to people yet the people trusted them.

    Après ça
    teaching, the Pharisees and the teachers of the law began to oppose Jesus fiercely.

    What do we learn from Jesus teachings? Followers of Jesus should be

    1. Sincere and upright (honest);

    (2) obey God’s commands;

    (3), live to
    please God but not other people;

    (4) confess publicly their loyalty to God and

    (5) love God without fear
    et

    (6) be dependent on the Holy Spirit

    b. The Parable of the Rich Fool. (Read Luke 12:13 to 21).

    Someone wanted justice. His brother had refused to share with him his
    father’s wealth.

    He wanted Jesus to order his brother to divide their father’s inheritance between him.

    In response, Jesus answered him with the parable of the rich fool.
    A rich man expected a good harvest of his crops.

    He thought he did not
    have storage for the crop he expected to harvest.

    The man said to himself. i will demolish my granaries and stores, then build bigger ones to store all my corn, and other goods. He expected to have enough food to last him a lifetime.

    Then he can enjoy his wealth; eating, drinking and making merry.

    But God told him that his life would be demanded from him that same night. What will happen to his wealth, as he was not rich in God’s sight?

    Lessons to learn

    i Followers of Jesus should not put their trust in material wealth but in
    Dieu

    ii Life consists of food, other material wealth and trust in God

    iii Whoever seeks God’s kingdom, will receive material blessings from
    Dieu

    iv Jesus did not condemn material possessions but rather the attitude
    towards material possessions.

    v Jesus condemned attachment to material wealth instead of trust in God
    who controls our lives.

    c. Watchfulness, Readiness, and Instructions. (Read Luke 12: 35 – 59)

    Jesus told his disciples to be:

    i Watchful and ready for the return of the Son of Man i.e. Jesus.

    ii Faithful servants so that when Jesus returns, he will find them ready and
    acting responsibly

    iii Watchful of possible divisions in families

    iv Royal to Christ

    v Ready for the coming of the Son of Man. He will come at unexpected
    time; like a thief who comes when the owner of the house is not aware.

    vi Observing things of the kingdom of God, which were present in the
    person of Jesus.

    vii Like good servants, and watch over the affairs of the master.

    viii Be decision makers and follow the teachings of Jesus without being
    watched.

    Review questions

    1. In What Ways Were the Pharisees Hypocritical?
    Lesson Six: the Kingdom of God

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to

    1. Explain the teachings of Jesus about the kingdom of God

    4. Narrate the parables of

    une. The unfaithful fig tree

    b. The mustard seed

    c. Parable of the feast

    ré. Parable of the great feast

    e. Parable of the lost sheep and the lost son

    The Kingdom of God

    Kingdom of God refers to rule of God, or God’s authority on people’s
    lives and the world He created.

    The kingdom of God was present in Jesus. It is now and in the future reality.

    The teachings, and miracles of Jesus were a manifestation of the Kingdom of God. For anyone to enter God’s kingdom, one has to repent and ask for forgiveness.

    The Kingdom of God continues to grow and spread through the work of the Church.

    Those who accept the teachings of Jesus Christ about God’s Kingdom are members of the
    Kingdom of God. Now to enter the Kingdom of God, one has to repent and not judge others.

    Read Luke 13:1-5. Luke has explained the kingdom of God and outlined who will enter it.

    The Kingdom of God has unfruitful fig tree (Read Luke, 13: 6 – 9).

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    farmer had a fig tree that was unproductive for 3 years. He ordered the gardener to cut it down.

    The gardener requested for the fig tree to be given another chance. He promised to dig around the fig tree and add fertilizer. If it bears fruits well, it can survive, if it doesn’t bear fruit, then it should be cut down.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    The unproductive fig tree represents followers of Jesus who are
    unproductive because they do not follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. God gives people chances to repent just like the fig tree was given a second chance to bear fruit. Jesus is the gardener who pleads for people before God.

    The followers of Jesus are expected to be fruitful.

    What are the figs used for?

    une. Parable of the mustard seed. Read Luke, 13:18 – 19

    Jesus likened the kingdom of God to a mustard seed, which is very small.
    When a mustard seed is planted, it grows fast to become a big tree. It is difficult to control its growth. When mature, the fig tree attracts many birds, which feed on its seeds.

    Lesson learnt from the parable.

    The Kingdom of God

  • Begins as a small seed and grows quietly and humbly
  • Then it grows and spreads to all corners of the earth
  • And It attracts many people

    b. Parable of the Yeast. Read Luke, 13: 20 – 21

    The Kingdom of God is like yeast. Yeast makes dough rise and the bread
    big.

    The Kingdom of God grows secretly and slowly just like the dough rises without being noticed. It is only God who knows how a kingdom grows.

    The Kingdom of God grows as a small unit that eventually grows, spreads and reaches out to many people in many nations.

    c. The narrow door. Read Luke, 13: 22 – 30

    As Jesus was teaching in towns and villages, a person asked him whether
    a few people would be saved.

    Jesus replied that his followers should make every effort to go through the narrow door as it leads to the Kingdom of God. The narrow door will not remain open forever.

    Lesson learnt from the parable

  • Those who wish to follow Jesus must repent immediately
  • Entrance to God’s Kingdom is through repentance
  • Everybody is invited to enter into the Kingdom of God.

    ré. Jesus heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath. Luke, 13:10 – 12

    Jesus was teaching in the synagogue on Sabbath. Jesus healed a woman
    who had an evil spirit, which had bent her back (Hunch back) for 18 years. Jesus saw her and told her “woman, you are free from your illness!” She was made straight and immediately glorified God.

    The official of the synagogue was annoyed that Jesus was healing on a Sabbath.

    He and others were hostile to Jesus for healing/working on the Sabbath.

    Jesus told him, you hypocrite.

    You feed and look after your animals on the Sabbath day.

    Jesus emphasized that human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Jesus came to set people free from the bondage of sickness and Satan.

    Jesus work of liberation is continuous.

    It has to be performed even on a Sabbath day because human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

    e. Jesus’ Love for Jerusalem.

    (Read Luke13: 31 – 35)

    As Jesus continued with his teachings, he reached Jerusalem. Pharisees
    informed him that Herod wanted to kill him. His response was ‘go and tell that fox ” I will continue healing the sick and casting out demons.

    Jesus however, lamented over Jerusalem for rejecting God’s messengers.

    God would abandon
    Jerusalem for rejecting Jesus. Jerusalem was the site of Jesus death.

    It would eventually acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah who brings salvation to Israel and to the rest of the
    monde.

    f. Man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) healed (Read Luke 14:1 – 6).

    Jesus was invited to the house of the leading Pharisees for a meal on a
    Sabbath.

    A man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) came to Jesus for healing. The Pharisees watched
    Jesus closely to see what he would do. Jesus asked the Pharisees “ does our Law allow healing on the Sabbath or not?” They kept quiet.

    Jesus healed the man who then left. Jesus asked the Pharisees, would they save their son or an ox if it fell in a well on a Sabbath.

    They kept quiet.

    g. Humility and Hospitality. (Read Luke 14: 7 – 14)

    Jesus was in the house of a leading Pharisees and observed that some of
    the invited guests were choosing the best places to sit at the table. He taught the disciples how to be humble.

    He said, when invited for a meal, let the owner give you a seat of honor that is reserved for important and honorable guests. Read verse 11.
    Jesus advised his host to invite the poor, cripples, and the blind who cannot invite you, as they have nothing to give back for generosity.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Jesus is teaching about humility and hospitality. Those who are humble
    shall be elevated.

    Those who elevate themselves shall be humbled.

    Followers of Jesus should extend invitations to the poor and the underprivileged in the society.

    The Kingdom of God belongs to the humble people.

    c. The parable of the Great Feast. Read Luke, 14: 15 – 24.

    A man said to Jesus, “How happy are those who will sit down at the feast
    in the Kingdom of God” (verse 15).

    In response Jesus told him that a man made a great feast and invited many friends and colleagues to the feast.

    The invited guests failed to come and a servant was sent to inform them that the feast was ready.

    All the invited guests gave personal excuses explaining why they could not come.

    The master was angry and asked the servant to invite the poor, crippled, lame, the blind and anyone willing to come to the feast.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    God has invited all people to the great feast of the Kingdom of God.

    Those who honor his invitation will be blessed. Those who reject the invitation will be excluded from the feast.

    Jesus explained that the Kingdom of God is like a great feast open to all Jews and Gentiles.

    To enter the Kingdom of God, one has to make a personal decision because following Jesus means sacrificing activities that we consider important to us.

    ré. The Cost of Being a Disciple

     
    Read Luke 14: 25 – 33

    True discipleship means loving Jesus more than ones family. C'est un
    great sacrifice to detach oneself from the family.

    A disciple must be ready to suffer for the sake of following Jesus.

    Following Jesus requires skills of careful thinking, planning and detailed preparations. Jesus compared true discipleship
    to the planning required when building a tower or engaging in a military operation.

    Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

    True discipleship means making great sacrifices, “none of you can be my
    disciple unless you give up everything you have” (verse 33). Jesus disciples are expected to do careful planning before deciding to follow him because they are required to love God more than anyone else even their relatives and friends.

    e. The parable of the Lost Sheep Read Luke, 15:1 – 7

    Pharisees and teachers of law complained to Jesus because Jesus was
    teaching ordinary people such as tax collectors, and outcasts considered sinners by them.
    Jesus told the Pharisees and teachers of law the parable of the lost sheep.

    He told them that if a shepherd with 100 sheep lost one of them, what action would he take?
    Wouldn’t he leave the 99 sheep and go out to look for the lost sheep? And on finding it, wouldn’t the shepherd celebrate with friends and neighbours? Jesus said that God celebrates if “over one sinner who repents than over 99 respectable people who do not need to repent.”

    Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

    iii God is a shepherd and takes care of all his people.

    iv He does not want any of his people to be lost.

    v God searches for those lost in sin until he finds them.

    vi When one sinner repents, God is overjoyed and rejoices.

    vii God is the good shepherd who has come to seek and save the lost.

    f. Parable of the Lost Coin. Read Luke, 15: 8 – 10

    If a woman losses one of her ten silver coins, she searches until she finds it.

    And if it is found, she invites her friends and neighbours to celebrate.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    God and the angels in heaven search make every effort to seek the lost sinner until they find them.

    Jesus lights the world, looking for sinners who are lost because they are precious in God’s sight.

    g. Parable of the Lost Son (prodigal son) Read Luke 15:11 – 32

    Jesus then told the story of a father who had two sons. The younger was
    given his share of inheritance he had requested.

    He went to foreign lands and wasted his inheritance.

    He became poor and decided to return home and ask his father to forgive him and employ him as a servant.

    His father kissed him and celebrated his return. The father announced to
    his guests that the son who was lost is now found. – – The one who was dead is now live.
    The elder son was angry and unhappy because his father had never held a celebration for him, inspite of his hard work and obedience.

    His father told him “my son you are always here with me, and everything
    I have is yours”. We are just celebrating the return of the lost son.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    une. A person dies spiritually if they sin

    b. God loves all people including sinners

    c. God is ready to forgive every sinner who repents

    ré. There is no sin that God cannot give

    e. Jesus taught that both the righteous and unrighteous require God’s
    le pardon

    f. There is joy and happiness in heaven when one sinner repents.

    g. Christians should confess their sins and acknowledge that Jesus saves
    repentant sinners
    h. God accepts unconditionally any sinner who comes back to him in
    repentance.

    i. Confession of sins is a condition for entering the Kingdom of God.

    A Great Feast for All Who Are Prepared Luke 14: 1 – 35 Saq.

    What are the qualities of those who belong to the kingdom of God?

    Answer. Qualities of people who belong to the Kingdom of God
    Those who belong to the Kingdom of God:

    i. Obey God’s commandments

    ii. Accept God’s rule in their lives

    iii Show God’s love to others

    iv Are ready to make sacrifices so as to be followers of Jesus

    v Read God’s word and preach to others

    vi Confess their sins and seek forgiveness of their sins through
    repentance.

    Review questions

    1. Give an explanation of the term Kingdom of God

    2. What did Jesus teach about the kingdom of God?

    3. What lessons do Christians learn from the parables of the lost son?

    Répondre

    1. The term Kingdom of God means the role of God or God’s authority in
    people’s lives and the world.

    Lesson Seven: Teachings on Wealth and Poverty. LK 16:1 – 32

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain the teachings of Jesus on wealth, and poverty

    b) Narrate the teachings of Jesus on repentance

    introduction

    While wealth is possession of material things such as money or occupation of a high social economic status, poverty is the opposite.

    It is lack of basic needs such as water, education, food, shelter, clothing, and health.

    When teaching about wealth, Jesus taught using two parables.

    Celles-ci
    were:

    (1) parable of the shrewd
    directeur

    (2) parable of the rich man and Lazarus
    Parable of the shrewd manager Read Luke, 16: 1 – 18

    When the shrewd manager realized that his master was going to sack him
    due to his dishonesty, he asked the debtors to change the amounts they owed their master to smaller amounts.

    He did this to make friends with a few people who would give him a place to stay after he was sacked.

    The master
    praised the shrewd manager and did not sack him.

    The shrewd manager is praised not because of his dishonesty but because he acted promptly and with great presence of mind
    in a moment of crisis.

    Jesus is encouraging his disciples and followers to make prompt (quick,
    appropriate, timely) decisions.

    They should use wealth to serve God. It should not be allowed to take the
    place of God. Followers of Jesus should be honest in small and big things.

    The Rich Man and Lazarus. Read Luke, 16: 19 – 31.

    A rich man lived in luxury. At his gates was a poor man, called Lazarus
    whose body was covered by sores.

    The rich man did not feed Lazarus. He ate food remains together with the
    rich man’s dogs.

    When rich man died, he went to hell. When Lazarus died, he went to
    heaven and sat at Abraham/s
    bosom. When in hell, the rich man was tormented while Lazarus was at peace.

    Lessons to learn from this parable.

    The rich isn’t condemned for being rich but because of his altitude
    towards Lazarus. He used his wealth for self-gratification and not for service to the needy.

    The wealthy should realize that it is God who gives wealth and he should be given honor. Riches can hinder the wealthy from inheriting eternal life,
    especially if they put their trust in riches instead of God who is the source
    of all wealth and blessings.

    Revision exercise

    1. From the parable of the rich fool what can Christians learn about the
    use of wealth?

    2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

    Lesson Eight. Jesus Teaching on Forgiveness Read Luke 17: 1 – 4

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall

    Explain the power of Christian faith.
    Sin. Read Luke 17: 1-4.

    Jesus taught his disciples to forgive offenders who repent. Those who sin
    should seek forgiveness.

    If they offend 7 times in a day, forgive them 7 times. Followers of Jesus need faith to forgive others.

    The power of faith. Read Luke, 17: 5 – 11.

    Faith is defined as complete trust or confidence in God. It is absolute
    truthfulness and trust in everything that comes from God.

    The apostles asked Jesus to increase their faith.

    Followers of Jesus should have faith.

    Faith has no measure. Faith as big as a mustard seed can empower Christians to perform miracles
    that serve God.

    Faith is necessary.

    With faith, Christians can forgive
    others and be servants of God.

    Disciples should have faith.

    Christians understand that they owe
    everything to God.

    Jesus heals ten lepers. Read Luke, 17:11- 19

    Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem when he met ten lepers.

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    requested Jesus to heal them.

    Jesus told them to go and show themselves to the priests. On the way,
    they were healed. One of them, a Samaritan, returned to thank Jesus for healing him. The Samaritans and the Jews did not associate.

    Jésus
    told the Samaritan that his faith has made him whole.

    Faith is necessary
    for healing any disease.

    Leprosy is a disease that leads to loss of fingers, toes and other parts of
    the body.

    It was a dreadful skin disease, which Jews feared. Lepers were isolated from other people.

    They lived dejected lives.

    The coming of the kingdom. Read Luke 17: 20 – 37

    The Pharisee demanded to know when the kingdom of God would come.
    Jesus replied that the kingdom of God was within those who had accepted Jesus and his teachings.

    Those who wanted had received the kingdom.

    Faith is necessary to discover the power of God’s kingdom.

    The coming of the son of man, i.e. Jesus will bring the kingdom to reality.

    The coming of the son of man is also referred to as the day of the Lord

    Day of Judgment. Read Luke, 21: 27- 28.

    Those who obey Jesus will be saved but those who reject him will be punished.

    Lessons to learn. God expects Christians to have faith in him. Christians
    should have faith in Jesus so that they can inherit eternal life. Faith is needed to strengthen Christians.

    Faith is important in the life of a
    Christian until Jesus returns, i.e. the second coming.

    Revision exercise

    1. What did Jesus teach on forgiveness

    Lesson Nine. Persistence in Prayer, Read Luke, 18:1 – 14

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

    Discuss the values of
    persistence in prayer.

    To teach about persistence in prayer, Jesus used two parables.

    These were
    the parables of: the widow and a corrupt judge and examples of prayer by a Pharisee and a tax
    collector.

    une. The widow and the unjust judge. Read Luke, 18: 1 – 9

    Jesus had already taught the disciples how to pray. He now tells them that
    they ought to pray and not faint.

    He gives a parable to explain his point.

    A widow went to a corrupt judge to have her adversaries judged.

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    judge was corrupt and ignored her.

    He however gave in to her demands since she was persistent and wearing him down.

    The judge helped her because of her persistence and courage.

    Lessons learnt from the parable

    Followers of Jesus should pray with courage and be persistent in prayer.
    God hears and answers prayers.

    Christians should pray without ceasing and with faith and trust that their
    prayers will be answered.

    b. Parable of the Pharisee, and tax collector, Read Luke, 18:9 – 14

    A Pharisee and tax collector went to the temple to pray. The Pharisee
    offered a long prayer focusing on his achievements.

    The tax collector (publican) did not have much to say except asking for mercy, as he was a sinner.

    Followers of Jesus should acknowledge they are sinners and seek forgiveness.

    They should approach God in humility and avoid spiritual pride, and selfrighteousness.

    Revision exercise

    1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge
    Lesson Ten. The Way to Salvation, Read Luke, 18: 15 – 19: 1 – 27.
    Introduction:

    The word ‘salvation’ refers to the act of saving or being
    saved from sin.

    Those who have received salvation area assured of eternal life.

    To receive salvation a person must acknowledge that he is a sinner and repent their sins.

    In this way, they receive forgiveness and are reconciled to God.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    une. State the meaning of salvation

    b. Discuss characteristics of salvation

    c. Give examples of those who will enter the Kingdom of God.

    ré. Explain how Jesus predicted his death

    introduction

    Salvation means being saved from a life-threatening situation. Dans
    Christianity, salvation refers to the process of being delivered from sin and its consequences.

    Those who are saved are assured of eternal life.
    Jesus taught about salvation using children to illustrate his message.

    Cette
    is what happened.

    Some people brought their children to Jesus so that he could bless them.

    The disciples scolded them.

    Jesus asked the children to come to him and he blessed them.

    Jesus taught his disciples that they must be humble like children in order
    to enter the kingdom of God.

    The road to salvation is by being simple, humble, and trusting like little children.

    The kingdom of God belongs to those who humble themselves like the little children.

    The rich man. Read Luke, 18:18 – 30

    The entry into the kingdom of God was further explained through the
    story of the rich man.

    The rich man came to Jesus wanting to know how he could inherit eternal life and be saved.

    Jesus reminded him of the importance of keeping the commandments.

    The young man responded that he had observed the
    commandments since he was young.

    Jesus told him there is one thing
    remaining to do; sell everything he has, and give it to the poor, and then follow Jesus.

    The rich man was very sorrowful for he was very wealthy.

    Wealth can
    hinder the rich from receiving salvation.

    Jesus acknowledged the sacrifice made by his disciples.

    He emphasized that disciples shall receive salvation in the present and in life to come.

    Salvation is a gift from God.

    Salvation is received; par
    those who accept to follow Jesus.

    Trusting in wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.

    The rich may find it difficult to inherit eternal life.

    Jesus predicts his death, a 3rd time. Read Luke, 18: 31 – 34.

    Jesus predicted his death a three times. First was after asking his disciples
    who they say he was.

    The second time was after transfiguration when his face was set towards Jerusalem.

    The third prediction shall be in Jerusalem (Luke 18:31-34).

    Jesus told the disciples that previous prophecies would be fulfilled in Jerusalem.

    His death was going to take place in Jerusalem according to the writings of the prophets.

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    was going to be a painful death.

    He shall be beaten, mocked, spit upon and put to death.

    But on the third day, he shall rise again.

    The disciples did not understand what Jesus was telling them.

    Jesus had to
    die so that those who believed in him may receive eternal life. The death and resurrection of
    Jesus gives Christians hope of eternal life.

    Jesus heals a blood beggar. Read Luke, 18: 35 – 43

    As Jesus neared Jericho, a blind man sat by the roadside begging. Quand
    he heard the multitude pass by, he inquired what was going on and he was told that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by.

    He then cried out “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me”
    The crowds rebuked him but he cried out louder to Jesus to have mercy on him. Jesus asked him what he wanted. He said he wanted to see.

    Jesus told him to receive his sight
    for his faith had made him whole.

    The beggar was joyful and he followed Jesus rejoicing.
    Lessons learnt.

    Christians should have faith in Jesus. They should also be persistent and make specific requests.

    Lesson Thirteen: Jesus and Zacchaeus Lk 19:1 – 9
    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

    une. Narrate events leading to salvation of Zacchaeus

    b. Explain meanings of the story of the man who gave gold coins to his
    serviteurs

    Zacchaeus was short. His profession was a tax collector. He was rich. Il
    wanted to be saved.

    When Jesus was passing by Jericho, he wanted to see Jesus. He couldn’t
    because he was short.

    He ran and climbed a sycamore tree to see Jesus. When Jesus came to the place where Zacchaeus was, he looked up and said “Hurry down, Zacchaeus, because I must stay in your house today” (verse 5).

    Jesus then went with Zacchaeus to his house. When people saw this they grumbled, and murmured.

    They said that Jesus was going to a house of a sinner.

    Jesus told them that salvation has come to the house of Zacchaeus, a son
    of Abraham … the Son of man came to seek and save the lost.

    There is no sin that God cannot forgive, even that of a tax collector.

    Zacchaeus told Jesus that he was going to give to the poor half of his wealth and whatever he took from any man and woman wrongfully, he will restore four times.

    From this
    salvation, we learn that the rich should share their wealth with the needy.

    The Parable of the Gold Coins: Luke, 19: 11 – 27.

    A certain nobleman went to a far country. Before he left he called his ten
    servants and gave each a gold coin (ten pounds in total). He told them to trade with the coins until he returns.

    When he returned, he called the servants to report profits they had made.

    The first servant said that one-pound coin had made profit of 10 pounds (gold coins). He made the manager of ten cities.

    The second servant had traded and gained 5 pounds.

    He was made the manager of 5 cities.

    The third one had hidden the pound. He did not trade.

    He accused the master of being mean, and cruel.

    He returned the pound, which was given to the servant with 10 pounds.

    Lessons to learn.

    This parable was about the kingdom of God. God expects us to use opportunities he has given to us for his work.

    Each one of us shall account for the use of the abilities and skills that God gave to us – students, workers, and other professionals.

    To receive eternal life, Christians should repent and be obedient to God’s instructions.

    Revision questions

    1. What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

    5. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar

    6. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teachings on salvation to Christians

    Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry. Luke, 19: 28 – 21: 38
    Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

    une. Describe the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

    b. Narrate events in the cleansing of the temple

    c. Discuss Jesus’ teachings about eschatology

    Lesson One: the Triumphant Entry of Jesus to Jerusalem Lk 19:28 – 40

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    une. Explain why Jesus rode on a young colt into Jerusalem

    b. Discuss why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

    b. Describe what Jesus did when he went to the temple

    une. The triumphant approach to Jerusalem. Luke 19: 28- 40.

    Jesus death had to happen in Jerusalem. Hence Jesus went to Jerusalem.
    He sent two disciples to a place where there was a colt (young donkey) that no person had ever ridden.

    They took it to Jesus. They threw their garments on the colt, and Jesus sat on it.

    As Jesus rode, people spread their clothes on the road. As Jesus neared Jerusalem, a “large crowd of his disciples began to” praise God (vs37).

    The crowd said ‘blessed be the king who comes in the name of the lord’.

    The Pharisees told Jesus to rebuke the disciples.

    Jesus told them if the disciples kept quiet the stones would start shouting.

    Jesus made his entry into Jerusalem in a royal (kingly) procession.

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    Israel’s humble king who came with peace and not a political leader.

    He rode on a donkey – a symbol of peace.

    This was unlike the political kings who rode on the horses during that time.

    b. Jesus weeps over Jerusalem. Read, Luke 41- 44.

    When Jesus was near Jerusalem he wept.

    He then foretold the coming destruction of Jerusalem due to its rejection of the messiah.

    The rejoicing of his triumphant entry to Jerusalem turned to mourning as he foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by Romans in 70 A.D.

    c. Jesus goes to the temple. Read Luke 19:45 – 48.

    Jesus went to Jerusalem temple and evicted traders. He told them that the
    house of God is a house of prayer not a den of thieves.

    Jeremiah spoke these same words during his temple sermon.

    The chief priests and scribes began planning how to kill Jesus.

    Lesson Two. Pharisees, Scribes Question Jesus. Luke 20 1-47

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the question about the authority of Jesus

    2. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    3. Describe the question about paying taxes

    4. Describe the question about resurrection

    5. Describe Jesus’ teachings against the teachers of law

    6. Describe the parable of the widow’s offering

    une. The question about Jesus’ authority. Read Luke, 20:1 – 8.

    The Jewish leaders wanted to know from Jesus by whose authority he was
    doing all the things he was doing. In response Jesus asked them “did John’s right to baptize come from God or from human beings?” (Vs4).

    They discussed among themselves and decided not answer.

    Jesus told
    them “neither will I tell you”. In response to his authority being questioned he told a parable.

    b. The parable of the Tenants in the Vineyard.

    Read the parable in Luke, 20: 9 – 18. The tenants refused to pay the
    owner of the vineyard his share of the harvest.

    They threw out the servants he sent to collect his share of the harvest.

    When he sent his son, they killed him so that they can own the vineyard. Jesus asked the people… “What will the owner of the vineyard do to the tenants?”

    c. The Question about paying taxes. Read Luke 20:19-28

    Pharisees, and scribes (teachers of the law) and chief priests planned to
    arrest Jesus but they were afraid of the people.

    They sent spies to trick Jesus by asking this question -” …is it against our law for us to pay taxes to the Roman Empire, or not?
    Jesus used the currency and told them “pay the Emperor Caesar what belongs to him and pay God what belongs to God.” (Verse 25) This was a tricky question.

    Jesus here teachers people to obey the rules of the land and to obey God’s rules.

    ré. The Question about Resurrection

    The Sadducees who did not believe in resurrection tempted Jesus with
    another question.

    They wanted to know this. When resurrection comes, who shall be the husband to a woman who was married to the first brother and inherited as a widow by the other six brothers? Jesus told them the men and women who shall be worthy of resurrection
    shall not marry.

    They shall be like angels and cannot die (verse 34 to 38).

    e. Jesus warns against the Teachers of the law

    Jesus warned his disciples. Be careful and guard yourselves against teachers of the law, the scribes. They were hypocritical.

    They wore long robes, said long prayers, looked for
    positions of honor and exploited the widows.

    f. The Widow’s Offering. Luke, 21: 1- 4

    When people were giving offerings in the temple, a widow gave “two
    little copper coins”. Jesus said the poor widow had given all she had.

    Likewise Christians should give to God not to be seen but from their hearts.

    It is not the quantity of the gift that matters but the attitude of the giver.

    Lesson Three: the Teachings of Jesus About
    Eschatology LK. 21: 5 – 38

    Eschatology is from two Greek words, ‘eschatus’ and ‘logos’. Eschatus
    means end, Logos means study.

    Eschatology means the study of the end times or in CRE the last days of
    Jesus.

    For biblical information, read Luke 21:5-38 and Mathew 24: 1 – 36 and Mark 13:1-31.

    Learning outcomes. After this lesson, you should:

    une. Identify signs of end times

    b. State uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

    c. Discuss ways in which Christians can apply the parable of the fig tree

    ré. State relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

    une. Signs of the end times. Jesus gave many signs that will inform

    Christians that end of the time has come.

    These were to happen at different times.

    The signs were:

    a) Destruction of the temple of Jerusalem by invading armies which shall surrounded it

    b) Hatred of disciples and Christians because they were followers of
    Christ

    c) Rejection of disciples by families because they were followers of Christ

    d) Betrayal of the followers of Christ

    e) Prosecution and imprisonment of Christians.

    f) Many false messiahs. People would come claiming to be the Messiah,
    the Son God

    g) Wars as nation rise against nations

    h) Eruption of natural calamities such as plagues, earthquakes, famines,
    great fear among people.

    i) Disruption in the sky and seas. Fall of strange heavenly beings from the
    sky and rise of seas.

    j) Natural calamities such as earthquakes, plagues, famines bringing
    despair and distress in all nations.

    k) The times shall be announced by signs in the stars, moon, sun and sea
    l) Appear of the ‘Son of man ‘ in power and glory at the end of times.

    b. Uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

    During the time of Jesus, the temple was used for

    (a) Child dedication

    (b)
    Circumcision

    (c) Purification

    (d)
    Trading and business centre

    (e) Worshiping and prayer

    (f) a place for
    celebrating festivals such as the Passover and other major feasts

    (g) a learning centre or school for religious purposes.

    For example disciples of the scribes learnt law in the temple.

    The destruction of the temple symbolized the birth of Christianity.

    From that time Christians became the new temple of God.

    c. The parable of the fig tree Lk.21: 29 – 33

    Jesus used the parable of the fig tree to explain more about the end times.

    Appearance of leaves in the fig tree and other trees inform us that summer will soon come. When Christians see signs of the end times, they should know that the kingdom of God is about to come. Jesus told disciples to be watchful, alert, and praying for strength to endure the coming tribulations. See the previous teachings on watchfulness and readiness. Christians are to watch out and be ready for the end times.

    ré. Relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

    These teachings assure and continue to tell Christians these messages
    from Jesus:

    a) There is life after death

    b) Christ will return to receive the faithful

    c) Christians are to be watchful, prayerful, and hopeful despite trials and
    tribulations

    d) Christians are assured of God’s protection from evil.

    e) Christians should prepare for the coming of Christ by leading a
    righteous life

    f) Do not lose hope

    g) Do not be pre occupied with the cares of this would for they never end

    h) Preach and spread the word of God

    i) Obey God’s commandment

    j) Help the needy

    Revision questions

    une. Describe Jesus triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19:29- 30

    b. What does the manner of Jesus entry into Jerusalem reveal about the
    nature of his kingdom?

    c. What lessons can Christians learn from Jesus’ triumphant entry into
    Jerusalem

    ré. State and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

    e. Explain the cleansing of the temple

    f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

    g. What lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

    h. Explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

    i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    j. Explain the relevance of the parable of the of tenants in the vineyard

    k. Explain the question about paying taxes

    l. Explain the question about the resurrection

    m. What is eschatology?

    n. What will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to
    Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21; 5-38

    o. How do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

    Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of
    Jesus Lk. 22 – 24

    Passion is a strong feeling of love, hate or anger. Passion of Jesus is the
    great sufferings of Jesus, which was a deep emotional anguish.

    Learning outcomes By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    (a) Discuss the events of the Lord’s supper

    (b) State relevance of the Lord’s supper to Christians today

    (c) Describe the events that took place at mount Olives

    (d) Describe the events that took place between the arrest and burial of
    Jésus

    (e) Relate the relevance of the sufferings and death of Jesus to Christians
    aujourd'hui

    (f) Explain the importance of resurrection of Jesus to Christians

    (g) Describe the resurrection of Jesus – the evidence of his resurrection

    (h) Narrate the ascension of Jesus

    The plot against Jesus

    The Jewish religious leaders were determined to ensure that Jesus was
    either arrested or killed (Lk.22: 1 – 6)

    They were helped by Satan who entered into Judas Iscariot one of the
    twelve disciples of Jesus.

    Judas decided to betray Jesus. He communed with the Jewish leaders who agreed to pay him money to betray Jesus.

    He searched for a way to betray Jesus without knowledge of Jesus.

    He forgot who was Jesus.

    Judas agreed to betray Jesus probably because:

    une. He belonged to the party of Zealots who wanted political changes

    b. He was probably frustrated by Jesus’ approach to the Kingdom of God which was establishing a peaceful spiritual kingdom

    c. He expected Jesus to establish a political kingdom

    ré. He was greedy for money

    e. Satan entered him

    Lesson One: the Lords Suppers/ the Last Supper. LK 22: 7 – 13

    The last supper was the lost Passover meal that Jesus took before his
    arrest. Passover is celebrated in obedience to God’s command to Moses.

    It is a remembrance of Israel’s deliverance by God from slavery in Egypt.

    une. The Passover meal

    Preparations for the Passover, Read Luke 22: 7 – 23.

    Peter and John were sent by Jesus to go and prepare the Passover meal.
    They were to do so in a house in the city. They were taken to the house by, a man who was carrying a vessel of water.

    They were given a big furnished upper room upstairs.

    They prepared the Passover meal as instructed by Jesus.

    Passover meal

    During the meal with the 12 disciples / apostles Jesus told them that this
    was going to be his last meal with them before his death.

    He took a cup of wine gave thanks to God and said “Take this and share it among yourselves.

    I tell you that from now on I will not drink this wine until the Kingdom of God comes.” The cup of wine was his blood that he was going to shed for them.

    Wine therefore symbolized the blood of Jesus, shed for the purification of humankind and forgiveness of sins.

    This blood is the New Testament and covenant with Christians.

    After drinking of wine, He “took a piece of bread, gave thanks to God “
    and shared it and told them that the piece of bread represented his body which is “given for them”.

    He presented his death as a sacrifice whose blood sealed the new
    covenant.

    His death replaced the sacrifices of the Old law, those of animals, which sealed the Sinai covenant.

    The new covenant will be for all people including Gentiles.

    This is to fulfil God’s promise of salvation for all people.

    Jesus and disciples ate Passover together so that henceforth Christians
    would eat the meal together in remembrance of Jesus. Passover was initially taken to remind them of the deliverance from Egypt.

    But during the last supper, Jesus gave the Passover a new meaning.

    As they ate, Jesus foretold of his betrayal by one of his disciple. SAQ.

    i. Which items were used to celebrate the Passover in the Old Testament?

    ii. What items do modern Christians use to celebrate the Lord’s Supper?

    Comparisons of the Lord’s Supper and the Passover

    (a) The Passover commemorates the divine act of redemption of the Jews
    from their bondage in Egypt while the Last Supper commemorates the deliverance of human kind from sin.

    (b) The Passover feast reminded the Israelites that they were free,
    redeemed people while the Lords Suppers is to remind Christians of their forgiveness of sins.

    The death of Jesus set Christians free from sins.

    (c) Passover was followed by the Old covenant of Mount Sinai.

    The Lords
    suppers is a new covenant based on the death of Jesus for sins of humankind

    (d) Passover (Old testament) was sealed by the blood of Lambs while

    New Covenant (Lords suppers) is sealed by the blood of Jesus on the cross.

    (e) Items for celebrating in Passover (old testament) are different from the
    cup of wine and pieces of bread used by Jesus to celebrate his last supper with the disciples.

    Relevance of the Lord’s Supper today

    Christians celebrate the Lords supper. This celebration is called the
    Eucharist, the Lords suppers, or Lords meal.

    Christians celebrate it as an act of repentance; through which they receive assurance of forgiveness of their sins.

    The presence of Jesus becomes a reality when Christians share bread and wine.

    Bread and wine are symbols of heavenly feast, which Christians will partake in God’s kingdom.
    The Lords supper is also a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to God.

    Il
    is a time for rededication to Christ and self-renewal.

    Through the celebration of the Lords supper, Christians anticipate the second coming of Jesus and the establishment of Gods Kingdom.

    It is also a time to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus and reflect on God’s love for humankind.

    b. The Argument about Greatness. Read Luke, 22: 24 – 30

    A question arose among the disciples. They wanted to know who among them was the greatest? Jesus told them that they do not belong to the world system of authority given on the basis of wealth and fame.

    The authority among the disciples will be determined on the basis of their service to others.

    The greatest is the servant. Jesus likened himself to a servant hence disciples are called to serve.

    By sharing in trials and sufferings of Jesus, the disciples will share in his ruling power over the new Israel.

    Leadership in church should be understood in terms of service – being a
    servant of people. In the community of Christians, all people who are followers of Jesus are all equal.

    SAQ. In your opinion, which are the signs of greatness in the world?

    c. Jesus Predicts Peters’ Denial. Read Luke, 22: 31 – 38

    Jesus told peter that Satan had received permission to test or tempt all the
    disciples but Jesus had prayed for Peter’s faith not to fail. Jesus told Peter that he shall deny Jesus three times before the cock crows.

    Jesus was telling his disciples that they will encounter hostility in their evangelism hence they should be prepared for suffering and opposition because of Him as Isaiah 53:12 says ‘he shared the fate of evil men.’

    Jesus death was imminent inevitable. The disciples were expected to be strong.

    Lesson Two: Prayer, Arrest of Jesus and Denial by Peter
    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall:

    une. Narrate the events that took place at Mount of Olives

    b. Describe the arrest of Jesus

    c. Discuss Peter’s denial of Jesus

    ré. Describe the arrest of Jesus

    une. Prayer on the Mount of Olives. Read Luke. 22: 39 – 46

    After celebrating the last supper, Jesus went to the Mount of Olives with
    his disciples to pray to resist temptation.

    Jesus went ahead of his disciples, knelt down and prayed.

    Jesus left them to pray by himself. He said” Father if you will, take this
    cup of suffering away from me.

    Not my will, however, but your will to be done” (42). An angel came to strengthen him. He prayed earnestly, in agony and turmoil great than the physical pain.

    He sweated great drops of blood. After praying, Jesus found his disciples asleep “worn out by their grief” vs. 45). Jesus asked them to wake up and pray to avoid temptation.

    Significance

    The disciples fell asleep. This was a sign of moral and physical
    exhaustion. Jesus expressed inner struggle about the fulfillment of his messianic mission. He prayed for God’s help.

    Christians should always pray to avoid temptation and seek God’s help.

    b. Betrayal and arrest of Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 47 – 53

    Jesus was arrested by: the chief priest, elders, officers of the temple guard,
    and a crowd of people as he talked to his disciples.

    He was taken to the house of the high priest.

    Judas had identified Jesus with a kiss.

    Jesus asked Judas” him “Judas, is it with a kiss that you betray the Son of man?” Jewish religious leaders had come to arrest Jesus as they arrested other criminals.

    Jesus told his disciples not to resist his arrest.

    He rejected armed resistance refusing the role of a political messiah. Peter followed him from a distance.

    c. Peters Denies Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 54 – 65

    After Jesus was arrested he was taken to the house of the High Priest.

    Comme
    Peter sat warming himself with others, a maid identified Peter. She said, “This man too was with Jesus.

    Peter denied knowing Jesus three times. After the third denial, the cock crowed just as Jesus predicted.

    Jesus turned and looked at Peter who remembered the words of Jesus.

    “Peter went out and wept bitterly” (Vs. 62). Weeping was a sign of repentance

    Lesson Three: the Trials and Crucifixion of Jesus
    Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this lesson. You should

    une. Describe trials of Jesus by the various authorities

    b. Explain the importance of the judgement by Pilate

    c. Narrate events leading to crucifixion of Jesus

    une. Trials of Jesus by the various authorities

    i. Trial by the Sanhedrin Lk.22: 66 – 71

    After being taken to the house of the High Priest, the next morning Jesus
    was taken to the Jewish religious council or court; called the Sanhedrin.

    They all asked him if he was the messiah. Jesus told they wouldn’t believe whatever he says. But “ the Son of Man will be seated on the right hand of Almighty God.” (Vs. 69).

    Jesus told them he was the Son of God. The Sanhedrin accused Jesus of blasphemy, a sin punishable by death.

    ii. Trial before Pilate. Read Luke 23: 1 – 5

    The second court was the Roman court. The judge was Pilate, the Roman
    Governor.

    In this court the Sanhedrin accused Jesus of:

  • Inciting people to revolt, and rebelling against Roman authority
  • Forbidding people to pay taxes to the Emperor
  • Claiming to be the king, a Messiah,

    They could not accuse him of blasphemy before Pilate since this offence
    was not acceptable under the Roman law.

    Pilate asked Jesus if he was the king, Jesus replied, “ So you say”. (vs.3). Pilate found no fault with Jesus so he sent him to Herod.

    iii. Trial by Herod. Read Luke, 23: 6 – 12

    Herod was in Jerusalem. When Jesus was brought before him, he
    expected Jesus to perform miracles to impress him.

    He asked Jesus many questions and Jesus kept quiet. Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus, and ridiculed him.

    They put on him royal clothes; then sent Jesus back to Pilate.

    iv. Jesus is sentenced to Death. Read Luke 23: 13 – 25

    Jesus was brought back to Pilate a second time. Pilate repeated that Jesus
    was not guilty (innocent) of any crime.

    Pilate offered to have Jesus beaten and then released.

    The crowds, leaders and chief priests gave their judgement. “Kill him!” and release Barabbas, who was a rioter and a murderer.

    Pilate did not find Jesus guilty.

    But he did what
    they wanted.

    He released Barabbas and “ handed Jesus over for them to do as they wished” (vs. 25).

    v. The crucifixion of Jesus. Read Luke 22: 26-43

    Jesus was led away to be crucified.

    Solders forced Simon of Cyrene to
    carry the cross for Jesus. Women followed Jesus and weeping. Jesus told them not to weep for Him but for themselves and their children.

    Jesus was then crucified at a place called Golgotha (place of skull) or Calvary together with two male criminal; one on His right and the other on His Left.

    Jesus asked God to
    forgive them (persecutors) for they did not know what they were doing.

    The Jewish leaders, said “He saved others; let him save himself if he is
    the Messiah whom God has chosen” (vs. 35); Solders mocked Jesus and said “Save yourself if you are the king of Jews” and one criminal hanged with Jesus mocked Jesus and told Him “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and me”.

    The other thief rebuked him saying they deserved the punishment for their deeds but Jesus had done nothing.

    This thief repented and told Jesus, “Remember me, Jesus, when
    you come as King”. Jesus told him that he would be in paradise with Jesus on that day (vs. 42 – 43).

    On top of the cross, Jews wrote, “This is the King of the Jews” (vs. 38).

    Lesson Four: Death of Jesus. Read Luke. 23: 44 – 50
    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

    une. Describe the death of Jesus

    b. Narrate the burial of Jesus

    c. State relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus to Christian life
    aujourd'hui

    une. The death of Jesus.

    There was darkness from 12 o’clock until thee
    o’clock. The veil/curtain of the temple tore into two.

    Jesus cried out with a loud voice “ Father, into they hands I commit my spirit”. At this shout Jesus died.

    The Roman centurion saw and praised God. He declared, “Certainly this was an innocent man”. The multitude that watched the crucifixion and death went home beating their
    breasts, a sign of repentance.

    The women, who knew Jesus from Galilee, stood at a distance watching
    all these things.

    b. The burial of Jesus. Read Luke 23: 50 – 56.

    Joseph from Arimathea, a town in Judea sought permission from Pilate to
    bury the body of Jesus.

    He was waiting for the coming of the Kingdom of God, a likely secret disciple of Jesus.

    He was a good and honorable man.

    The body of Jesus was laid in a sepulchre (Tomb) where nobody had ever
    been laid.

    Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s tomb fulfilled Isaiah’s prophecy that the suffering servant of Yahweh was buried in a rich man’s tomb (Isaiah 53:9)

    The Galilean women and Joseph saw where the body of Jesus was laid.

    They went home, and prepared spices to use to wash Jesus’ body. They rested on the Sabbath.

    c. Relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ to Christian life today

    Christians today should practice or do the following activities.

    i. Pray in times of sorrow, pain, trials and temptations.

    iii They should not give up when rejected.

    iv They should be aware of hypocrites and traitors amongst them.

    v They should be willing to suffer for the sake of the Kingdom of God.

    vi They should be ready to fight for a just cause.

    vii They should never condemn the innocent.

    viii They should go through their suffering bravely.

    ix They should know and accept suffering as a part of the Christian
    calling.

    x They should not be afraid of rejection by people

    xi They should be encouraged that Jesus suffered for them.

    ré. In which ways can Christians prepare for their death?

    Death is inevitable. Hence, Christians should at all times: live a holy life,
    repent sins, forgive those who have wronged them, make a will, accept death as inevitable, and read the word of God.

    Lesson Five: the Resurrection of Jesus. Read Luke 24: 1 – 53

    une. The Resurrection. Resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from
    le mort

    After the Sabbath day, on Sunday morning; Mary Magdalene, Mary the
    mother of James, Salome (Joanna) and other women, went to the tomb with the spices they has
    prepared.

    They found the entrance open. The stone covering the tomb was rolled away. The tomb was empty.

    The body of Jesus was not in the tomb.

    Suddenly, two men, who were angels, appeared dresses in dazzling and
    shining clothes.

    They said “ Why are you looking among the dead for one who is alive? He is not here; he has been raised. ”

    The women went and told the 11 disciples, who did not believe them.

    Peter ran to the tomb and found it empty.

    Women were the first to witness the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

    C'est
    significant as they (women) were empowered to become witnesses of Christ as evangelists beyond the Jewish culture.

    b. Witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus

    The disciples en route to Emmaus
    Two disciples were traveling to Emmaus, which was 11 km from
    Jerusalem discussing Jesus suffering, death and the empty tomb. Jesus met them but their eyes were blinded and they did not recognize him.

    The disciples explained to Jesus the events that had taken place and how
    they had hoped that Jesus would liberate Israel from the Roman rule.

    Jesus explained to them the scriptures concerning the messiah.

    When they
    got to Emmaus, they invited him to dine with them for it was evening.

    When Jesus, “took the bread and said the blessings; then he broke the bread and gave it to them”, the disciples recognized Jesus but he vanished out of their sight (vs. 30-31). They returned to Jerusalem and told the 11 disciples that jesus has risen.

    c. Jesus appears to his Disciples. Read Luke 24: 36 – 49.

    As the two
    disciples explained the event that happened on the journey to Emmaus, Jesus came and said to them ‘Peace be with you’ (vs. 36).

    Disciples were terrified and frightened. He asked them to look and touch his hands, and feet.

    He was not a ghost.
    He has flesh and bones unlike ghosts, which do not have.

    He explained to the apostles his mission, which was prophesied by
    prophets, and written in the Law of Moses, and Psalms (v.44).

    He commissioned the disciples to preach repentance and remission of sins
    and be his witnesses.

    He also promised to send them the promise of the father (Holy Spirit)

    SAQ. What was the nature of the resurrected body of Jesus?

    ré. The ascension of Jesus, Luke, 24: 50 – 53

    From Jerusalem, Jesus took his disciples to Bethany, a town outside
    Jerusalem. He lifted his hands and blessed them.

    As he blessed them, he was lifted up and carried to heaven The disciples worshipped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.

    They continued to go to the temple to praise and give thanks to God.

    The disciples were now confident about their mission and who Jesus was.

    e. The importance of the resurrection of Jesus to Christian

    Resurrection is the foundation of Christian faith. Christianity is based on
    the fact that Jesus resurrected and was taken up to heaven. Further to this:

    1. Resurrection proved that Jesus is the Son of God.

    2. Through resurrection, Christians have hope of eternal life

    3. Through resurrections, Christians are assured of a new life in Christ

    4. Sin and death were conquered by resurrection, giving hope of victory to
    Christians over death and sin.

    5. Resurrection is a fulfillment of the writings of the prophets. It fulfilled
    Old Testament prophesies by Moses, Elijah, Elisha and others.

    6. It is a proof that there is life after death.

    7. Through resurrection, man was reconciled to God.

    8. Jesus has power over death, over Satan and his Kingdom of darkness.

    9. It led to the coming of the Holy Spirit.

    Revision questions

    une. Give the different names used in reference to the lord’s supper by
    Christians in different churches.

    b. Describe the institution of the lord’s supper.

    c, State the Christian teaching about the lord’s supper

    ré. What is the meaning of the lord’s supper to Christians?

    e. Compare the Passover feast with the practice of the lord’s supper

    f. Describe the prayer on mount olives

    g. Describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

    h. State the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

    i. Describe the trial of Jesus under the following headings:-

    the council of Sanhedrin, the trial before Pilate, the trial before Herod and
    Pilate’s judgement.

    j. Why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

    k. Identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of
    Pilate during the trial of Jesus

    l. Actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

    m. Explain the crucifixion of Jesus

    n. Describe the death of Jesus

    o. The burial of Jesus

    p. Define the term resurrection

    q. Describe the four witnesses of the risen Christ

    r. Describe Jesus’ appearance to the disciples

    s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

    t. Give five evidences from the bible to show that Jesus rose from the
    mort

    u. Explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Christ

    v. What is the significance of Jesus resurrection to Christians today

    w. Explain five importance of eulogy of death of the society.

    Revision question and answers

    Old Testament Prophesies About the Coming of the Messiah

    Lesson one:

    1. The prophecy of Jeremiah about the Messiah

    a) He shall be a descendant of David

    b) He shall be a king

    c) He shall prosper

    d) He shall execute judgment and justice

    e) He shall ensure Judah/Israel is safe and lives in peace

    f) He shall be called the lord our righteousness

    2. Meaning of Messiah mean?

    Messiah is a Hebrew word ‘Meshiach’ which means ‘the anointed one’. Il
    is equivalent to ‘Christ’, a Greek word, which also means the ‘Anointed one’.

    A Messiah is therefore someone called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him in a special way.

    In the Old Testament, the Priests and Kings were the only people who were anointed.

    When a person is anointed oil is poured on them.

    The anointed person was set aside from the rest of the people in order to serve God and His people. Examples of anointed people are Aaron
    (Priest) and King David. In addition,
    God himself anointed Prophets: for example, Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah,
    and Nathan among others.

    3. Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament

    The messiah shall be a political leader, a victorious ruler, a king to lead
    people to a time of great power and prosperity, a king in whose reign there shall be no sorrow or injustice nor fear, a king to rule forever

    4. How Jesus Christ fulfilled the Old Testament prophetic of the messiah

    a) He was born from the lineage of David

    b) He was born of Mary, a virgin as foretold by Isaiah

    c) The messiah was called Immanuel (Jesus) Isaiah prophecy

    d) He was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy

    e) He was referred to as “son of David” – Nathan/Jeremiah/s prophesies

    f) He suffered – suffering servant prophecy by Isaiah

    5. Prophets in the Old Testament who prophesied about the expected
    Messiah
    Isaiah, Nathan, Jeremiah, Micah and psalmist prophecy.

    Answers.

    Qn 1. The qualities of john as described by angel Gabriel

    une. He would be a prophet of god

    b. He would prepare the way for the messiah

    c. He would bring joy to Zachariah and others

    ré. He would be a nazarite

    e. He would call people to repentance

    Qn 2. Why john was referred to as the second Elijah

    • Like Elijah john had also lived in the wilderness

    • John was also filled with the holy spirit and proclaimed god’s message
    au peuple

    • He also met opposition from the king just like Elijah

    • He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened with death by jezebel

    • He stood firmly for the covenant way of life

    • He was a great prophet of his time

    • He led a simple life and faced many problems like hunger just like
    Elijah

    Qn 3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of
    john the Baptist?

    • God answers prayers however long it may take

    • Christians should not doubt God’s messages

    • We should be persistent, faithful and patient in prayers

    • Christians should be devoted to God in prayer

    • Children are a gift from God and a source of joy to their parents

    • God has a purpose for every child’s life

    Qn 4. Describe the birth of john the Baptist

    • Elizabeth was very happy and so was Zachariah

    • John was circumcised after eight days in accordance with the Jewish
    douane

    • Elizabeth named the child john

    • Zachariah affirmed the name of their son in writing

    • They were surprised at the name because it was not in Zechariah’s
    lignée

    • Zechariah was now able to talk

    • He broke into a hymn called the Benedictus

    • Zechariah expressed his feelings of joy, gratitude and praise

    • Zechariah told of the mission of his son.

    Topic Two: Infancy and Early Life of Jesus

    Qn 1. What lessons can Christians learn from the annunciation of the birth
    of Jesus Christ?

    • God exalts the humble and rejects the proud

    • Christians should humbly accept god’s plan for their lives

    • God has a purpose for the life of every one

    • Nothing is impossible with god

    • God wanted Jesus Christ to be part of the human family for him to
    identify with the human race

    Qn2. describe Mary’s visit to Elizabeth

    • Mary went to visit Elizabeth after angel Gabriel told her that Elizabeth
    was expecting a baby

    • Mary greeted Elizabeth and the baby in the Elizabeth’s womb leapt with
    joie

    • The spirit also revealed that Mary was the most blessed of all women

    • Mary sang a song known as the magnificent

    Qn3. identify the main ideas in the magnificent

    • Mary thanks god for

    • Being good to her

    • His goodness and love for all human beings

    • Fulfilling his promises to the people

    • Delivering the oppressed from the oppressors

    Qn 4. Describe the dedication ceremony during the infancy of Jesus

    • The parents of Jesus offered the purification sacrifices according to the
    law of Moses

    • Simon was moved by the holy spirit and took Jesus into his arm and
    praised God

    • Simon prophesied about the mission of Jesus

    • Prophetess Ann thanked God for sending Jesus who would bring
    rachat

    • The things Simon and Anne said about their child amazed the parents of
    Jesus.

    Topic Two: the Galilean Ministry

    Qn a. What is the relevance of John the Baptist teachings to Christians
    today?

    • Christians should not fear to condemn the evils in the society

    • Christians should commit their lives wholly to the work of God

    • Christians should accept their role with humility and preach the gospel

    • Christians should be ready to proclaim the gospel even harsh
    environment for the people to know God

    • Christians should share their resources with the less fortunate

    • Christians should be contended with their pay and thus not accept bribes

    • Christians should learn to be truthful in their work environment

    • Christians should pronounce the consequences of judgement to those
    willing to repent

    Qn b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

    • To be identified as the messiah

    • To identify himself with the sinful human kind

    • To receive the Holy Spirit

    • For God to manifest the trinity

    • It was a cleansing ritual

    • To acknowledge the work of John the Baptist

    • He saw it as a way of fulfilling the old testament prophesies about the
    Messiah

    • It was his final acceptance of the work of salvation

    Qn c. describe the baptism of Jesus

    • When all the people were baptized Jesus was also baptized

    • He was baptized by John the Baptist in river Jordan at a place called
    Bethbora

    • Jesus was praying when the heavens opened

    • The holy spirit descended from heaven upon him inform of a dove

    • A voice came from heaven saying “ thou art my beloved son with thee I
    am well pleased

    Qn d. what is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today?

    • Christians get new names that symbolizes new life in Christ

    • Christians receive the Holy Spirit who gives them guidance in their lives

    • Christians identify themselves with Jesus and the church

    • Water is symbolically used as a cleanser as it wipes away one’s sins and
    gives a new life

    • Christians are brought together as members of the church of Christ

    • During baptism Christians receive the Holy Spirit who guides them in
    leurs vies

    • The old self dies and becomes a new person as a Christian

    • It is the first step of being accepted into the Christian brotherhood

    Lesson Three: Temptations

    Qn a. describe the temptations of Jesus

    • Satan told Jesus to turn stones into bread

    • Jesus answered that man does not live on bread alone

    • Satan then took Jesus to a high place and showed him all the kingdoms
    of the world.

    Satan promised to give Jesus everything if Jesus worshipped him
    • Jesus answered that one should worship God and serve him alone

    • Hastily, satin took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple. He asked Jesus to
    throw himself down since God would send his angles to ensure that he did not get hurt.

    Jesus answered that no one should tempt God.

    Qn b. from the gospel of St. Luke, identify five occasions when Jesus was
    tenté

    • In the wilderness

    • When he healed a dumb man the commanded a sign

    • Jesus was tempted to arbitrate between two brothers

    • When the rich young ruler called Jesus a good teacher

    • When he was asked whether it was right to pay taxes to Caesar

    • In the garden of Gethsemane, he was tempted to escape the cup of
    Souffrance

    • During his trial he was asked whether he was the Messiah

    • During crucifixion he was spat on but did not fight back

    • On the cross one of the thieves wanted him to deliver them

    • He was questioned by the Sadducees about resurrection

    Qn c. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the
    contemporary world

    • They should depend on Jesus

    • They should be well versed with the scripture so that they can refer to
    la Bible

    • They should seek guidance and counseling

    • They should attend bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible

    • They should have faith or believe in God to help them during trials

    • They should avoid bad company

    • The should take part in active leisure

    • They should avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin

    • They should resist Satan

    Qn d. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted

    • To give a bribe in order to get a job

    • To engage in irresponsible sexual behaviour due to peer pressure

    • To steal money entrusted to them

    • To cheat in examinations

    • To take drugs/alcohol

    • To exploit those who serve under them in their places of work

    • To keep excess change from a shopkeeper or tout

    • To show off

    Qn e. What lessons can Christians learn fro the temptations of Jesus?

    • Since Jesus was tempted, he fully understands our difficulties

    • God does not tempt us beyond our strength

    • Through temptations we will also be tempted

    • Through temptations and trials our faith is strengthened

    • When we are tempted we should turn to the bible for guidance

    • We should seek the holy spirit who enabled Jesus to conquer evil

    Lesson Eight: Thesermon on the Plain:

    1. Give the main teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the plain
    The sermon on the plain consisted of five main parts namely:

    Blessings (Lk 6: 20 – 26) and woes

    These are also referred to as the beatitudes. Here, Jesus had a message for
    the poor, the rich, those who hunger and those who are full, those who weep and those who laugh.

    His concern is to show the social differences and mystery of Christian suffering.

    Persecution seems to be a common phenomenon for followers of Christ.

    The poor are those who cannot meet their basic needs and Luke depicts them as hungry and weeping.

    The disciples are included in the poor because they have given up
    everything. But Jesus gives hope.

    Jesus warns the rich against using their economic points to oppress the
    poor.

    They have an opportunity, however to belong to the Kingdom by using their riches to help the needy.

    Love of Enemies: (6:27-37)

    Followers of Jesus are supposed to “Love your enemies, do good to those
    who hate, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who abuse you”.

    Judging Others (6:37-43)

    Disciples are expected to acknowledge their own shortcomings before
    they can condemn the faults in others.

    Failure to recognize one’s fault is a hindrance to becoming a member of the Kingdom of God.

    Evidence to Good Discipleship

    The proof of a person’s goodness is seen in his deeds. The true nature of a
    person cannot be hidden because what they do and say will reveal their nature.

    Hearing and Doing (6: 47-49)

    It is not enough for His followers to proclaim Christ as Lord. They must
    also do what He tells them.

    Q2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to
    Christians today?

    The teachings on blessings and woes tell us that the goal of a person
    should be to inherit the Kingdom of God.

    Christians should love their enemies as Jesus loved them sinful as they
    were.

    Human beings are self-centered. It is easier to see other people’s mistakes
    than our own Christian should examine them before passing judgement on others.

    By so doing we appreciate that we are all sinners who should seek forgiveness from God and we should always appreciate others however sinful they may be.

    Be steadfast in faith and do good all the time.

    Lession 9: Jesus’ Works of Compassion

    Q2 Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7:36-8:3)

  • On one occasion, Jesus was invited by Simon the Pharisee to his house
    to eat with him.
  • While this is a sinful woman walked into the house weeping.
  • She began to wet Jesus’ feet with her tears and wiped them with her
    hair.
  • She kissed his feet and anointed them with an ointment.
  • When Simon saw this, he questioned Jesus’ power. If he were a prophet,
    He would have noticed that the woman was a sinner.
  • And Jesus answered him the telling him about a certain creditor who
    has two debtors, one owed him hundred denarii and the other fifty.
  • When asked Simon which of the two debtors would love the creditors
    more.
  • Simon said the one who was forgiven more.
  • Jesus said you have judged rightly.
  • Then he had not given Him even water to wash His feet.
  • But the woman used her tears to wet Jesus’ feet and wiped them using
    her hair and oiled them.
  • Therefore her sins, which are many, are forgiven for she loved much,
    one with little love receives little more.
  • Jesus told Simon he gave him no kiss but the woman had not stopped
    kissing Him.
  • Those at table began to ask who Jesus was who ever forgiven sins?
  • And He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you, go in peace.”

    Q3. What lessons do Christians learn from the above story?

  • Christians should accept their sins and seek for forgiveness as the sinful
    woman did.
  • Faith is important for one to be forgiven. Jesus told the woman “Your
    faith has save you.”
  • A repentant sinner is greater than a righteous man (the Jewish religious
    leaders).
  • It is not the magnitude of sin that matters but the attitude of a person
    towards his sins.
  • Shows the importance of women in the ministry of Jesus.

    Q4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7:11- 17)

  • After His preaching in Capernaum, Jesus went to the city of Nain.
  • He found a man being carried out near the gate.
  • He was the only son of a widow.
  • When the Lord saw her, He had compassionate on her and said to her,
    “Do not weep.’
  • Then He came and touched the open coffin.
  • And those who carried him stood still.
  • Jesus said, “Young man, arise.”
  • And he who was dead sat up and began to speak.
  • Jesus presented him to his mother.
  • Then fear came among all and they glorified God.
  • They said a great prophet has come among us. God has visited His
    personnes.

    Lesson 10: Jesus’ Teaching – What Is the Importance of
    Parables?

    1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables

    • To attract the attention of his listeners

    • To help his listeners understand better

    • To separate the serious people from the on lookers

    • To enrich his teachings

    • To avoid direct confrontation with his enemies

    • It was a common way of teaching those days

    • To teach about God’s mercy to sinners

    • To make people think critically out issues concerning God’s kingdom

    • To relate patent issues with those of the future kingdom positively

    Qn 2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel
    aujourd'hui

    • Preaching

    • Teaching

    • Being role models

    • Holding crusades

    • Organizing seminars and conferences

    • Electronic mechanisms e.g. sms and emails

    • Print media e.g. posters and magazines

    • Door to door evangelism

    • Through demonstration and role play

    • Through the mass media e.g. radios and TVs

    • Through Christian music e.g. cassettes and C.Ds

    Qn 3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition from the Jewish
    dirigeants

    • His popularity

    • His interpretation of the Sabbath

    • His failure to observe the law of fasting

    • He associated with tax collectors

    • He claimed to be the messiah

    • He out rightly condemned them

    • Teaching with authority

    • His claims to forgive sins.

    .
    Lesson 11: Mighty Works of Jesus

    Q1 Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac – Lk 8:26-39.

  • After crossing the Sea of Galilee, Jesus came across a demon –
    possessed man in a gentile town called Gerasa.
  • The man had been living in the caves used for burial of the dead.
  • He wore no clothes.
  • When the man saw Jesus, he asked Him not to torment him.
  • When Jesus asked him what his name was, he responded that he was
    called “Legion” – which stands for 2000 – 6000 soldiers.
  • This meant that this man possessed by many demons.
  • Jesus had sympathy and ordered the unclean spirits to leave him.
  • Jesus let the evil spirits to go to the pigs, which were grazing nearby.
  • They then fell into the lake and drowned.

    Q2. What lesson can Christian learn from the healing of the demoniac
    man above?

  • Jesus valued human life. That is why He led the evil/spirits into the
    pigs, which drowned into the lake and saved the man.
  • It shows Jesus came for all regardless of tribe. This man was a gentile.
  • Jesus heals the whole person – physically and spiritually.
  • That Jesus has power over evil spirits.
  • Shows that Jesus came to destroy the power of evil.
  • It teaches that Christians have to fight the power of evil constantly.

    Mais
    with Jesus’ help they will overcome it.

  • God will never allow them to be defeated. He will come to their aid,
    however, much.
  • They should give out their material possession to save those in need.
    This man needed help.
  • They should tell their people about God as this man went to in his
    village etc.

    Q3. What do the miracle of Jesus teach us about Him?

  • They show that Jesus is the Son of God.
  • That Jesus gets power from God.
  • That Jesus shares his power with His disciples.
  • The miracles show Jesus compassion to suffering people e.g. la levée
    of the widow’s son.
  • They also show that Jesus is Lord. He is the life and the resurrection.
  • That affirms that Jesus came to save man from sin.
  • They show that Jesus is a universal savior e.g. the Gesarone demoniac
    who was a gentile.
  • They were part of His teaching – they helped Him teach.
  • Through them He showed the concern for human life, physically,
    spiritually and mentally.

    Lesson 12: Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples (Lk
    1:1-10)

    Q1. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

  • To preach the word of God.
  • To advise the leaders.
  • To warn evildoers against their sins.
  • To condemn evil.
  • Pray for the needy.
  • Help the needy e.g. give them food, shelter etc.
  • Hold seminars/workshops where they lead people into forgiveness.
  • Being a good example for emulation.

    Q2. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

  • By giving sadaka.
  • By giving 1/10 of their income.
  • They pay for their training.
  • Fundraisings for building theological institutions.
  • Building their residential houses in the church compound.
  • Giving ‘matega’ – foodstuffs as part of sadaka during service.

    Lesson 13: the Transfiguration

    Q2. Describe the transfiguration of Jesus (Luke 9:28-37)

  • Jesus needed encouragement and reassurance that what He was about to
    do was the will of His Father.
  • Therefore He took with Him Peter, James and John and went to Mount
    Hermon to pray.
  • As He prayed, His appearance was changed and His face became
    dazzling white.
  • Two men, Elijah & Moses appeared and talked of His departure (death),
    which He was to accomplish in Jerusalem.
  • The disciples were asleep as this happened.
  • When they woke up, they saw glory and the two men who stood with
    Him.
  • And as the men were parting form Him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘Master, it
    is well that we are here, Let us make booths, one for you, one for Elijah and one for Moses.
  • As he said this, a cloud cursed the whole area and they were afraid.
  • A voice came out of the cloud saying, ‘this is my only son, my chosen,
    Listen to Him.’

    Q3. What is the significance of the transfiguration of Jesus (Lk 9:28-37)?

  • A voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus was the Son of God.
  • It strengthened the faith of the disciples so that they would continue
    with His work after death.
  • It showed that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and
    God. This is seen with the appearance of Elijah and Moses.
  • The cloud was a symbol of God’s presence.
  • It was a sign that Jesus’ mission was no longer a secret. It marked the
    onset of His passion, which would lead to His death.
  • It confirmed to Jesus that He was doing the right thing and God was in
    support of His suffering.
  • It shows that faith in prayer can lead us to God’s presence.

    Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem

    Lesson 1: Duties, Privileges and Cost of Discipleship

    Q1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Jesus?

  • Following Jesus means accepting homelessness and enduring hardship
    because Jesus did not have a permanent home.
  • Being a disciple of Jesus means self-denial and suffering.
  • Being ready to give e.g. to the needy.
  • To spread Christianity and make Jesus known.
  • Following Jesus means being loyal to Him.

    Q2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus

  • One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.
  • One is assured of eternal life.
  • He has the joy of winning others to the Kingdom of God through
    preaching.

    Q3 Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

  • In order to help Him in the work of spreading the good news.
  • So as to belong to the Kingdom of God and get eternal life.
  • To witness to his work.
  • To share with them the power of God e.g. in performing miracles.
  • For company as He worked.

    A Commited Follower of Jesus Lk 10:25 11:1-13

    (Note: Not the parable of the Samaritans)

    Q1. From the teaching of Jesus on the parable of the Good Samaritan,
    who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

  • One who understands the law and obeys it.
  • One who understands that a neighbor is anybody who requires help
    regardless of their social status
  • One who uses his resources selflessly to help the needy
  • One who is not restricted by cultural and religious practices in
    responding to a needy situation
  • One who is compassionate, kind and generous
  • One who shows solidarity with the suffering. This includes identifying
    with the needy and being ready

    to experience their suffering.

    Lesson 3: Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer

    Q1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

  • Jesus taught that prayer must be persistent, use the parable of Friend at
    Midnight.
  • Prayer should be done in a private place.
  • It should be genuine.
  • One should not be proud when praying e.g. the parable of the tax
    collector and the Pharisee.
  • One should have faith during prayer.
  • One should pray always/continuously.
  • There is no formula in prayer. One should address God as a father.
  • Honestly confess sin as they pray.

    Qs 1 & 2 are out of topic.

    Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth,
    Watchfulness and Readiness

    Q1. Hypocrisy – In what areas were the Pharisees hypocritical?

  • In the washing of hands, cups and dishes which were done
    ceremoniously.

    The Pharisees were too strict on this, which was not important. He told them to pay attention to issues of charity than external appearance.

  • Tithing habits – They paid this well for the support of priests but
    neglected justice and love for God.
  • He criticized them for recognition in the synagogues by taking reserved
    seats and their desire to be noticed at market places by wearing long white robes.
  • He accused them of being like their ancestors who persecuted the prophets of God.

    Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth,Watchfulness and Readiness
    Read Lk: 11:13-34 : Parable of the rich fool

    Q1. From the parable of the rich fool, what can Christians learn about the
    use of wealth?

  • Material wealth should come second after God.
  • We should try to help the poor.
  • It teaches that wealth comes from God.
  • Wealth should not be misused e.g. in drinking, etc.
  • We should thank God for wealth received.
  • It can make Christians to forget God.

    Q2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

  • Jesus taught the following parable about a rich man and his servant.
  • A rich man wanted to sack his manager.

    He called the manager and
    asked him for a full account of how the property was being managed.

  • The manager knew he was going to be sacked. He made friends with
    some of his master’s debtors so that they would take care of him if he got sacked.
  • One debtor who owed 100 barrels of olive oil was asked to pay 50 barrels and one who owed 1000 was asked to pay 800 barrels.
  • The master praised him for being wise and acting property in his
    moment of crisis.

    Lession 8: Teaching on Forgiveness

    What were the teachings of Jesus on forgiveness?

  • Jesus taught that one should forgive and forget
  • All sins are equal before the eyes of God.
  • One ought to ask for forgiveness after he has wronged.
  • One should forgive as many times as he is offended.
  • One should have faith when asking for forgiveness.

    Persistent in Prayer

    Q1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge 18: 1-8

  • Jesus told the Pharisees a parable to the effect that they ought always to
    pray and not lose heart.
  • In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor regarded
    man.
  • And there was a widow in that city which kept coming to him and
    wanted her right given.
  • For a while he refused, but afterwards he said to himself, though I
    neither fear God nor regard man, yet because this widow bothers me, I will allow her set her right or she will wear me out by her continual coming.
  • And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge says, and will he
    not vindicate His elect who cry to Him day and night?
  • Will he delay long over them, I, you, He will vindicate them speedily.

    Lesson 10: the Way to Salvation Lk 18: 15 – 19

    Q1: What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

  • Jesus said, ‘Let little children come to me because the kingdom of God
    belongs to such as them.
  • He went on to tell them that for one to enter God’s kingdom, he must
    humble himself like children.
  • This is because children are powerless, innocent and open.
  • Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is for those who are simple,
    humble, innocent and trusting like children.

    Q2. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar (18:35-43)

  • A blind man recognized Jesus as the messiah.
  • The blind man asked Jesus to heal him.
  • He received his sight because of his faith.
  • He followed Jesus, giving thanks to God.
  • To receive salvation one needs to be bold and determined.
  • We should seek Christ to heal our physical and spiritual blindness.

    Q3. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teaching on salvation to Christians

  • Christians learn that they need to repent their sins and seek forgiveness
    in order to receive salvation and eternal life.
  • They need to humble themselves like children in order to earn salvation.
  • They learn to obey the commandments of God so as to receive
    salvation.
  • Use their abilities to glorify God e.g. the rich man’s parable.
  • They too learn that wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.
  • They learn that salvation is given to all by God.

    Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry

    Qn a. describe Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke
    chapter 19: 29-30

    • After his journey from Galilee ended, Jesus approached Jerusalem
    passing through Bethaphage, Bethany and the mount olives

    • He sent two of his disciples to a village to get him a donkey on which
    nobody had ridden

    • He gave the disciples instructions that if the owner of the donkey
    demanded to know why they were untying it, they were to respond, “ The lord has need for it”

    • When they got the donkey, they threw their garments on it and helped
    Jesus to sit on it

    • As Jesus rode along, they spread their garments on the road

    • The crowds following him rejoiced and praised God for all the
    wonderful work Jesus had done this included: teaching, healing and feeding the hungry

    • The crowds sang, “ Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest”. By singing, the crowds acclaimed Jesus as king.

    • The Pharisees objected to the crowds singing and asked Jesus to silence
    leur

    • Jesus responded that if his followers were silent, “ the very stones would
    cry out”. Insensitive than stones not to know what was happening, that is, the Messiah has come

    Qn b. what does the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about
    the nature of the kingdom of God?

    • Jesus was a descendant of David, prophesied Messiah and son of God

    • Jesus is a triumphant, victorious yet a humble king. A donkey is a
    symbol of humility and peace. So he came to establish a peaceful kingdom

    • Jesus wanted to proclaim the coming of his kingdom but not as an
    earthly/ military leader, thus leading them to lay their garments for him to step on. In doing this, they were acknowledging Jesus as Jerusalem’s promised king

    • Jesus was greeted as a king the same way the kings of Israel were
    greeted with acclamation and joy

    • By riding on a donkey, Jesus fulfilled the prophesy of Zechariah which
    says, the king is coming riding on a donkey triumphant, humble and victorious

    • Christianity is not propagated through violent means but peace

    Qn c. what lessons can Christians learn fro Jesus’ triumphant entry into
    Jerusalem?

    • Christians learn that they should be prepared to receive Jesus into their
    lives like the crowd which escorted him to Jerusalem

    • Christians also learn that they should emulate Jesus and be channels of
    peace in their communities

    • They also learn that they should expect opposition and resistance as they
    witness to Christ.

    They should not give up hope

    • Christians learn that they should be humble like Jesus in their service to
    autres

    • Christians should thank and praise God for his intervention in their lives
    by sending Jesus

    • They should be bold in their witnessing to Christ like the crowds that
    followed Jesus to Jerusalem and declared him king

    Qn d. state and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem.

    • When Jesus came close to the city of Jerusalem he wept over it saying, “
    If you only knew what is needed for peace! But now you cannot see it! The time will come when
    your enemies will surround you with barricades block you and close in on you from every side.

    They will completely destroy you and the people within your walls, not a single stone will they leave in its place because you did not recognize the time when God came to save you”.

    • According to Luke, all song and rejoicing stopped suddenly when Jesus
    was deeply distressed at the sight of Jerusalem

    • Jesus knew that Jerusalem (the city of peace) would reject his final
    appeal and by so doing would bring judgement down on itself. The destruction of the city is viewed as the consequence of its rejection of Jesus.

    They cannot see when the true peace comes in the person of Jesus.

    The coming destruction is a symbol of God’s judgement on lack of trust. The tears of Jerusalem are the tears of tragedy.

    • The heart of the tragedy is that Jerusalem did not recognize the time
    when God came to save them.

    • Now Jesus says that Jerusalem was not ready to receive him as their
    savior and this would lead to her ruin.

    • Just like the Babylonians were God’s instrument of destruction of
    Jerusalem during the time of Jeremiah, so will the Romans be instruments of destruction of Jerusalem.

    • Jerusalem was completely destroyed by the Roman armies in the year A.D 70

    Qn e. Explain the cleansing of the temple.

    • While in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple where he found people
    acheter et vendre

    • He drove them out and overturned their tables saying that they had
    turned his father’s house into a den of robbers

    • Here Luke uses this incidence to show how Jerusalem was still
    unprepared for the day of God’s visit

    • Jesus carried out a symbolic act by driving out those who were buying
    and selling in the temple

    • Jesus used the words of Jeremiah who too attacked the in his time for
    turning the temple into a hideout for thieves

    • According to Jesus the temple will no longer give them the sense of
    security because it will be destroyed

    • Although the temple will be destroyed, a new one will be built.

    C'est
    the Christian community, which will be a house o prayer for all nations.

    The new temple will not be limited to Jesus alone but to all people

    • In short Jesus is the Messiah. He exposed the unrighteousness of public
    life in Jerusalem by attacking the merchants in the temple

    Qn f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

    • The temple authorities had allowed a market in the court of the gentiles
    where the everyday money issued by the Roman government could be exchanged for the special
    temple coins which had to be used for paying the temple tax

    • In the same place they could also buy the animals needed for sacrifice.
    This animals had to be certified as acceptable

    • But both the changing of money and the certifying of animals gave
    ample opportunity for making exorbitant profits

    • Jesus made his protest because all this trading was hiding for the real
    purpose of the temple and prevented Israel from being a light to the gentiles. For this reason, the temple would be destroyed because it was no longer serving as “ a house of prayer”.

    Qn g. what lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

    • Christians learn that they should respect the house of God and use it
    convenablement

    • Christian leaders should avoid exploiting members through asking for
    excessive contributions

    • Christians should pay more attention to inward righteousness than
    external observance of rituals

    • Christians should have more courage like Jesus to condemn evil
    practices by leaders in the church and society

    • Christians should be exemplary with their life styles so as to win others
    to the kingdom

    • Finally the cleansing of the temple by Jesus provides valuable lesson to
    Christians who are called upon to be Christ’s ambassadors.

    There are many incidents where churches have been subjected to disrespect and dishonor and this discourages many people from knowing God.

    Christians should also avoid leadership wrangles, corruption, sexual abuse, gossip and many others that have caused churches to split

    Qn h. explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

    • In a series of conflicts in and around the temple between Jesus and the
    official leaders of the Jewish nation, the public ministry of Jesus came to its close

    • After the cleansing the temple, he daily dominated the temple area
    teaching large crowds.

    His popularity grew steadily and the leaders felt the threat against their own position.

    They could not allow this to go on but they were afraid to arrest Jesus.

    In the end they tried to trap him into making statements which would either get him into trouble with the Roman authorities or discredit him before the people.

    • First Jesus was challenged about his authority.

    The Jewish religious leaders wondered whose authority Jesus used.

    They wanted to know which Rabii taught him or to which
    Jewish religious groups he belonged to i.e. the Pharisees or the Sadducees

    • If Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah he could be accused before the Roman authorities for rebellion.

    • If he refused to make his claim the crowds would soon leave him alone.

    • But Jesus skillfully defeated his adversaries.

    He invited them to answer
    their own question. “ Tell me, did John’s right to baptize come from God or human beings?”

    • Whatever answer they gave to Jesus’ question about John the Baptist would apply in even stronger measures to their own question about Jesus

    • But they had never supported John and they could no now admit that his
    right to baptize came from God.

    • If they did they would also have to accept Jesus whom John had
    announced.

    Neither could they say John was a prophet for that would bring trouble from the people who held John in high self-esteem

    Qn i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

    • After the question of Jesus’ authority, Jesus challenged the Jewish
    leaders by telling them the parable
    of the wicked tenants.

    He said that there was once a man who planted a
    vineyard, let it to the tenants and then left home for a long time

    • When the time came to gather the grapes, he sent a slave to the tenants
    to receive from them his share of the harvest but the tenants beat the slaves and sent him back without a thing.

    The same treatment was given to the second and the third slave

    • The owner decided to send his own son whom they killed.

    He therefore decided to come by himself, killed the tenants and handed over the vineyard to other men

    • When the people heard this they said, “surely not” but Jesus explained to them “the stone which the builders rejected as worthless turned out to be the most important of all.

    And every one who falls on the stone will be cut to pieces and if that stone falls on someone, it will crush him to dust

    • In this parable, the vineyard represents God’s kingdom, Israel.

    The servants are the prophets sent to Israel and they are rejected.

    The son here represents Jesus and the owner is God who will bring judgement on Israel

    • The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone this shows that Jesus saw himself as the rejected but most important.

    He makes a new foundation of Israel for
    both Jews and Gentiles.

    On hearing this, the Pharisees wanted to seize Jesus but were afraid of the people

    Qn j. what is the relevance of the parable of the tenants?

    • Over the centuries the situation has not changed. Jesus is still rejected by
    nations and by men.

    • What happened to Jesus happened as he foretold those who follow him.

    • Church history reveals many examples of men rejected by political and
    religious leaders and by the people their time and who have later been seen as the key man in the revelation of God’s purpose

    • As Christians we should also pray for strength and guidance from God
    to be able to deal with rejection

    • As Christians we should not fear rejection but stand firm for the truth

    • Christians should also seek pastoral counseling fro the church leaders
    and other Christians. When we endure persecution we may be finally proved right

    Qn k. the question about paying taxes

    • The teachers of law and the chief priest, after falling to arrest Jesus
    bribed some spies to ask whether it was right for them to pay taxes to Caesar or not

    • The Israelites were compelled to pay taxes to the Romans who
    controlled them

    • Many resented this because according to them payment of taxes using
    coins which had some emperors image was a violation of the Jewish law which forbade the use
    des images

    • If Jesus would tell them to pay, the people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them

    • Many resented this because according to them people would be against
    him for supporting Roman rule over them

    • If he told them not to pay, they would accuse him to the Roman
    les autorités

    • Jesus knew their trick and wanted his questioners to make their own
    decision about the issue

    • According to him it was right for the Roman government to exert the tax
    payments without demeaning God’s authority

    • In other words, by having the silver coin in their possession, the Jews
    accepted Roman authority

    • They had a duty to pay tax to the emperor because they enjoyed the
    benefit of the Roman rule

    • At the same time they had a duty to be loyal to God. A person’s loyalty
    should not be owed to the state or Caesar

    Qn l. explain the question about resurrection

    • The Sadducees raised the question concerning marriage an resurrection
    or life after death

    • They asked Jesus whose wife a woman would be in the resurrection
    when she married seven brothers who had died without bearing children.

    • The question was meant or designed to make Jesus look foolish thus to
    shame him. This would undermine the popular support that we had prevented action against Jesus

    • In his response, Jesus made the following observations

    • He does not accept the assumption that marriage continues after
    résurrection

    • Quoting from exodus a book that the Sadducees accepted, Jesus
    confirms that there is life after death

    • The resurrection life is different from earthly life

    • It is a new existence where those who resurrect, live with God as his
    children in eternity

    Qn m. what is eschatology?

    • The term eschatology is derived from two Greek words ’Eschatus’ and
    ‘Lagos’, which means end and study respectively

    • Eschatology therefore is the study of the last things such as death,
    judgement, life after death and the end of the world

    • Jesus talked about the end of the world to his disciples just before he
    a été arrêté

    Qn n. what will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to
    Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21: 5-38?

    • Jesus taught hi disciples about the end times in the temple of Jerusalem

    • In his speech, he talked about what will happen to the city of Jerusalem
    and the world at the end of time

    • Jerusalem was going to be destroyed because of her refusal to recognize
    and accept the Messiah

    • Jesus told the disciples of the signs that would accompany the end of the
    monde

    • People come claiming to be Jesus the Messiah, the son of God

    • There will be wars between nations

    • Natural calamities like earthquakes, famines and plagues will occur

    • Strange heavenly beings will come from the sky

    • There will be disruption in the sky and in the sea

    • All nations will be in despair

    • People will faint from fear as they witness these signs

    • At the end of all these, the son of man will appear in power and glory

    • Jesus’ teaching of the end times was meant to provide encouragement to
    the disciples in difficult times

    • They were expected to have hope

    Qn o. how do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

    • Christians should prepare for the second coming of Christ by not losing
    hope in the face of trials and tribulations because the kingdom of God with its promises of a new life will definitely come

    • They prepare for his second coming by leading a righteous life. Elles sont
    to avoid too much feasting and drinking

    • They should prepare by being watchful through prayers so that God will
    give them courage and strength to stand firm in their faith

    • They should prepare by preaching the word of God to those who have
    not heard it

    • They should prepare by being obedient to God’s commandments

    • They should prepare by helping the needy

    • They should prepare by preaching and evangelizing and converting others

    Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of
    Jesus Christ
    The Lord’s Supper

    Qn a. give the different names used in reference to the Lord’s Supper by Christians in different churches

    • The holy Eucharist

    • The mass

    • The lord’s table or the table of the lord

    • The Holy Communion

    • The Last Supper

    • The breaking of bread

    • The sacrament

    Qn b. describe the institution of the Lord’s Supper

    • Jesus was at the last supper with his disciples the night he was betrayed

    • In the room which had been arranged by Jesus. He told his disciples how
    much he had longed to eat the Passover meal with them before he suffered death

    • He took a piece of bread and gave thanks to God and broke it. He gave it
    to them saying, “ this is my body which is given for you. So do this in memory of me”

    • He took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God and said “ take this and
    share it among yourselves”

    • He also gave them a cup of wine after supper saying “ this cup is God’s
    new covenant sealed with my blood which is poured out for you

    Qn c. state the Christian teachings about the Lord’s Supper

    • The Last Supper was inaugurated by Jesus

    • It’s celebration of the crucified and rise Christ

    • The Lord’s Supper is a gift from God

    • It is a sacrifice of praise and thanks giving

    • It is the church’s effective proclamation of God’s mighty works acts and
    promesses

    • It is a sign of the unity of the church or the believers

    • It is a new paschal meal of the church. The meal, which by visible signs
    communicates God’s love in Jesus Christ. It is the sacrament of Christ’s real presence

    • The bread is a symbol of the body of Christ which was crucified

    • The wine or cup is a symbol of his blood, which was shed. C'est le
    blood of the new covenant

    • It is a fore state of Christ’s passion and of the final kingdom. Il est
    symbolic of the heavenly banquet

    • It is central to Christian worship. (Eucharist)

    Qn d. what is the meaning of the Lord’s Supper to Christians?

    • The sacramental meal communicates God’s love in Christ

    • The washing of the disciples feet by Jesus signifies humble service to
    and love for one another

    • They proclaim the lord’s death until his second coming

    • They share in the body of Christ

    • The unity of Christians is evidenced

    • The bread symbolizes the body of Jesus which was crucified on the
    cross for the sins of human kind and for the healing of their diseases

    • The wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus which was shed for forgiveness
    of sins

    • The wine also symbolizes the sealing of a new covenant

    • The partaking of the Lord’s Supper strengthens the faith of believers in
    that, Christ’s presence is felt and in this way they constantly keep in touch with him

    • The lord’s supper enhances a personal relationship between the individual believer ad Christ

    • It is thanksgiving to God for everything accomplished in creation,
    redemption and sanctification

    • Through the Holy Communion, Christians offer themselves as a holy
    and living sacrifice. They rededicate and renew themselves. Those who share in the sacred meal declare their loyalty to Christ

    • The Lord’s Supper is an act of repentance. The partakers receive reassurance
    of the forgiveness of sins and are assured of salvation

    • The bread and the wine which represents the body and blood of Jesus
    become the final sacrifice replacing all O.T sacrifices that were offered for the salvation of the human race

    Qn f. Prayer on mount olives

    • After celebrating the last supper, Jesus and his disciples went to mount
    Olives

    • He knelt down and prayed and asked his disciples to join him

    • In response, God sent an angel from heaven to encourage him

    • Jesus prayed in agony until his sweat was like drops of blood

    • This sweat which was like blood was an indication of the struggle and
    agony he went through to accept the will of his father

    • Though Jesus suffered agony and turmoil, he approached it with great
    courage and composure

    • His suffering was even greater for it involved more than physical pain. Il
    meant bearing the sin of the world

    • So he prayed to God, his father to give him strength for his coming
    mission

    • When he went back to his disciples, he found them asleep a sign of
    moral and physical exhaustion or maybe it was an indication that they were in sorrow because Jesus had told them he was about to be crucified

    • In conclusion, we can say that Jesus expressed an inner struggle about
    the fulfillment of his Messianic mission. So he prayed to God to help him bear the suffering. Prayer was very important in Jesus’ ministry

    Qn g. describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

    • When Jesus came down from Mt. Olives he met a multitude of people

    • Judas Iscariot appeared accompanied by a large crowd, the chief priest,
    elders and the temple guards who had ordered to arrest Jesus

    • Judas Iscariot came forth and kissed Jesus. This was a sign identifying
    Jesus as the man they were looking for. That kiss was the betrayal

    • When the disciples noticed what was happening one of them used his
    sword to cut off the ear of a high priest’s slave

    • In other words Jesus stopped his disciples from resisting his arrest

    • By rejecting armed assistance, Jesus was refusing the role of a political
    Messiah

    • Jesus was arrested and taken to the house of the chief priest Annas

    Qn h. state the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

    • He lacked moral courage to stand by Jesus during his moment

    • He could have been an informer of the Jewish religious leaders

    • He was overcome by the power of evil

    • He was disappointed by Jesus’ teaching on spiritual kingdom rather than
    fulfilling the Jewish expectation of a political Messiah who could liberate them from the
    Roman rule

    • He was a mercenary motivated by greed for money

    • He had little faith in Jesus or lost his trust in Jesus Christ

    • He was not loyal to the master

    • He was a northerner who felt foreign and thus was jealous against other
    disciples

    • He was a zealot who believed in war rather than peace

    The council of Sanhedrin

    • Jesus was brought to the Sanhedrin council early in the morning
    following his arrest

    • The council of elders asked him if he was the Messiah

    • Jesus responded by speaking of the son of the man coming in triumph

    • The Sanhedrin accused him of the sin of blasphemy for allegedly
    claiming to be the son of God

    • He was condemned to die for alleged blasphemy

    • In the Jewish law, blasphemy was punishable by death
    The trial before Pilate

    • Since the Sanhedrin could not carry out the death sentence, they took
    Jesus to the Roman governor Pilate

    • They accused Jesus of inciting the people to revolt, forbidding payment
    of taxes and claiming to be a king in rebellion to Roman authority

    • They could not accuse Jesus of blasphemy. This charge would not be
    accepted under Roman law

    • However, by taking Jesus to Pilate, the Jewish religious leaders wanted
    the Roman authority to take responsibility for Jesus’ death

    The trial before Herod

    • Jesus’ ministry works had mesmerized Herod. So when Pilate learned
    that Jesus was from Galilee, he handed him over to Herod who was the district officer of Galilee and happened to be in Jerusalem at that time

    • The trial of Jesus before Herod (only mentioned in St. Luke’s gospel) is
    not really a trial because king Herod only wanted to satisfy his curiosity about Jesus

    • He joined the soldiers in mocking Jesus

    • Jesus refused to answer Herod’s questions and he consequently sent
    Jesus back to Pilate

    • Interestingly the mockery by Herod and his soldiers as another step in
    the public ridicule of Jesus. It will continue as he hangs on the cross

    Pilate’s judgement

    • Jesus was brought to Pilate a second time

    • Pilate reiterated that he found Jesus not guilty of any crime

    • The chief priests prevailed upon Pilate who passed a sentence of death
    on Jesus to die by crucifixion.

    This was the punishment of high treason according to the Roman law

    • The Jewish leaders asked that Barnabas a criminal be released instead of
    Jésus

    • It was customary for a convicted person to be released during the
    Passover

    • So the Jewish leaders and not the Jewish people or Pilate were
    responsible for Jesus’ death

    • Jesus was killed because of the blind hatred of the Jewish leaders

    Qn j. why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

    • He was afraid of a Jew revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace in his
    territory in accordance with the expectations of the Roman emperor. If he had released Jesus, the Jew would have caused a disturbance

    • He did not want to be disloyal to the Roman emperor after learning that Jesus had been accused of treason. Disloyalty could have resulted in losing favor with the emperor and consequently his job

    • He washed his hands. This means that he was absolving himself of the
    guilt of having Jesus crucified.

    This is because he had learnt from the Jewish leaders that Jesus was the
    Son of God.

    His wife had also cautioned him about Jesus’ innocence. Pilate himself had found no evidence to convict Jesus

    Qn k. identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

    • Jesus is the king of the Jews

    • Jesus is without sin. Pilate found no guilt in Jesus and he sent him to
    Herod

    • Pilate gave in to their demands on the grounds of treason- Christians
    should refrain from giving false witness

    • Pilate was afraid of a revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace as a
    Roman officer. Christians learn that they should not be compromised by worldly standards

    • Christians should stand firm for the truth because the truth will always
    prévaloir

    • Christians should strive not to loose favour with God. They should
    desire to please God rather than man

    • Pilate washed his hands he learnt that Jesus is truly the son of God
    (innocent)

    • Great evil can happen when the truth is at the mercy of political pressure

    • Christians should take time before making decisions

    • Resisting the truth leaves a person without purpose or direction

    Qn l. actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to
    décès

    • They paid Judas Iscariot to betray him

    • They bought false witnesses to accuse him of blasphemy before
    Sanhedrin/ blasphemy was punishable by stoning to death

    • They hurriedly tried Jesus at night before people knew what was
    événement

    • They framed treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before
    Pilate/ treason carried a death sentence

    • They employed armed temple guards and armored soldiers to deal with
    those who would fight for Jesus

    • They blackmailed Pilate to have Jesus crucified

    • They organized a mob to shout for the death of Jesus and release of
    Barnabas

    • They crucified him dead when they got permission from Pilate

    Qn m. explain the crucifixion of Jesus

    • Jesus was given the cross beam to carry to his crucifixion site

    • Simon of Cyrene helped him carry it

    • A group of women followed Jesus and wept over his plight

    • Jesus asked them to weep over themselves and their children

    • He talked about the impending destruction coming over Jerusalem

    • Jesus eventually arrived at Golgotha and was nailed on the cross

    • Two criminals were crucified on either of his sides

    • After his crucifixion, the soldiers cast lots to divide his garments. Cette
    action fulfilled psalms 22: 18,

    Jesus is the righteous Messiah who suffers unjustly and is mocked by
    people as he cries to God

    • The soldiers, Jewish leaders and one of the thieves mocked Jesus for
    claiming to be the royal Messiah

    • Jesus is mocked with the challenge to save himself

    • One of the criminals crucified with Jesus usually referred to as the
    repentant thief acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah and admitted the justness of his own condemnation

    • Above Jesus it was written, “ this is the king of Jews”

    • Jesus forgave his killers and all those who had accused him falsely. Il
    promised one of the thieves hanging on the cross a place in paradise

    Qn n. describe the death of Jesus

    • The death of Jesus was preceded by extra ordinary happenings

    • Darkness covered the land for three hours

    • The curtain in the temple tore into two

    • Jesus died after crying “ father into thy hands I commit my spirit”

    • On seeing Jesus die, the Roman centurion who was present testified to
    Jesus’ innocence. As he recognized Jesus’ lordship

    • In his death, Jesus showed total commitment to God’s will

    Qn o. the burial of Jesus

    • Joseph of Arimathea, a rich and righteous member of the Sanhedrin
    asked Pilate to allow him bury Jesus

    • Joseph could have been a secret disciple of Jesus

    • Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s grave fulfilled Isaiah’s prophesy concerning the
    suffering servant of Yahweh who was buried in a rich man’s tomb

    • A group of women followed Joseph and saw where he buried Jesus

    • They went back home to prepare spices with which to wash Jesus’ body
    after the Sabbath

    • Jesus was indeed a king judged by the way he was buried

    The Resurrection:

    Qn p. define the term resurrection

    The term resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead.

    This event took place on the third day i.e. the Sunday morning after Jesus was crucified on Friday afternoon

    Qn q. the witnesses of the risen Christ

    The testimony of the repentant thief

    • He rebuked his unrepentant companion

    • He recognized his own sinful condition

    • He declared Jesus to be sinless

    • He professed in Jesus’ true Messiah-ship and Lordship

    • He recognized that Jesus would live and exercise his saving power after
    il est mort

    The testimony of Joseph of Arimathea

    • Joseph of Arimathea was a secret disciple of Christ

    • He witnessed to the lordship of Jesus Christ after his death by his actions

    • He did this by seeking permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus

    • By giving Jesus this royal burial he was witnessing to the truth that Jesus

    was king

    Testimony of the holy woman

    • On the day after the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of
    Jesus went to the tomb planning to prepare Jesus’ body for a proper burial

    • On arrival, they found the stone covering the tomb had been rolled away

    • The tomb was also empty

    • Two men in dazzling clothes confirmed that Jesus had risen as he had
    prophesied. The two men were angles

    • When the women learnt of Jesus’ resurrection, they broke the news to
    the apostils and all the others.

    The apostles rejected the women’s testimony

    The testimony of disciples on their way to Emmaus

    • Jesus appeared to the disciples who were on their way to Emmaus

    • They were discussing Jesus’ suffering, death and the empty tomb

    • They regarded Jesus’ death as a tragedy, for they had hoped he would
    liberate the Jews from the Roman rule

    • Jesus explained to the scriptures, which say the messiah would suffer to
    reach his glory.

    • They invited Jesus to dine with them

    • Jesus shared the Holy Eucharist with them before they recognized whom
    he was at the breaking of the bread

    • The disciples at Emmaus thus became the second witnesses to the risen
    Christ.

    The effect of this testimony is that the disciples went and told the eleven apostles about their encounter with the risen Christ

    Qn r. the appearance of Jesus to the disciples

    • As the disciples narrated their encounter with Jesus to the eleven
    apostles, Jesus appeared to them

    • Jesus asked them to confirm that he had risen by touching his body

    • He explained to the apostles his mission through telling them the
    prophesies about him in the law of Moses, prophets and psalms

    • Jesus brought his disciples to be witnesses by proclaiming repentance
    and forgiveness of sins

    • He tested some cooked fish

    • He promised that he was going to be with them through the power of the
    Holy Spirit

    The Ascension of Jesus
    Qn s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

    • From Jerusalem Jesus led his disciples to Bethany

    • He raised his hands blessed the disciples and lifted to heaven

    • The disciples returned and witnessed Jesus’ ascension with joy

    • They continued to go to the temple to pray to God waiting for the holy
    spirit that Jesus had promised them

    • From this incidence where Jesus blessed the disciples, we learn that the
    disciples became confident about their mission. This earlier disbelief and blindness to who Jesus was now overcome

    Qn t. Give five evidences from the bible that show that Jesus Christ rose
    from the dead

    • The tomb was empty

    • Assurance of the angle to the women that Jesus had risen

    • Thomas witnessed the resurrection by feeling the scars on Jesus’ hands

    • The women who had gone to the tomb had found it empty

    • The disciples witnessed his resurrection when he appeared to the two
    disciples at Emmaus

    • Jesus shared a meal with his disciples after his resurrection in Jerusalem

    • Jesus walked with the disciples up to Bethany prior to his ascension

    Qn t. explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of
    Jesus to Christian life

    • The passion deed and resurrection refers to seven incidences namely,
    Jesus’ last supper, suffering in the garden, suffering before Sanhedrin, Pilate and Herod; mocking by the soldiers, death on the cross, resurrection and ascension

    • Those events are of great significance to the modern Christians. Première
    they proof that Jesus was indeed the son of God and the Messiah

    • The passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was a fulfillment of
    the old testament prophesies and Psalms

    • The resurrection resulted in the rapid spread of the church. The spread of
    the church is as a result of the risen Christ and the influence of the Holy Spirit

    • The resurrection is thus the basis/ the central idea or foundation in the
    Christian faith and missionary activity;

    if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is useless and you believing it is useless

    • The passion, death and resurrection reveal the power of God to those
    who believe in him.

    They also prove that Jesus who was God’s triumphant envoy is alive and Christians are assured living again after the physical death

    • The raising of Jesus from the dead proved that Jesus was not only man
    but lord over human life so that Christians share in his life on earth by believing in him and living according to the fruits of the holy spirit

    • The resurrection of Jesus is a source of inspiration and confidence in
    Christians. It also points to the fact that Jesus was a man of his word i.e. he fore told the resurrection and it came to pass.

    His resurrection was a real fact because he showed his disciples the crucifixion marks

    • All that happened during the passion, death and resurrection of Christ
    was just a completion of God’s revelation through Christ

    • They also point to the power and glory of God in which those who
    believe share in the hope of their own resurrection in the second coming of Jesus

    Qn v. the significance of Jesus’ resurrection to Christians today

    • It is the foundation of the Christian faith and hope which their belief
    would be useless

    • Christian faith would be in vain (futile) if Jesus had not resurrected

    • Through resurrection Christians have confidence and hope in God
    because the one they believe in has been exalted and sits at the right hand of God almighty

    • Through the resurrection, Christians are given hope of eternal life

    • The resurrection of Jesus led to the coming of the holy spirit which helps
    Christians to live according to the teachings of Christ, preach the gospel and speak boldly against the evils in the society

    • The resurrection give meaning to baptism in that one dies in sin and is
    raised with Christ to new life

    • The resurrection confirms the divinity of Jesus as the true son of God

    • The resurrection gives Christians courage to face death because they
    have hope of resurrecting at his second return

    • It is remembered by Christians during the Eucharist

    Qn w. explain five importance of Eulogy of death in the society today

    • It enables mourners to know the cause or nature of death

    • It enables the mourners to forgive the dead person incase of any grudge
    between them and the dead person

    • It enables the mourners to ask for forgiveness from the dead person

    • It enables the mourners know the wish or last words of the deceased
    before he/ she died

    • Mourners have an opportunity to declare what they owe or are owed by
    le mort

    • It enables mourners to know the contribution of work of the dead to the
    société

    • It provides the mourners with an opportunity to know the nature or
    character of the dead and his/her social life

    • It enables mourners to know the background or life history of the
    deceased e.g. éducation.

    Form Three

    Selected Teachings From the New and the Old Testaments

    Topic One: Gifts of the Holy Spirit

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: –

    a) Discuss what Jesus taught about the role and gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    b) Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit in Christianity today.

    c) Identify the fruits of the Holy Spirit.

    d) Interpret the message of Peter on the day of Pentecost.

    Lesson One: Teachings of Jesus on the Role of the

    Holy Spirit. Read John 14:15-26, 16: 5-15, and Acts 1: 7- 8

    introduction

    The Holy Spirit is the third person in the trinity.

    There is the power of
    Christ, the power of God, and the
    Holy Spirit who gives gifts such as prophecy and healing.

    The Holy Spirit
    is mentioned several times in
    the Bible;

    (1) during creation in Genesis,

    (2) at the annunciation of the
    birth of Jesus,

    (3) at the beginning
    of the ministry of Jesus,

    (4) during baptism,

    (5) revelation of Jesus in the
    temple

    (6) Jesus spoke of the Holy Spirit during his mission or ministry, after resurrection and before ascension.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson:
    une. State the role of Holy Spirit in the church and in Christian lives today.

    b. Enumerate the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    c. Analyse the Manifestation of the Holy Spirit in the church and
    Christians today.

    ré. Give the role of love in church and in Christian lives today

    une. The role of Holy Spirit in Church and in Christian lives today.

    Read John 14:15-26 and John 16: 5-15, Acts 1: 7- 8
    The Holy Spirit has many roles in the church and in Christian lives today.

    These roles are to:

  • Teach Christians on a daily basis messages of Jesus
  • Live in the hearts of believers of Christ
  • Be an advocate, a counselor, helper and a comforter to those who love
    Jesus Christ and obey God’s
    commandments.
  • He would remind the disciples the words said by Jesus Christ and
    introduce them to their deeper
    meanings.
  • Interpret the deeper meaning of the messages of Jesus Christ.
  • Reveal the truth and mysteries of and about God.
  • Affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God.
  • Reveal the glory of Jesus death.
  • Reveal what is right and wrong.
  • Give the disciples of Jesus power to become witnesses of Christ.
  • Give courage to the disciples of Jesus and modern Christians to face
    prosecution on the account of
    following Jesus.
  • Enable the disciples to expose the secret lives and heart of sinful people.
  • Guide Christians; help believers to cast away evils spirits, to heal, to
    preach the word of God, to
    encourage, and to condemn evil in the society.

    b. Paul teaching about the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Read 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14.

    Spiritual gifts are extra-ordinary favors, talents, abilities, and dispositions
    given to Christians by God for

     
    the benefit of all believers.

    The gifts are used for the service of others and
    not for self-glorification and
    gratification.

    The message of Peter on the day of the Pentecost

    Peter told the disciple that what was happening was the fulfillment of
    Jesus’ prophecy.

    – He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God.

    – He said that the suffering and death of Jesus was according to God’s
    plans.

    Death was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecy.

    Gifts of the Holy Spirit

    1. Gift of wisdom:

    – having deep understanding of issues- ‘seeing far’,
    being perceptive

    2. Gift of knowledge:

    – ability to understand the basic facts about Jesus,
    His mission and knowledge
    about spiritual issues.

    3. The gift of faith:

    – refers to the confidence in God’s help. It is deep
    trust in God.

    4. The Gift of healing:

    – ability, and power to heal all forms of sickness
    by calling upon the name of Jesus
    Christ.

    5. The gift of performing miracles:

    – gift of healing miracles, creative
    miracles for example, dead legs
    becoming alive.

    6. The gift of preaching

    7. The gift of prophecy:

    – the ability to interpret God’s word. The ability
    to foresee what will happen in
    the future as revealed by God.

    8. The gift of distinguishing spirits or discernment:

    – the ability to know
    whether a spiritual gift is from

    God, the Holy Spirit or from the evil spirit.

    9. The gift of speaking in tongues.

    The ability to utter, speak in a tongue,
    language unknown to the
    believer.

    Tongues are used when addressing God for self-edifications. Il est
    personal growth.

    10. The gift of interpretation of tongues:

    – the ability to understand and
    interpret the messages of those
    speaking in tongues.

    11. The gift of love. (Read 1 Corinthians 13)

    Paul stressed that all the gifts of the Holy Spirit are to be demonstrated
    with love.

    He stressed that love,
    a fruit of the Holy Spirit is supreme over other spiritual gifts possessed by
    Christians.

    It’s the greatest of
    all. Speaking in tongues, preaching, and martyrdom without love is
    useless.

    Components of Love
    Love is patient, kind, not jealous or boastful, not arrogant or rude, is not
    ill mannered or selfish, and
    does not insist on its own way.

    It is not disrespectful. It is not irritable or
    resentful. It does not rejoice at
    wrong but rejoices in truth. It bears all things.

    Love believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things. Love is
    eternal. Love never fails.

    le
    other gifts are temporary but love, faith and hope are eternal.

    c. Manifestation of the Holy Spirit in the church and Christians today

    Gifts of the Holy Spirit have been manifested in churches today.

    We see
    this manifestation through
    people possessing the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    For example, leaders in
    church have displayed the gift of

    wisdom.

    Preachers, and Christian’s ministers have been casting out
    demons and performing healing.

    There are reported cases of interpretation of tongues and gift of prophecy
    in churches today.

    When Christians display the gifts of the Holy Spirit such as speaking in
    tongues the Holy Spirit is
    manifested.

    Other manifestations of the Holy Spirit are:

  • Through healing, prophecy, gifts of discernment, boldness in preaching,
    and casting out demons
    among others.
  • Christians helping the poor by giving generosity and in kindness.
  • Through singing, dancing, shouting (fruit of joy)
  • Through unity of believes and fellowships.
  • Through praying.
  • Christian’s persecutions/temptations.

    ré. Criteria for Discerning the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Christians who have the Holy Spirit and are guided by Jesus have certain
    les caractéristiques.

    These are:

  • They will confess that Jesus is Lord
  • They cannot say a curse.
  • They speak the truth. They worship God and behave in accordance with
    Jesus teaching.
  • They led by the Holy Spirit and are known by the fruits of the Holy
    Spirit. These fruits are love, joy,
    peace, and patience.
  • Such persons serve all Christians without discrimination and strife.
  • They do not do sinful acts such as sexual immorality.

    They do not
    practice idolatry, and sorcery.

    Ils
    do not have in their hearts and minds hatred, and jealously or any other
    negative feelings and actions.

    e. The fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:16-26)

    Paul taught that the fruit of the spirit are: Love, Joy, Patience, Long
    suffering, Goodness or Generosity,
    Faith and faithfulness, Peace, Meekness and kindness, gentleness, selfcontrol
    and temperance.

    Answer these questions after reading – John 14:15-26 and John 16: 5-
    15, ACTS 1: 7- 8 and 1 Corinthians chapters 12, 13, and 14.

    1. What is the role of the Holy Spirit among Christians? (Read a)

    2. Discuss the gifts of the Holy Spirit

    3. Write a talk about the Holy Spirit

    4. Define love?

    5. Describe the different types of love

    6. Why do Christians need the Holy Spirit today?

    7. State the role of love in church and in Christian lives today.

    8. How has the gift of the Holy Spirit been manifested in Christian lives?

    9. Which activities show that the Holy Spirit is working among Christian
    in Kenya.

    10. How have the gifts of the Holy Spirit been misused in the church
    today?

    Answers are also in the text. Read sections with answers

    1. The role of the holy spirit

    An advocate, a counsellor and a comforter.

    He would remind and introduce the disciples to the deeper meaning of the
    word of Jesus Christ.

    To reveal the myth and mysteries of God.

    He would affirm the right of Jesus as the Son of God.

    He would reveal the glory of Jesus’ death.

    He would enable the disciples to discern and expose the secret heart of
    sinful men.

    2. The gift of the Holy Spirit has been misused today by pride and public
    manifestation of the gift as a
    way of show off.

    Some Christians have misused the gift of Holy Sprit of
    prophecy by prophesying for
    argent.

    Lesson Two. Peter’s Message on the Day of Pentecost.

    Read Acts 2: 14-41

    introduction

    Jews commemorate Pentecost day. This is the day that God gave Moses
    his laws on mount Sinai.

    Il est
    also referred to as the festival of weeks.

    Pentecost day was celebrated 50
    days after the Passover.

    C'était
    compulsory for all Jews.

    On this day, Jews brought offering, the first
    fruits of harvest, to the temple in
    Jerusalem.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson You should be able: –

    1. Describe Pentecost day.

    2. Narrate Peters’ Message.

    3. Explain the relevance of the Pentecostal Experience

    une. Pentecost a day

    On the Pentecostal day, the disciples were gathered in Jerusalem awaiting
    the promise of the Holy
    Spirit.

    And as promised, the Holy Spirit came in the form of a strong
    wind, and tongues of fire.

    The Holy
    Spirit rested on the head of each disciple.

    The disciples received the gift
    of the Holy Spirit.

    They spoke in
    new tongues.

    Some of the observers mistook this experience.

    Ils
    thought that the disciples were
    drunk with wine.

    Peter stood up to explain what was happening and defend the disciples.

    He told those who saw the
    experience that the disciples were not drunk. It was in the morning.

    b. Peter’s Message. Read Joel 2: 28 – 32

    Peter told the onlookers that; what was happening is fulfillment of Joel’s
    prophesies about the
    outpouring of Gods spirit.

    He said that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of
    God.

    This was proved by the
    miracles that Jesus performed.

    He emphasized that the suffering and death
    of Jesus was according to
    God’s plans.

    Jesus is a descendant of David.

    Death and the resurrection of
    Jesus fulfilled prophesies in
    the Old Testament.

    God raised Jesus from the dead.

    He taught that Jesus had both the nature
    of God and Man.

    The apostles
    are the living witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus. Jesus has been
    exalted and sits on the right hand of
    God where He is Lord and Judge.

    They holy Spirit is a gift from Jesus
    Peter then invited the listeners to repentance so that they could be
    forgiven and receive the gift of the
    Holy Spirit.

    Three thousand souls accepted salvation message and were
    added to the fellowship of the
    disciples.

    c. After the Holy Spirit infilling.

    The disciples sold their possessions and goods and assisted the needy.
    They did many wonders and
    signs.

    They continued to live in unity, worshiping God, fellowshipping
    together, and breaking the bread.

    ré. Lessons Christians learn from Leadership of Peter.
    Christians should be:

    1. Courageous and stand up for Jesus Christ all the times.

    2. Ready to spread the Gospel of Christ.

    3. Win new converts to Jesus by inviting them to repentance.

    4. Have faith in the risen Christ.

    5. Pray to be filled with the Holy Spirit like Peter and those in church
    leadership should take their roles
    seriously.

    e. Relevance of the Pentecostal Experience

    Speaking in diverse tongues signified that Christianity is a universal
    religion.

    It pointed out the
    importance of all languages when communicating to God. There were no
    specific languages for speaking
    with God, as it was when Latin was the language of literacy and
    Christianity.

    Christians should be bold in their preaching.

    They should not be afraid as
    they have the counsel and
    helper, the Holy Spirit.

    Christians should understand that God chooses
    anyone as a leader, preacher, and
    witness of Christ.

    Pentecostal experience signifies that Christians need to receive and be
    filled with the Holy Spirit.

    Revision questions

    a) Explain the meaning of the Pentecost

    b) Describe the manifestations of the holy spirit on the day of the
    Pentecost (Acts 2: 1-40)(or narrate the
    events that took place on the day of the Pentecost)

    c) Write down five teachings about Jesus from Peter’s speech on the day
    of the Pentecost.

    d) What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader of
    the apostolic church?

    e) What lessons can Christians learn from the events of the day of the
    Pentecost?

    f) State the teachings of Jesus on the holy spirit (John 14:14-26) (acts 1:7- 8)

    g) What is the role of the holy spirit according to Jesus?

    h) What is the role of the holy spirit in the believers or the church or
    Christians?

    i) Outline the fruits of the holy spirit

    j) State the criteria for discerning the spiritual gifts

    k) List down the gifts of the holy spirit

    l) Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts

    m) Explain how the Holy spirit is manifested in the church today

    n) State ways in which the gifts of the holy spirit are being abused in the
    church today.

    Topic Two: the Unity of Believers
    Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Explain teaching in selected New Testament texts of the unity of
    believers.

    b) Identify the metaphors used to describe unity of believers.

    c) Identify the causes of disunity in the early and modern church.

    Lesson One: Teachings of the Unity of Believers in
    Selected New Testament Texts

    Unity of believers refers to oneness of those who have faith in Jesus
    Christ.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson you should be able to: –

    i. Describe activities of early Christians.

    ii. Describe characteristics of the people of God.

    iii. Explain the meanings of these symbolic expressions.

    – The body of Christ

    – The Vine and the Branches

    – The Church / Assembly of God

    – The Bride

    une. Early Christians

    The early Christians in Jerusalem demonstrated their unity by.

  • Holding joint prayer sessions
  • Sharing the Lords supper, that is Eucharist.
  • Sharing their possessions with the poor.

    The showed oneness and unity as believers.

    They expressed their oneness
    using various terms, images,
    metaphors and symbols.

    They regarded themselves as the people of God,
    the church and an Assembly
    of God.

    When they celebrated the last supper, eating of bread was a
    symbol of the body of Christ.

    Ils
    saw themselves as belonging to one tree with the vine and branches.

    Comme
    followers of Christ, the early
    Church saw itself as the Bride of Christ.

    b. Discussion of Symbolic Expressions

    i. The people of God

    Read 1 Peter 2: 9-10. Peter has outlined the characteristics of the people
    of God.

    He says that the
    people of God are
    Believers in God: through faith in Jesus Christ.

    The ‘Chosen race’, ‘a royal priesthood’, a holy nation’ ‘a chosen people’
    Those who stand out from the rest because they live a holy and righteous
    la vie.

    Form a Holy nation chosen to proclaim the works of God.

    Not just the descendants of Abraham but people who follow Jesus Christ
    and His teachings.

    ii. The body of Christ

    Read 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, and Ephesians’ 4:1-12.

    The Holy Spirit is the one who brings Christians together as one body of
    Christ to serve the church.

    Christians are given gifts for the purpose of sharing the body of Christ.

    Jesus Christ is the head of the church.

    And just as the body has many
    parts, playing different roles, so
    has the Church.

    Every member of the church plays a vital role because
    different members have different
    spiritual gifts and callings.

    Some are Apostles, Teachers, Prophets,
    Evangelists, Pastors and Miracle
    performers, Administrators and those who show mercy to others and
    encourage (exhort) others.

    All church activities should be directed to the welfare of the church, just
    as the function of each part of
    the body is necessary for the well being of the whole body.

    To have a
    united body, members should be
    meek, and patient in order to bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit.

    For a church
    to be united, or to be
    considered as one body, Christians should have faith in God the father,
    one Lord Jesus Christ, one Holy
    Spirit and have faith in God through Jesus Christ.

    iii. The Vine and the Branches Read John 15:1-10

    The vine represents Jesus. Vine tree was a tree that bore grapes.

    The vine
    tree was a symbol of
    prosperity and peace.

    Jesus is the vine and the Father is the vine dresser.

    Christians/ believers are the
    branches.

    They are expected to produce good fruits by remaining faithful
    and united in Christ.

    Faithful
    branches bear fruit like good Christians while unfruitful branches are like
    unfruitful Christians.

    Christians should remain united to Christ who is the vine so as to bear
    fruits.

    The teachings of Jesus
    purify the Christians.

    The dead branches of the Vine trees are cut off and
    the livings ones are trimmed or
    pruned.

    This is done so that the vines may produce high yields. Likewise
    unfaithful Christians, believers
    are rebuked and corrected so as to bear high yields.

    iv. The Church or Assembly of God. Read Ephesians 5: 21 – 32

    Church is a Greek word “““ekklesia””, which means people. People who
    belong to the Lord.

    Assembly of
    God is the coming together of people of diverse social and cultural
    backgrounds who recognize lordship
    of Jesus.

    The church is likened to the relationship between a husband and
    a wife.

    Christians (the church)
    are expected to be united with Christ just as a husband and wife are united
    in marriage.

    Tout comme
    husbands and wives are expected to love one another, so too, are
    Christians called upon to express love
    to one another and to love God.

    A husband is the head of a family; Jesus is also the head of the church.

    v. The Bride. Read 2 Corinthian 11: 2, and Revelations 21: 1 – 12

    In the Old Testament, God calls Israel a bride.

    In the New Testament,
    Christians are referred to as “a
    bride’ in the New Jerusalem’.

    God or Jesus Christ is the bridegroom.
    Christians are reminded that the life
    on earth is a temporary home.

    Their real home is in heaven, the Holy city
    of God.

    Just as a bride is
    expected to be faithful to her husband, so are Christians expected to be
    faithful to God by observing the

    covenant way of life.

    Deviation from the covenant was portrayed as
    adultery.

    John, who wrote the book of revelations, sees a vision of a new heaven
    and a new earth in which faithful
    Christians will be rewarded.

    Christ will come to take His bride to eternity
    to live there forever.

    le
    relationship between Christians and Jesus/ God is like a marriage.

    C'est un
    covenant.

    It is a relationship
    where the church (bride) is expected to submit to God.

    Jesus died for the
    church, a show of His or God’s
    love.

    Likewise Christians should be committed in their relationship to
    God.

    SAQ. 1. Discuss in twos who is a bride and what takes place in a
    wedding.

    2. Discuss the significance of the symbols used to express the unity of the
    believers.

    These are “The
    people of God”, “The body of Christ”, “The vine and the branches” “The
    church or assembly of God” and
    “The bride”.

    Lesson Two: Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

    The early church experienced some challenges, which led to divisions
    among the early disciples and
    Christians.

    Learning Outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    i Identify causes of disunity in the early church

    ii State causes of disunity in the modern church

    iii Compare the causes of disunity in the early and modern church

    iv Suggest possible solutions to disunity in modern church

    une. Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

    After Jesus ascended to his Father and left the Holy Spirit to look after his
    followers, the disciples
    established congregations or communities to spread the Word of God.

    Comme
    believers of Christ met and
    prayed together, there were disagreements and divisions brought about by
    several factors and issues.

    These were:

    Disputes, among early Christians; concerning leadership of the Church.

    Christians wanted different
    leaders:

    Paul, Apollos, Cephas or Christ.

    Paul told them that Christ
    couldn’t be divided (1 Corinthians
    1:10 -21).

    Sexual immorality was another cause of disunity in the early church.

    Some Christians were doing or
    having irresponsible sexual behaviours.

    These were incest, fornication,
    and prostitution.

    Paul
    condemned such behaviours and told Christians to stop sinning and honor
    God with their bodies.

    le
    body of a Christian is the temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthian 5: 1-13,
    6:12 – 20).

    Christians settling disputes in civil courts.

    Paul advised they ought to talk
    over issues among themselves
    and agree to solve problems on their own (1 Corinthians 6).

    Dispute over marriage and divorce. Some Christians were opposed to
    marriage. Others were
    encouraging divorce.

    Paul addressed these issues in 1 Corinthian, chapter
    71-16. Paul advised Christians
    that it was okay to marry or not to marry.

    But marriage was needed to
    stop immorality.

    Eating of meat offered to idols.

    Some Christians were eating meat offered
    to idols while others were
    against it.

    Paul advised Christians not to eat anything that will cause their
    faith to weaken or fail. (1
    Corinthians 8 and10: 14 – 20.

    There were disputes about dressing during worship. Should women cover
    their head during worship?

    Should women shave hair? Should men wear long hair? (1 Corinthian
    11:1-16).

    Some Christians were overeating and over drinking during the Holy
    Communion – misuse of the Lord’s
    Supper, (1 Corinthians 11:17 – 33).

    Misuses of spiritual gift especially the gift of speaking in tongues.

    Paul
    taught that all gifts are equal (1
    Corinthians 12).

    There was a misunderstanding about the resurrection of the body and the
    dead.

    Some were saying
    there is no resurrection.

    Paul preached that if there is no resurrection then
    their preaching was in vain
    as they were witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians
    15).

    b. Causes of disunity among believers and church in Kenya today

    Leadership differences. Some Christians are struggling for power.

    Cette
    has led to formation of splinter
    groups, divisions and enmity between these groups.

    Cultural differences. Christians are divided by their African cultural
    beliefs from their backgrounds.

    Cette
    culture is merged with Christianity and Western cultural practices forming
    a unique mixture of beliefs.

    Some Christians are permissive, while others are conservative. This has
    led to disunity, for example in
    the areas of dressing.

    Discrimination. There is inequality within the church between the rich and
    the poor, the whites and
    blacks.

    Some Christians are viewed as more spiritual than others, on basis
    of the tribe, gender, wealth
    and social status among others.
    Misuse of freedom of worship.

    Christians are starting sprinter churches,
    probably because they want to
    control church finances without supervision by the wider church.

    À
    justify their departure, they spread
    propaganda against the ‘mother’ church, and other churches in order to
    attract followers.

    Le plus
    followers a church has the more tithe it collects.

    Misuse of church funds.

    Some church leaders and followers misuse
    church funds.

    Differences in the practice of baptism

    Arrogance and pride by some Christians.

    Sins: sexual immorality in the church, divorce and marriage issues.

    Some Christian denominations reject the human nature of the person of
    Jesus Christ; that Christ had
    both a human and divine nature e.g. Nomiya church.

    SAQ. Can you think of factors that led to disunity among Christians in the
    early church that you have
    noted in the Kenyan church?

    c. Reasons why Christians should work in Unity.

    Christians face many problems and they therefore need to work together
    in unity to:

    Promote oneness of Christians in Jesus Christ.

    Promote the teachings of Jesus Christ.

    Achieve effective evangelism or ministry.

    Adopt a common attitude to the integration of African culture in worship.

    Prevent the formation of sprinter groups and cults.

    Reduce the internal wrangling.

    Have a common stand in dealing with issues affecting the society.

    ré. Possible Solutions to disunity
    The church should settle issues that divide its members by Christians:

    Learning to appreciate and respect the practices and belief of other
    Christian’s denominations.

    Having or forming a common goal
    Striving to be guided by the principle of love in solving problems facing
    leur.

    Observing the teachings of disciples, prophets, apostles, God, laws of
    Moses, Jesus and the Bible.

    Avoiding doing anything to their fellow Christians that would cause
    suffering and disharmony.

    Activities that the early church did in order to remain united were that
    they:

    Ate bread together.

    Held fellowships together.

    Shared with the needy.

    Prayed together for each other
    In the current worldwide Church, there is disunity amongst believers or
    Christians.

    The most common
    ones are due.

    Leadership differences and wrangles for power.

    Cultural differences amongst Christians.

    Some Christians are permissive while others are conservative.

    Differences in the interpretation of the Bible.

    Misuse of church funds.

    Pride and arrogance.

    Revision questions

    une. Write down terms used in the new testament to refer to believers in
    Christ.

    b. Identify five causes of disunity in the church today.

    c. Identify factors which cause disunity among the Christians today.

    ré. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it
    difficult to harmoniously live
    together.

    e. Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today

    Topic Three. Teachings From Selected Old Testament
    Prophets
    introduction

    This chapter introduces one to the work of prophets in the Old Testament.
    In Form One, some prophets
    were taught e.g. Moses, Elijah, Nathan and Samuel.

    Traditional African
    prophets were also taught.

    In Form Three, we compare true and false prophets and the Traditional
    African prophets.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

    une. Define a prophet, and prophecy

    b. Identify categories of prophets

    c. Explain the importance of prophets in Israel.

    ré. Describe the characteristics of prophets.

    e. Explain how prophetic messages were written.

    f. Compare the relationship between prophesies in the Old Testament and
    the New Testament.

    Lesson One: Prophets

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: –

    1. Give a correct definition of a prophet, and prophecy

    2. List prophets in categories

    une. Definitions of a prophet, and prophecy

    The word prophet comes from a Hebrew word “Rabii’ meaning ‘one who
    is called or one who
    announces God’s message.

    A prophet is also referred to as a seer.

    UNE
    prophet is a person sent by God to
    teach and give people messages about things to come in future from God.

    Prophets received divine
    messages from God and communicated them to the people.

    A prophet

    Is therefore a person who foretells events as revealed to him or
    her by God. Examples of
    prophets include Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah and prophetesses (female
    prophet) Deborah, and Huidah.

    Prophecy

    Is a statement, a message of something that is going to happen
    in the future.

    The action of
    giving future messages is called prophecy.

    b. Categories of prophets

    There were many categories of prophets. These were:

    a) Major Prophets.

    These were Prophet’s whose messages covered a long
    période de temps.

    Leur
    messages were long and detailed. For example Prophet Jeremiah, Ezekiel,
    and Daniel.

    b) Minor prophets.

    There are 12 books of the Minor Prophets examples
    They are called minor because
    their messages are short, brief and do not contain detailed information.

    The Minor Prophets are Amos,
    and Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah,
    Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.

    c) Canonical prophets the term canon means law.

    Canonical prophets are
    law prophets.

    L'individu
    utterances of these prophets are laws. Both minor and major prophets are
    canonical prophets.

    d) The early prophets

    Are Moses, Nathan Elijah, and Elisha. Celles-ci
    prophets belonged to guilds schools.

    Their prophecies are not recorded under their names.

    Their prophecies are
    written in books, which do
    not bear their names.

    e) Cultic prophets

    like Hannah (N.T.) served in the places of worship.
    They assisted the priest officiating
    worship.

    f) Professional / court prophets like Samuel, Micah, and Gad lived
    together in the temple and in groups.

    They earned their living through their work. They did not work elsewhere.

    g) False prophets

    Are pretenders to speak in the name of Yahweh but God
    did not call them.

    They spoke
    lies in accordance with the messages people wanted to hear.

    c. Characteristics of true prophets

    There were two (2) major categories of prophets in the Old Testament,

    (1)
    true prophets and

    (2) false
    prophets.

    True prophets

    are those whose prophecies occurred and were
    fulfilled.

    Prophesies of false
    prophets did not occur.

    True prophets distinguished themselves from false
    prophets and ordinary
    personnes.

    They experienced God dramatically when He called them and in their
    ministry.

    They were God’s
    spokesmen and women.

    They responded in faith to their call.

    God gave them specific tasks in their commission and God’s assurance
    and support in their ministry.

    They urged people to repent and turn back to God.

    In their messages, they taught that God demands sincere worship and not
    elaborate rituals.

    Ils
    understood God and taught about God righteousness, goodness,
    mercifulness, and loving care.

    Ils
    condemned evil in the society and proclaimed God’s judgment and
    punishment to those who failed to
    keep the covenant.

    They spoke with authority and acted with courage.
    They upheld God as a universal
    God for all nations.

    They talked of a remnant that shall remain after
    punishment or those that have
    continued to worship God sincerely.

    Their utterances were true because
    they were fulfilled.

    They spent a lot of their time in prayers.

    They prayed regularly. At such
    times they withdrew from
    people in order to have a quiet time to seek God.

    All the true prophets received opposition from their audiences and they
    were ready to suffer for telling
    God’s word.

    ré. The Characteristics of false prophets.

    Some of the prophecy of false prophets contradicted prophesies of the true
    prophets.

    False prophets
    followed their own imaginations, and gave false hopes. They told people
    what they wanted to hear.

    They had no personal knowledge of God.

    Hence, their prophecies were
    not in line with the divine
    revelations.

    They used evil forces such as magic, and divinations to call upon the
    spirits of the dead.

    They were paid
    for prophesy and benefits materially from their clients.

    They served Baal
    and were mainly immoral.

    Ils
    committed crime.

    Review questions

    How can we know true and false prophets today?

    Lesson Two: Importance of Prophets in Israel
    introduction
    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should:

    Lesson Two: Importance of Prophets in Israel

    introduction

    1. Describe the work of prophets in Israel

    2. Explain how God communicated with prophets and Israelites

    3. Analyse the content of the Prophetic messages

    1. Work of prophets in Israel

    Prophets kept Israelites in communication with God. They communicated
    God’s will to the people of
    Israel.

    They foretold God’s judgments and punishment for sinners. Ils
    condemned the behaviour of
    the rich towards the poor.

    Through their messages, people reformed their
    lives since they condemned
    all forms of social evils and ritual sins.

    They contributed to the writing of their messages leading to the
    compilation of the Bible.

    Prophets guided and gave people hope.

    They taught people the laws of
    God.

    They warned people of
    dangers to come.

    They condemned idolatry and stressed the worship of
    one true God, Yahweh.

    They anointed the Kings in Israel.

    Kings consulted the prophets before
    any major undertaking such as
    war among others.

    They acted as conscience of kings.

    They advised them and challenged
    Kings when they went wrong.

    2. God’s communication with prophets and Israelites

    God communicated to Prophets through visions, voices that were audible
    and clear, events, prayers,
    dreams, signs, ordinary things, and words which came to their minds with
    great power.

    Writing messages of the prophets

    The canonical prophets as mentioned earlier had their works and
    prophecies recorded under their
    des noms.

    Canonical prophets are referred to as writing prophets. Ses
    possible that some prophets wrote
    down their own prophecies.

    They wrote what God spoke to them as He
    dictated.

    An example is
    Jeremiah who wrote what he was told …’Get a scroll and write on it
    everything that I have told you
    about Israel, Judah and all nations. (Jeremiah 36:2, Isaiah 30:8).

    Two, the prophet’s message were probably written by other people.

    Celles-ci
    were their assistant,
    secretary, scribe, and disciples or followers as the prophet prophesied.

    Thirdly some of the prophetic messages could have been preserved as oral
    traditions and later written
    as books.

    A good example is 2 Kings.

    e. Content of the Prophetic messages

    Prophetic messages contained lessons from God to Israel. Par exemple,
    the:

    i. Prophetic sayings were and still are oracles or poetic passages spoken
    by God himself through
    prophets.

    The prophecies were addressed to different nations. Ils
    carried specific teachings to the

     
    people, for example predicting future occurrences.

    ii. Narratives in the first person give an account of the prophet’s
    testimony.

    They spoke of their
    experiences with God, and responses to the call of God. They tell us about
    prophet’s impelling
    compulsion to speak God’s word.

    The narratives are written in the first
    la personne.

    They have a format ‘ The
    Lord said to me… The year that King Uzziah died, I was the Lord…”

    iii. Narratives in the third 3rd person have messages written by a third
    party, i.e. not the prophet but
    another person.

    For example, “Isaiah said to them, “Thus you shall say to
    your master, thus says the
    Lord: “Do not be afraid of the words.” (Isaiah 37:6).

    The message
    recounts the prophets’ personal life,
    and political background.

    Lesson Three: Prophesies in the Old Testament, New

    Testament and African Traditional Society

    introduction

    The Israelites and the African traditional societies as well as other world
    communities had prophets who
    foretold the future.

    Among the Israelites, there were prophets chosen by
    God and false prophets who
    told messages which communities wanted to hear.

    Among the African
    traditional communities, there
    were wise men and women who prophesied about the future.

    In this lesson, we shall compare these prophecies and learn what was
    similar and different about these
    leur.

    The Old Testament prophecies are compared with those from the
    African traditional society and

     
    the New Testament
    Learning outcomes.

    After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

    une. State relationships between Prophesies in the Old Testament New
    Testament and the African
    Traditional Society

    b. Discuss the similarities between prophets in the African traditional
    society and the Old Testament.

    c. Identify differences between prophets in the African traditional society
    and the Old Testament.

    une. Relationships between Prophesies

    Several Old Testament (O.T.) prophecies were and are fulfilled in both
    the old and New Testament (N.T)
    in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ.

    The Law of Moses is used in both
    the Old Testament and the New
    Testament.

    However Jesus gave the law a deeper meaning.

    The teachings and prophecies of the prophets provided the foundation for
    the message in the New
    Testament.

    The prophecies of Prophet Nathan to King David that God
    would raise up an offspring from
    the lineage of David was fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the expected messiah.

    Jesus disciples in the New Testament referred a lot to messages in the Old
    Testament.

    The teachings of
    Jesus in the New Testament are based in the Old Testament prophecies.
    They are therefore similar to
    each other because New Testament is a continuation of the Old
    Testament.

    The New Testament is the new covenant spoken of by Prophet Jeremiah
    and other Prophets like Isaiah,
    Micah, and Nathan.

    Their prophecies about Messiah are fulfilled in the
    New Testament.

    b. Similarities between prophets in the African traditional society and the
    Old Testament.

    In both
    traditions, prophets:

  • Were endowed with divine powers and they dealt with religious matters.
  • Acted as intermediaries between God and people
  • Warned people of impending dangers and disasters due to disobedience
  • Had supernatural experiences
  • Encouraged morality and discouraged evil ways
  • In some cases, could heal
  • Withstood oppression and opposition by the political rulers
  • Encouraged people to fight injustices in society
  • Foretold future disasters such as drought and wars.

    They explained why
    they were going to occur.

  • Were consulted when things were not well in the society.
  • Received revelations through dreams, visions and thoughts.
  • Were gender sensitive male prophets and female prophetesses.

    c. Differences (O.T.) between prophets in the African traditional society
    and the Old Testament.

    The Old Testament prophets had a personal relationship with God. Ils
    communicated God’s messages
    to Israelites.

    The prophets in the African traditional society communicated and
    received messages from the ancestor spirits.

    Old Testament prophets were God’s mouthpieces.

    They began their
    prophesy with ‘thus saith the
    lord’…. While the prophets in the African traditional society predicted
    what would happen to individuals,
    and communities.

    The authority of prophets in the Old Testament came from God while the
    authority of prophets in the
    African traditional society came from their ancestors’ spirits.

    In the Old Testament prophets were called directly by God while in some
    African traditional
    communities the prophetic office was hereditary.

    The African traditional
    prophets dealt with family and
    local community issues while Old Testament prophets dealt with national
    issues, and crises.

    africain
    traditional prophets were diviners while Old Testament prophets
    consulted God.

    ré. Relevance of Old Testament prophets to Christians today

    Christian should be ready to be messengers of God. The call to be a
    Christian has a prophetic role.

    Certains
    Christians are called to the office of a prophet and should prophecy for the
    glory of God and for the
    common good of the people.

    As God’s spokes person one should always
    stand for the truth.

    Christian
    should proclaim God’s will even if the message is not pleasant to the
    personnes.

    Once appointed as a prophet, one should pass the messages to who ever
    they are sent to without fear
    or favour.

    God’s messengers should always condemn the social political
    economic evils in the society.

    As God’s messengers Christians should live exemplary lives.

    They should
    stand for what they preach and
    should expect persecutions because of their works as God’s messengers.

    They should be ready to suffer
    for the sake of the gospel.

    Christians should pray to God to give them guidance, wisdom, and
    inspiration to be able to handle
    hardships in their lives.

    They should provide hope for the people in times
    of suffering.

    Christians should realize that God calls both men and women to His
    un service. They should be ready to
    obey Gods’ prophetic call and not run away e.g. Jonah.

    They should be
    concerned and take care of the
    welfare of the poor community members.

    Revision questions

    1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy

    2. List five categories of true prophets

    3. State the difference between true and false prophets

    4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?

    5. Outline the similarities and differences between the old testament
    prophets and the traditional
    African ones.

    6. What is the relevance of prophets to Christians today?

    Topic Four: Prophet Amos
    introduction

    Amos is one of the prophets God sent to Israel to warn the people because
    of their evil life.

    Politically, the Nation of Israel had become rich. There grew classer, the
    rich and the poor.

    The rich
    started oppressing the poor.

    Socially, there was still the rich – poor gap.

    The rich exploited the poor.

    Merchants sold bad food,
    expensive and used false measurer.

    Religiously, the Israelites had turned away from God and were
    worshiping false gods.

    Syncretism was

     
    practiced.

    Priests were paid and God’s prophets were rejected.
    It is in this situation that Amos was called.

    He is called through visions.

    Amos is one of the canonical or writing prophets.

    The book of Amos is a
    temptation of oracles spoken by
    the prophet on different occasions.

    Note that after the death of King
    Solomon, the kingdom of Israel
    was split into two and rules by Rehoboam and Jeroboam.

    The northern
    Kingdom; called Judah was ruled
    by Rehoboam and was inhabited by two tribes.

    The southern kingdom
    called Israel was ruled by
    Jeroboam and was inhabited by 10 tribes.

    Amos came from Judah and
    prophesied in Israel.

    Topic Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

    a) Analyse Prophet Amos work in Israel

    b) Describe the call of Amos

    c) Explain the teaching of Amos

    d) Relate relevance of Amos teaching to Christianity today

    Lesson One: Prophet Amos work in Israel
    Read Amos 1:1
    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should:

    1. Describe the call of Amos

    2. Describe the socio, political and economic situation in Israel during the
    time of Prophet Amos

    3. Explain religious situation in Israel

    1. The call of Amos (Amos 1:1,3:8,7:10 – 15)

    Prophet Amos was born in a village called Tekoa in Judah, the southern
    kingdom. Before his call, Amos
    was a shepherd and a dresser of sycamore trees.

    He was not a professional
    prophet.

    But God called him
     
    to be a prophet. He received his call in form of a vision around 758 BC.

    Amos responded to God’s call
    with obedience.

    He felt a deep compulsion to prophesy (Amos 3:8). Dieu
    directed him to give his
    message to the people of Israel, the northern kingdom (Amos 7:15).

    Il
    was asked to speak the will of
    Yahweh.

    He was also to fore tell punishment if Israelites did not repent
    their sins.

    His message was
    opposed, and challenged by Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

    2. Religion.

    Israelites worshipped Yahweh and other gods. Idolatry was
    also present.

    This form of
    worship is called Syncretism .

    There was religious hypocrisy. Like today,
    there was an emphasis on
    external observances of religious practices and less concern for internal
    observances.

    The priests were
    paid for religious work.

    Those who couldn’t pay did not have religious
    ceremonies.

    They were offered at
    the expense of the poor.

    The prophets of God were rejected.

    3. Social – economic – political situation.

    When Amos prophesied, King
    Jeroboam ruled Israel, the
    northern kingdom while King Uzziah ruled Judah.

    Amos was sent to
    prophesy to the people of Israel in
    the northern kingdom.

    He concentrated his work mainly in Bethel and
    Samaria – the capital city of Israel
    and the main centres of worship.

    When Amos started his prophesy, there was peace and prosper in Israel
    and Judah. Both kingdoms were
    wealthy. However, the wealth did not reach the poor.

    This was because
    the wealth and power were in

    the hands of the king, his family, his officials, and wealthy merchants.

    Comme
    a result, Israel citizens were
    divided into two classes; the rich and the poor.

    Unfortunately, the rich people owned big luxurious houses.

    They drunk
    wine, and used the most
    expensive perfumes.

    They acquired their wealth at the expense of the
    poor.

    They oppressed and
    exploited the poor.

    The merchants of trade for example, were dishonest in
    their trade businesses.

    Ils
    sold bad wheat to unsuspecting customers and overcharged customers by
    measuring with false scales.

    Because of the inflated prices, the poor borrowed money from the rich at
    high interest rates to buy
    basic things like food.

    Hence, there was massive bribery and corruption in
    society and law courts.

    As a result the poor lacked basic necessities or needs like food, shelter,
    and clothing.

    It was at this time
    when God sent Amos to give prophesy to Israel.

    SAQ. How did the rich oppress the poor in Israel?

    Lesson Two: Visions of Amos
    Read Amos 7: 1 – 9, 8:1 – 3. 9:1 – 4)

    Vision is a picture we have in our mind. It is a future to come. Amos was
    shown many visions by God.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading these verses in Amos you should be able
    to: –

    1. Analyse all the visions and

    2. State the message of each vision

    3. Summaries things that God condemned through Amos

    1. The vision of the locusts (Amos 7:1 – 3 )

    Amos saw a swarm of locusts being sent by God to destroy all plants and
    food crops in the land.

    le
    locusts were, a sign of disaster, which God was going to send to Israel as
    a punishment for their
    disobedience.

    Amos cried to God to forgive the people. God heard and
    changed his mind.

    2. The vision of a great fire (Amos 7:4 – 6)

    Amos saw a vision of a supernatural fire that burnt up the land.

    Il a demandé
    God to forgive the people and
    God listened. The punishment was stopped.

    3. The vision of a crooked wall/ the plumb line (Amos 7:7 – 9)

    Amos saw the Lord standing beside the wall checked it with a plumb line.

    The wall represented the
    Israelites.

    They stopped observing the laws of their covenant with God.
    God found Israelites disobeying
    the covenant.

    God promised to destroy holy places of Israel..

    4. The vision of a basket of ripe fruits (Amos 8:1 – 3)

    In this vision, Amos saw a basket of ripe fruits. Fruits are harvested at the
    end of the summer.

    Cette
    meant that Israel was ripe for punishment for her refusal to turn to God.

    Amos did not pray for
    forgiveness.

    God would no longer withhold His judgment. Time for
    repentance was over.

    5. The vision of the destruction of the altar. Read Amos 9:1 – 4.

    Amos saw the Lord standing by the altar.

    The Lord ordered the
    destruction of the temple.

    The shrines of
    Dan and Bethel were destroyed because they were the centres of idolatry.
    No one would escape
    punishment no matter where they hide.

    Summary of issues that God pointed out to Israel through Prophet Amos

    une. Lack of social justice
    There was lack of social justice and responsibility by the king of Israel.
    Social justice means dealing with
    other people fairly.

    It implies showing concern for the needs of others.

    b. Lack of responsibility.

    This refers to the rulers and people of Israel
    being accountable for their actions.

    In modern life, it is doing ones duty and fulfilling ones obligation to God
    et d'autres.

    c. Practice of hypocritical religion in Israel.

    The Israelites were insincere
    in their worship.

    They made
    empty sacrifices.

    They worshipped idols as well as God. They profaned
    the name of God (Yahweh).

    Ils
    made idols of Baal and offered sacrifices to them.

    They worshipped other
    gods. This is syncretism and
    God does not allow worship of any other God but himself.

    ré. God’s judgment against Israel and other nations.

    God promised to
    destroy Israel and leave a remnant
    of them for restoration.

    e. Oppressions of the poor by the rich

    God condemned King Jeroboam rule of Israel because of the oppression
    of the poor, government
    corruption and bribery of king’s officials.

    These officials sold the
    righteous for silver and the needy for a
    pair of sandals (shoes) i.e. its like practising slavery.

    The rich trampled on
    the poor, despised them and
    placed no value on the poor.

    The poor gave their garments as security for
    loan.

    This was contrary to
    God’s commandments.

    The garment was supposed to be returned back to
    the owner before sunset.

    le

     
    Samaritan women were ‘fat like the well fed cows of Bashan’ led
    luxurious lives and were very unkind to
    the poor.

    The rich took an excessive share of the harvest from the farmers.
    Rulers loved luxury and were
    arrogant.

    They loved material things and showed pride in material
    possessions.

    They used expensive
    perfumes.

    f. Corruption and bribery.

    The judges were corrupt. They accepted bribes.
    There was a conspiracy
    between the rich and the judges against the poor.

    g. Pride in materials possessions

    The capital city of Israel was Samaria. It was built on a mountain called
    Bethel, which was also a place of
    worship.

    There was prosperity in the land.

    The Israelites prided
    themselves in their riches and materials
    possessions. Amos told them God would destroy their wealth.

    h. Dishonesty.

    This is telling lies, cheating or using unjust means to get
    certain things.

    The wealthy
    merchants waited impatiently for the end of the holy days so that they
    could engage in lucrative
    businesses.

    They cheated the poor by using false scales. They sold bad
    wheat to the poor.

    They mixed
    good and bad grains and sold them to unsuspecting people.

    i. Sexual immorality

    Sexual immorality was prevalent or common in Israel. For example a
    father and son would have sex with
    the same girl.

    There was temple (cultic) prostitution. Il y avait
    dishonesty; sexual immorality.

    Cette
    sexual behaviour made the temple unholy.

    j. Drunkenness

    They Israelites spent time drinking when the poor lacked the basic needs.

    They engaged in excessive
    drinking of wine.

    They even forced the Nazarites to drink wine. Ils
    accepted drunkenness.

    k. Profaning the name of the God

    Israelites did not respect the name of God.

    They committed sin. Ils
    forced Nazirites to drink wine;
    forcing it down their throats yet they knew that Nazirites were people set
    aside and chosen by God to
    serve God.

    This act showed contempt of God’s commands. Nazirites were
    not supposed to drink wine or
    cut their hair.

    Israelites did this to show their contempt of the Lord.

    l. Hypocritical Religion and Idolatry in Israel

    Hypocrisy is pretending to be something different from the person one is.

    It is also saying one thing, and
    doing another thing.

    For example, Israelites did a lot of religious rites
    according to the laws of Moses
    and yet majority of them were unjust, corrupt and oppressed the poor.

    They observed the external
    religious activities while their hearts were corrupt and insincere.

    Amos
    condemned Israelites for this
    hypocrisy, characterized by insincere worship, and mixture of religious
    beliefs leading to diverse
    practices of religion i.e. syncretism.

    This is a combination or mixture of
    Israelites’ monotheism
    (Yahwehism) and worship of idols and other gods especially Baal, the
    gods of their neighbours.

    m. Empty sacrifices

    The Israelites made elaborative offerings and sacrifices.

    Yet God was
    interested only in sincere worship

     
    and free will offerings and not mere sacrifices, and tithes.

    ‘Take away
    from me the noise of your songs’
    (Amos 5:21 – 23).

    Lesson Three. God’s Judgment Against Israel and
    Other Nations
    Read Amos chapter 1 and 2

    Learning outcomes. After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

    une. State the sins committed by Israel and other nations

    b. Identify how God punished Israel and other nations

    i) Israel.

    She committed several crimes, which were condemned by
    Prophet Amos. Read lesson two
    again before you go on and list down crimes that were pointed out by
    Amos.

    Okay, you have seen that
    Israel committed crimes of injustice, disobedience to God, breaking their
    covenant with God, idolatry,
    hypocrisy among other sins mentioned above.

    Israel was punished for
    these crimes.

    Punishments were severe. Israelites would be exiled forcibly and
    painfully.

    Earthquakes, famines, fires,
    oppression from foreign kings, epidemics and divine silence, would
    destroy their kingdom and holy
    places.

    ii) Syria.

    Its capital was Damascus. Syria committed war crimes. le
    soldiers were excessively cruel in
    times of war.

    They murdered their prisoners brutally. For this cruelty,
    their punishment was to be
    severe.

    Their palaces would be destroyed by fire and the people would be
    exiled in Kir.

    iii) Gaza and philistines.

    Their crime was capturing other people and
    selling them into slavery. For this

     
    sin, God’s punishment was destruction of their city by divine fire.

    Il
    would burn down the wall of Gaza
    city and destroy it.

    God would have no more association with them.

    iv) Tyre.

    Their Crime was violation of a treaty of friendship they had
    fabriqué.

    They broke it by capturing a
    “whole nation into exile in the land of Edom”.

    The punishment was
    …God would send fire to destroy city
    of Tyre and its fortress (Amos 1:9-10).

    v. Edom.

    Her people were descendants of Esau. Yet Edom was ruthless to
    the Israelite to whom they
    were closely related.

    For this crime of ruthlessness, the punishment was
    … God would destroy them by
    fire.

    vi) Ammon

    committed crime of brutal killings. The people of Ammon
    attacked and killed their
    neighbours.

    They “ripped open pregnant woman in Gilead” (vs. 13).

    God’s punishment was destruction
    of the fortress and wall of the city of Rabbah by fire. “Their king and his
    officers will go into exile: (vs.
    15).

    vii) Moab.

    The people of Moab; their crime was mishandling the body of
    the king of Edom.

    They burned
    his bones to ashes. God’s punishment was destruction of the city of
    Kerioth by divine fire.

    The people,
    their rulers and leaders would be killed in battle.

    viii) Judah.

    Their crimes were

    (1) failure to obey God’s commands and

    (2) despising god’s teaching.

    ix) Samaria, Egypt and Ashdod.

    Their crime was dishonesty and “filling
    their mansions with things taken

     
    by crime and violence” (Amos 3:10). Women of Samaria committed the
    crime of drunkenness,
    oppressing the weak and poor.

    The punishment for all these countries is
    destruction of their land,
    mansions and army.

    But a remnant will not go to captivity, and shall not
    be destroyed.

    Amos said the
    remnants are like … 2 legs, or a piece of an ear of a sheep rescued from
    the mouth of a lion (Amos 3:12).

    x) Amaziah the priest of Bethel.

    He strongly opposed Amos and told him
    to go back and prophesy in
    Judah.

    Amos told Amaziah God sent him to Israel. His punishment for
    opposing God’s messenger was..

    Amaziah’s wife would be a harlot, his children will die in the war, his
    land will be given to others, and
    Amaziah will die in a foreign land (Amos 7: 14-17).

    Lessons to learn from God’s judgment of Israel and other nations

    The Assyrians attacked Israel, occupied their land and exiled others.

    Dieu
    est

    (a) universal,

    (b) God hates
    péché

    (c) God is concerned about the welfare of his people

    (d) God is merciful and spares a remnant.

    xi. Israel’s election (Amos 2:9 – 11, 3:1 – 2, 9:7

    Election: is an act of choosing a person or group of people for a purpose
    or action.

    Israel’s election refers
    to God’s choice of the Israelites out of the entire human kind to be his
    personnes.

    God chose them to serve
    him, be a Holy nation and to be the light of the world.

    God made a
    covenant with the Israelites.

    dans le
    covenant they agreed to live a holy life. In return, God looked after them.

    He led them out of Egypt to

    the wilderness and finally to Canaan.

    God chose His prophets from the
    Israelites and raised Nazirites.

    Despite God’s favour, the Israelites rebelled and sinned against God.

    Et
    although Israelites were
    reminded that God cared for other nations equally and are to be punished
    if they disobeyed God; et
    that they were neither superior, nor better than other nations, they
    disobeyed God several times.

    xii. The day of the lord

    Amos taught that the day of the lord would be a
    day of severe judgment for sins.

    . It is not a time of happiness, joy or victory. It is a day of darkness, terror,
    disaster, gloom, wailing,
    flooding, mourning, defeat, punishment, famine for food and God’s word.

    xiii. The Remnant and Restoration.

    Remnant means a small number of
    survivors.

    These are the Israelites
    who will remain after the entire nation is punished.

    They are also those
    who returned to Jerusalem after
    the exile.

    Restoration is an act of reinstating things / persons to their former state or
    position.

    Amos informed the
    Israelites that God was still looking after them, and waiting for their
    repentance.

    The nation of Israel
    would not be destroyed completely.

    God would preserve the few
    righteous ones.

    He would raise the
    fallen dynasty of David.

    People would be restored back to their land to
    rebuild their cities.

    There was to
    be a great harvest and grapes shall overflow.

    xiv. Duty of Christians.

    Christians are the selected people of God.

    Comme le
    chosen ones, they should one,

    live holy lives and two, use their position to serve God and others.

    Three,
    Christians have a moral
    responsibility to spread God’s word, four, care for the needy and five, be
    the light of the world.

    xv. The Day of the lord. Read Amos 5:18-20, 6:3-5, 8:7-13.

    in the Old
    Testament, the day of the Lord is
    the day that Yahweh would make Israel victorious against other nations.

    On this day the Israelite
    believed that God would establish his rule over and with Israel.

    The day
    of the Lord was also believed to
    be the day when Israel would be prosperous, would have favour with
    God, and the just would triumph
    over the wicked.

    In the New Testament, the day of the lord is also the Day of Judgment
    (Parousia).

    It is the day of the
    second coming of Christ.

    On that day, everyone will be judged. Christians
    believe that it is the day that
    Christ will come for His bride (the church).

    Those who had obeyed the
    laws of God shall be received by
    Christ and given the reward of the eternal life. On that day, God’s
    kingdom shall be established and
    Christ will reign forever.

    xvi. Relevance of Amos teachings to Christians today.

    The messages of
    the prophecy of Amos are
    relevant to Christians today. This is because God is universal.

    He chose
    Israel but still punished her for
    her disobedience, and sins just as He punished other nations like Syria and
    Gaza.

    The message that God hates hypocrisy is very clear.

    Thus Christians
    should truthful and practice what

     
    they preach.

    They must worship God in sincerity. Other messages are:

    Justice.

    Christians should be just / fair in dealing with others.

    Self – Indulgence.

    Christians should not pursue luxury and selfindulgence
    when others lack the basic
    needs.

    Bribery.

    Christians should condemn bribery and corruption, and uphold
    justice.

    Punishment.

    Christians should bear in mind that God will punish every
    evil.

    Wealth.

    When Israel became wealthy, they departed from the covenant
    with God.

    Christians should
    share their wealth with the needy and acquire their wealth justly

    Hypocritical religion.

    Amos taught about hypocrisy in religion. This was
    for example offering empty
    sacrifices.

    Christians have to learn to be sincere, to be concerned about
    their internal well being and soul
    more than outward observances of religion.

    Drunkenness. Christians should not engage in activities that can divert
    their faith from God.

    If that
    happens, they should learn to be Repentant.

    Revision exercise

    1. List the visions that Amos saw

    2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings

    3. Give reasons why prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel

    4. List evils in the society today that Amos would condemn

    Topic Five. Prophet Jeremiah

    Introduction.

    Israel had not taken heed to Amos’ prophecies. This was especially on
    idolatry. So, God sent another

     
    prophet to continue with the same work. Jeremiah was therefore
    appointed as a prophet.

    Jeremiah is one of the Old Testament Major Prophets. He was called to a
    prophet at around 627 B.C.

    Il
    was called as a young man, probably 20 years old. He prophesied in the
    southern kingdom- Judah, for a
    period of 40 years.

    His prophetic ministry took place before and during
    the exile of Judah.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: –

    a Describe the political, Social, and religious background of prophet
    Jeremiah.

    b Describe the personal life and call of Jeremiah.

    c Explain the evils condemned by Jeremiah.

    d Explain the contents of the temple sermon.

    e Highlight the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching on evils, false prophets
    and Christians today.

    Lesson One: the Call Jeremiah

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: –

    i. Describe the situation of the people of Judah

    ii. Identify religious, political and socio classes of Judah

    iii. Describe the call of Jeremiah

    iv. Explain lessons that modern Christians can learn from the call of
    Jeremiah.

    une. The Kingdom of Judah

    Social background
    The people of Judah were divided into three social classes. At the top
    were the (i) Aristocrats.

    Celles-ci
    were the ruling class, which consisted of the king, his family, royal
    officials, princesses, priests, and
    professional prophets.

    This class of the rich oppressed the poor.

    Below them was the class (ii) of technical professional such as
    stonecutters, carpenters, builders,
    masons, blacksmiths, masons, and others craftsmen (2 Kings 12:12).
    Below them was class (iii) made up
    of poor people such as slaves, widows, orphans, and foreigners. All these
    poor people were mistreated.

    In terms of ethics, there was moral degradation.

    They committed adultery,
    prostitution, murder, false
    witness, and corruption.

    Religions background.

    The Kings and people of Judah worshipped idols.

    They practiced human
    sacrifice, divination and magic,
    and listened to false prophecies.

    They abandoned their covenant with God
    and their way of life and
    practiced syncretism, which is worshipping God and other false gods like
    Baal.

    King Josiah tried to restore true worship by carrying out several reforms.

    Prophetess Huldah prophesied
    that Judah would be punished after Josiah’s death since he humbled
    before Yahweh.

    Political Background.

    Prophet Jeremiah lived in the 7th century BC and prophesied when Judah
    was ruled by King Josiah, and
    later his sons Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah; and king Jehoiachin.

    Judah was
    conquered and ruled by
    Assyrians who were conquered by Egyptians who ruled Judah up to 605
    BC. Egyptians; were conquered
    by Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar. This was according to the
    prophecies of Jeremiah.

    b. The Call of Jeremiah. Read Jer 1: 19.

    Jeremiah’s father was a priest called Hilkiah.

    He was born in the territory
    of Benjamin; at a place called
    Anathoth, He was well educated.

    Jeremiah was called to be a prophet in 627 B.C during the reign of King
    Josiah.

    He received his call in
    form of a dialogue with Yahweh. God told him that he had appointed him
    to be his messenger; même
    before he was formed in his mother’s womb, God had selected him to be a
    prophet.

    Jeremiah said he
    was too young and did not know how to speak.

    Jeremiah was forewarned
    of the hostility he would
    encounter in his prophetic career. God told him that He would protect him
    and not to fear.

    God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This symbolized that God is the one who
    shall put words in his mouth.

    Jeremiah responded to God’s call in faith and obedience.

    He was given a
    message that God was going to
    bring judgment upon the Kingdom of Judah.

    God promised to make him a
    fortified city, an iron pillar and
    bronze wall for protection. He was commanded by God not to marry,
    neither have children and not to
    attend social gatherings, weddings, and funerals. His mission made him
    isolated and lonely.

    As a result, his own family and relatives rejected him and plotted to kill
    him. But he had few friends like
    Ebed- melech, Ahikam who helped him to get out of a pit.

    Jeremiah was persecuted by; the kings of Judah. Priests including priest
    Pashhur opposed him, and false
    prophets like Hannaniah.

    He prophesied that God shall punish wicked
    Kings, priests, and ordinary

     
    personnes.

    He suffered spiritually and emotionally.
    At the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C, the army officers of Nebuchadnezzar
    released him from prison.

    Il
    went to Egypt where he died at an old age and as a faithful servant of
    God.

    His life was symbolic to the
    people of Judah. During his call, Jeremiah saw two visions.

    Vision one was the vision of a “branch of an almond tree”.
    The tree seemed dead, bare, yet life was in it.

    This vision was telling
    Judah that although God seemed to
    be ‘sleeping’, He was watching over them if they obey Him.

    Vision two was “a pot boiling in the north, and it is about to tip over this
    way” (1:13).

    The boiling pot
    tilted away from the north signified that the destroyers of Judah would
    come from the north.

    The pot
    was ready to boil over and spill its contents. This meant that Judah was
    soon going to have trouble.
    Babylon would pour horrifying disasters on Judah.

    Lessons from the call of Jeremiah
    God has a purpose for each person and He can call anybody to do His
    travail.

    He calls the unborn, the
    young, old, rich, and poor.

    God prepares people for His work, through
    specific experiences at family
    level, in school, and church.

    A person who is called to serve God should be ready to meet opposition.
    God protects His servants and
    promises to be with them.

    Jeremiah felt inadequate to speak. Christians
    should not let their human
    weakness hinder them from performing their tasks.

    Christians should
    respond to God’s call in
    obedience.

    Lesson Two. Evils Addressed by Jeremiah. Read Jeremiah
    2, 3, 4, 5,7, 9, 10, 23, and 28.

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    1. Name the evil practices that Jeremiah condemned

    2. Explain why Jeremiah condemned these evil practices

    There were many evils in Judah and Israel. We have mentioned some of
    leur. These were: necromancy,
    dishonesty, deception, false prophecy, human sacrifice, and idolatry.

    i. Necromancy.

    Words related to necromancy are divinations, magic,
    sorcery, and playing tricks on
    people’s minds.

    Necromancy is the art of seeking hidden knowledge from
    the mysterious world of
    spirits: using magic, and divination, which is invoking the dead.

    Divination was condemned in the
    Hebrew language. Diviners, magicians, sooth sayers and fortunetellers
    used necromancy.

    Prophet
    Jeremiah condemned necromancy.

    Reasons why Jeremiah condemned necromancy

    Necromancy was a deception and therefore an evil practice. The diviners
    gave false information from
    their own imagination.

    This practice polluted the true worship of Yahweh
    and indicated Israelites lack of
    faith in the one true God.

    Two, by trusting in divination, and magic, the
    Israelites showed their lack of
    knowledge of the one true God.

    Three, by consulting the mediums, the
    Israelites disobeyed God (Jer
    27:8-10).

    ii) Deception and Dishonesty

    Dishonesty is lack of moral integrity or moral uprightness.

    Deception is
    cheating, and telling lies

     
    intentionally.

    It is also giving false and misleading information.
    The Israelites were dishonest because they worshiped God and at the
    same time committed social
    injustices against their brothers and sisters.

    Their repentance was
    insincere. There was treachery, and
    greed.

    They laid traps for each other. People pretended to be friendly and
    at the same time conspired to
    kill.

    Jeremiah challenged the Israelites people to ‘circumcise their hearts
    which were deceitful.

    Leur
    tongues were ‘deadly arrows’ and they listened to false prophesies like
    that of Hannaniah
    Jeremiah condemned deception.

    This was because it led to syncretism,
    and hypocrisy in worship; et
    breaking down of the covenant way of life.

    Jeremiah warned the Israelites
    and asked them to repent.

    iii. False prophesy by Hannaniah. Jer 28

    During the reign of king Zedekiah, Hannaniah broke the yoke that
    Jeremiah was wearing.

    Hannaniah
    spoke in the name of Yahweh. He lied to the people as he spoke from his
    imagination and dreams.

    Jeremiah denounced Hannaniah. He predicted and prophesied the death of
    Hannaniah in the same year.

    And it came to pass. Jeremiah had also prophesied that the captivity of
    Judah should be long contrary to
    Hannaniah who said Judah will be exiled for 2 years.

    Reasons for condemning false prophets
    Prophets of Baal were still in existence.

    False prophets like Hannaniah
    had filled the people of Israel with
    unrealistic hopes of peace yet Judah was to be destroyed. Recall the

    characteristics of true and false prophets.

    False prophets did not condemn sin. They prophesied for money
    and in the process misled
    people away from Yahweh.

    False prophets prophesied from their dreams,
    imaginations and not from
    God.

    They gave people false hopes. They intended to make themselves
    popular, with the King and the
    personnes.

    iv) Human sacrifice.

    The people offered human sacrifice to idols and
    oppressed each other.

    Humain
    sacrifice is the act of killing human beings for a religious or spiritual
    purpose.

    The Israelites copied this
    activity from the Canaanites.

    Children were believed to be the best
    sacrifice since people believed they
    would get great favors from the deities.

    Some kings such as Ahaz and
    Manasseh sacrificed their sons to
    idols.

    Jeremiah condemned human sacrifice.

    Reasons for condemning human sacrifice

    Human sacrifice was an act of idolatry. It indicated infidelity of the
    Israelites to the one true God.

    Il
    demonstrated Israel’s disrespect for the sacred gift of life.

    It showed their
    lack of knowledge of the true
    nature of Yahweh.

    Human sacrifice defiled the land for life is in the
    blood.

    Blood speaks hence the land
    was crying at this vengeance.

    God did not ask for human sacrifices.

    Human sacrifice was a sign of lack of
    love of God and love for one another.

    It is a demonstration of disregard
    for human life.

    Only God has the
    right to take away life.

    In our country people kill each other every day
    especially on the road.

    Why do we
    do this?

    v. Idolatry

    Idolatry is the worship of many gods. Idols are images made by people for
    worship. The Israelites
    practiced syncretism, which we said was the worship of Yahweh and
    idols.

    The people of Israel were
    worshipping Baal the Queen of heaven, sun, moon, stars, and also
    Yahweh (Jer 8:2).

    Idols were placed even in Yahweh’s sacred places. The temple was
    defiled by idols.

    This the temple
    unclean. Jeremiah condemned it.

    He told the people of Israel that “{they
    have forsaken the fountain of
    living waters (GOD) and hewn out for themselves broken cisterns
    (IDOLs) that can hold no water” (Jer 2:
    11-13).

    Why did Jeremiah condemn idolatry? Read Jer 2: 20, 2:1- 3, 5: 7- 8.

    Idolatry is like adultery and prostitution. It defiled people and was a sign
    of lack of faith in Yahweh.

    Il
    defiled the land.

    Idolatry led to divine judgment and punishment.
    People of Judah abandoned Yahweh the ‘Husband’ and chased “lovers”
    the idols and deities The
    Israelites (Northern kingdom) had been punished before and yet Judah did
    not learn from them.

    Par
    worshipping idols Judah broke the covenant and their relationship with
    God.

    And unless the people of
    Judah repented, they would be punished; as there is only one true living
    God to be worshipped and
    obeyed.

    Is there idolatry among Christians today’s.

    vi. Other evils condemned by Jeremiah

    People of Judah trusted that the temple was secure, holy and cannot be
    destroyed.

    Jeremiah denounced

     
    this false belief about the temple. He warned them that God would destroy
    the temple because of the
    many evils committed in it.

    The temple of God had become a ‘den of
    robbers’ and human sacrifices.

    People of Judah committed other evils such as hypocrisy (Jer 7; 9-10);
    social injustice (adultery, murder),
    stubbornness, and rebellion.

    vi. The temple

    Temple is a place of worship. The temple of Israelites was in Jerusalem.

    Il
    signified the presence of God
    among his people.

    The Israelites believed God could never destroy or
    allow destruction of the temple.

    Jeremiah stood at the gates of the temple court during Jehuiakim’s reign,
    and Judah that God would
    destroy the temple and send them to exile.

    He urged them to repent and
    turn back to God.

    King Josiah
    heard the message of Jeremiah and he reformed religious practices in
    Judah.

    vii. Religions reforms carried out by King Josiah

    This topic is not clearly spelt out in the syllabus.

    It is based on the book of
    Deuteronomy. The scroll was
    discovered in the temple during repairs.

    Josiah ordered the repair of the temple of God.

    He led a national
    ceremony to review the covenant.

    Il
    destroyed idols and altars associated with the worship of foreign deities
    throughout Judah.

    Il
    eliminated all the priests associated with the worship of false deities.

    Il
    celebrated Passover in
    Jerusalem.

    The successors of King Josiah did not follow his example.
    They became corrupt.

    Ils

     
    persecuted the prophets of God.

    They listened to false prophets. Ils
    promoted idolatry and child
    sacrifice.

    viii. The Relevance of Jeremiah’s teachings to Christians today.

    Christians should denounce hypocrisy in the society today.

    They should
    not result to witchcraft,
    divination and sorcery.

    They should be upright, and worship God in
    sincerity.

    They are to proclaim divine
    judgment upon those who refuse to obey God’s will, just like Jeremiah
    declared God’s judgment upon
    Judah due to the sins of the people.

    Like Jeremiah, Christians should speak out against modern idols like love
    of money, power, obsession
    with sports, sex, and drugs among other evils. Christians should condemn
    destruction of human life,
    la violence; murder, abortion, parents killing their own children, genocide
    and exploitation of the poor.

    Christians should be aware of the existence of false teachings and
    prophecies.

    They should pray for
    God’s guidance and wisdom to be able to distinguish truth from false
    teaching.

    Christians have a
    responsibility to correct one another and call on sinners to repent.

    Christians are to be trustworthy, upright, and merciful to the poor and
    condemn dishonesty.

    Ils
    should practice justice in their relationship with others; preach against
    disobedience, stubbornness and
    pray to God to help them overcome these vices.

    Read these review questions and answer before reading answers

    1. Why was Jeremiah reluctant to accept the call?

    2. Which evils / sins did Jeremiah Condemn?.

    3. Give examples of idol worship in Kenya.

    4. Describe Jeremiahs temple sermon

    SAQ answer.

    1. Jeremiah felt inadequate because he was too young to work for God.

    He argued that he did not know
    how to speak.

    He was afraid. He knew he would face stiff opposition from
    the people of Judah.

    le
    message of God’s judgments is difficult to deliver.

    2. Read text again and look for evils and sins that Jeremiah condemned.

    3. Examples of idol worship in Kenya are many.

    Some people including
    Christians practice witchcraft,
    sorcery, personality cults and hero worship of religions and political
    leaders. Other people, worship
    money, materialism, media, and sports obsession with power / status
    Sexual immorality – devil worship.

    4. Jeremiahs temple sermon. Read text again.

    Lesson Three. Jeremiah’s Teachings on Judgment and
    Punishment

    Read Jeremiah 5:12-18, 6;1-30, 7:30, 8:1-17, 10: 17-25, 15;1-9, 17:1-13,
    25: 1-38

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to: –

    a Summarize in two paragraphs Jeremiah key teachings.

    b Explain the significance of symbolic acts related to judgement and
    punishment.

    c Describe suffering and lamentations of Jeremiah.

    d Explain the teachings of Jeremiah on the new covenant.

    une. Jeremiah teachings.

    Sin was internalise in the hearts of the people of
    Judah. God punished them.

    Dieu
    punishes people because of their unfaithfulness.

    Punishment is a penalty,
    for an offence or a crime

     
    committed.

    But in punishing people, God is a just judge. He does not punish people
    without a reason irrespective of
    their status.

    God judges people by looking into their hearts. Divine judgment is for a
    group. For example, the people
    of Judah were punished as a group.

    However God searches each person’s
    heart and judges accordingly.

    God executes His judgment by means of political and historical events.
    Divine punishments are in forms
    of natural disasters like drought, famine, and epidemics.

    God’s
    punishment is unavoidable, and
    inescapable.

    Judah took the best option by surrendering to the
    Babylonians.

    The purpose for God’s judgement is to correct the sinner. God gave his
    people a chance to repent before
    he punished them.

    God’s judgment is universal.

    It is not limited to one
    nation. God punished the
    neighbours of Judah who at that time were Egypt, Moab, Ammon, and
    Babylon.

    God’s punishment is
    severe compared to that of venomous snakes that bite the people of Judah.

    God’s judgement is not
    necessarily a punishment from God for one’s sins.

    It is symbolic. le
    sufferings of Jeremiah were
    symbolic of the life of the people of Judah.

    What can we learn about God’s punishments? Are modern disasters such
    as cyclones, floods,
    earthquakes, landslides, epidemics, bomb blasts, civil wars, forest fires,
    rebellions in schools a sign of
    God’s judgment and punishment? Qu'est-ce que tu penses?

    b. Symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment

    People use several methods to convey messages to each other.

    We use
    songs, advertisements, dramas,
    and stories by the fireside, in novels, the Internet, and magazines to
    communicate messages about
    children, adults, society, political leaders, poverty and many others.

    le
    prophets used:

    (1). Oracles;
    ‘Thus says the Lord’;

    (2) Allegories

    (3) Parables

    (4) Songs

    (5) Symbolic
    Visions

    (6) Symbolic actions and

    (sept)
    dramatized messages

    Symbolic acts of Jeremiah

    i The linen waist cloth (Jer.13)

    ii Jeremiah’s personal life (Jer.16)

    iii Jeremiah’s visit to a potter (Jer.18)

    iv The broken earthen flask (Jer.19)

    v The symbolic vision of 2 baskets of figs (Jer.24)

    vi The wearing of the yoke

    i. The Linen Waist Cloth. Read Jer.13

    Jeremiah was instructed by God to buy a linen waistcloth and wear it
    around his waist without dipping it
    in water.

    He was told to hide the cloth in a hole near river Euphrates.
    Afterwards he was told to take the
    cloth. He found it spoilt for wearing.

    Significance.

    The liner material was for priestly garments in Israel. Il
    symbolized Israel’s holiness.

    le
    unwashed cloth represented Judah’s sinful pride.

    Israel used to cling close
    to God but now Israel / Judah
    were spoilt, rebellious, arrogant and pursued foreign gods.

    God was going
    to destroy them if they did

    not repent.

    The spoilt linen waistcloth was a symbol for future God’s
    action.

    ii. Jeremiah’s personal Life. Read Jer 16.

    His life was a symbolic act. Il
    was told not to marry, have
    children, and nor attend funerals, social gatherings, feasts and wedding
    parties.

    Significance.

    The personal life of Jeremiah was one of suffering. Cette
    signified the suffering that the
    people of Judah would be subjected to.

    Judah was punished because of
    their wickedness and rebellion.

    Jeremiah’s loneliness signified the perishing of families through the
    sword, famine and disease.

    Il serait
    be a time of terror for the families of Judah.

    Their normal social life of
    feasting, merry making would
    come to an end.

    There would be no weddings and no one to bury the dead.

    Hence Jeremiah was
    forbidden from mourning for the dead.

    iii. Jeremiah’s at the potter’s house (Jer.18)

    Jeremiah was told to go to a potter’s house.

    He found the potter making a
    clay vessel. “ Whenever a
    piece of pottery turned out imperfect, he would take the clay and make it
    into something else (18: 4).

    The potter made a better pot, more perfect vessel than the spoilt one.

    Significance.

    God is the potter. People of Judah are the clay. As the potter
    destroyed to vessel, God
    intended to destroy Judah because of their wickedness and mould those
    who repented into better
    personnes.

    God was going to shape them into faithful people.

    God’s
    judgement was to be a corrective
    punishment.

    iv. The broken clay Jar. Read Jer.19.

    God told Jeremiah to buy a clay
    ballon
    He then took some elders and priests to the valley of Valley of Hinnon.

    He delivered a sermon
    condemning the people of Judah for their idolatry and other evils.

    Jeremiah then broke the clay jar in
    their presence and announced to them that Yahweh would destroy
    Jerusalem and Judah as Jeremiah
    had destroyed the jar.

    Significance.

    The kings, priests and prophets of Judah would be shattered
    like the clay flask because of
    their sins. Sine, they brutally sacrificed their children; they are to suffer
    horrifying experiences at the
    hand of their enemies.

    They shall suffer starvation and turn into cannibals;
    eating their own children and
    neighbours (v.9).

    Broken pieces of a clay pot cannot be moulded. No one was to escape
    judgment.

    However there is hope
    after punishment.

    v. Two Baskets of Figs (Jer.24).

    Jeremiah received the visions, after the
    deportation and exile of leading
    citizens of Judah and Israel to Babylon.

    Two baskets of figs were placed
    in front of the temple.

    Un
    basket had very good figs, which had ripened.

    The other basket had bad
    figs unfit for human
    consumption.

    Significance.

    The basket of good figs signified the first exile. God would
    renew their hearts; use them to
    fulfil his promises to the Israelites. He would recreate them to a new
    personnes.

    The basket of the bad figs

     
    represented people living in Jerusalem and Egypt.

    Since they were not
    exiled they had a self-righteous
    attitude.

    They thought that God spared them because they were truthful
    but it was not so.

    They shall
    also be destroyed through famine, and diseases. This vision signifies hope
    and restoration of the
    Israelites.

    vi. Jeremiah Wears an Ox Yoke. Read Jer. 27

    When Zedekiah son of
    Josiah became the ruler of Judah,
    Jeremiah was instructed by God “to make” for himself “ a yoke out of
    leather straps and wooden
    crossbars” and to wear it around his neck (27: 2).

    Jeremiah moved around
    in the yoke for quite
    sometime in public.

    He was also given a message for ambassadors of kings of Edom, Moab,
    Ammon, Tyre, and Sidon, who
    were coming to see King Zedekiah in Jerusalem.

    They were to give God’s
    message to their kings.

    le
    message was to “submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia; his son,
    and his grandson.

    Any nation
    that accepted this message shall not suffer; but if any nation ..will no
    submit to King Nebuchadnezzar of
    Babylonia rule, God will punish that nation by war, starvation and
    disease” Read Jer 27:6-8.

    The message
    for king Zedekiah was to surrender to the Babylonian rule and live, if he
    resists he would perish.

    The message for priests and people of Judah was not to be misled by the
    false prophets.

    The temple
    would be destroyed.

    Its treasures looted by the Babylonians.

    Significance.

    The yoke represented the Babylonians rule. Nebuchadnezzar
    was used by God to bring
    judgment to all nations.

    Yahweh is a universal God and his judgment is
    universal. Sinners are punished
    regardless of their origin or nation.

    Those who repent are spared.

    Reflection questions

    Why did God inspire Jeremiah to use symbolic acts to convey his
    message?

    Répondre

    Israelites were stubborn.

    Jeremiah acts were reminders to Judah to turn to
    God and stop idolatry and all
    the sins they were committing.

    They had drifted too far from God.

    Faux
    prophets were prophesying lies
    to them.

    The people of Judah were expected to meditate on these acts and
    understand God’s will for
    them and see the seriousness of the matter.

    This was also to imprint a
    lasting impression in their minds.

    SAQ. Which methods do pastors / priests use to communicate God’s
    message to Christians today?

    c. The sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah
    Read Jer 11, 12, 17:14 – 18, 18:18- 23 , 20: 1 – 6, 27, 37, and 38.

    Jeremiah sufferings were experiences that were painful; physically and
    emotionally.

    In suffering there is
    loss and grief.

    Lamentations are strong emotional expressions of pain and
    grief.

    Jeremiah suffered in the
    following ways.

    I. Rejection by his own family and relatives.

    They plotted to kill him. Cette
    grieved Jeremiah.

    II. Anathoth planned to kill him but God protected Jeremiah.

    Il
    pronounced God’s judgment upon them.

    III. Jeremiah suffered when he was accused falsely.

    He was accused of
    blasphemy after the temple
    sermon.

    He foretold the destruction of the temple, just like Jesus Christ in
    the New Testament did.

    IV He was accused of treachery.

    That he was planning to leave Jerusalem
    and join the Babylonians.

    Cette
    led to Jeremiah being arrested and put in an underground jail.

    V. Jeremiah received death threats because of speaking for God.

    Roi
    Jehoiakim plotted to kill prophet
    Uriah.

    The prophet escaped to Egypt but he was followed to Egypt,
    arrested and killed by king
    Jehoiakim.

    The king had planned to accuse Jeremiah of Uriah death.
    Ahikam and other elders defended
    Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 26)

    VI. Jeremiah suffered loneliness and solitude.

    He felt emotional anguish
    and complained to God of his
    orders not to marry, neither attend social gathering and celebrations.

    Cette
    made Jeremiah lonely since
    he did not participate in the family life, political life, community activities
    and religious life.

    VII. Jeremiah experienced inner personal struggle

    Due to his love for his
    own people He did not want to
    see them suffer but the people were stubborn Read Jer. 12:1 – 6, 15:10 –
    21, and 27.

    VIII. Jeremiah’s prophesying judgment caused him emotional pain and
    agony.

    His messages were mainly
    of severe judgment and punishment.

    IX. He went through a spiritual struggle in his relationship with God.

    Il
    felt frustrations, doubts, self-pity

     
    and despair.

    He wondered why God made him suffer. Why do the wicked
    prosper? He also wondered
    why God was taking too long to fulfil his prophecies.

    God assured him
    that Judah would be punished and
    promised to give Jeremiah victory against his enemies.

    X. Jeremiah suffered physical assault, imprisonment and an attempt on his
    la vie.

    Pashhur, the chief
    temple priest ordered beating and chaining of Jeremiah to the temple gate.

    Jeremiah prophesied that
    Pashshur’s name would change to ‘terror everywhere’.

    XI. King Zedekiah released Jeremiah from the cell to his court.

    Jeremiah
    continued to prophecy and was
    thrown in a muddy cistern.

    Here he was rescued by Ebed- melech an
    Ethiopian Eunuch.

    The court
    officials had accused him of not being patriotic. Jeremiah remained in jail
    until the Babylonians
    overthrew Jerusalem.

    He did not change his prophecies. Read Jer. 10:1 –
    6, 27, 37, and 38.

    Is there relevance of the sufferings and lamentations of Jeremiah to
    Christians today?

    From his suffering
    Christians learn to be ready to face opposition and rejection from their
    own family members and
    relatives for the sake of the gospel.

    Christians should be prepared to suffer
    persecution for the Lord.

    Christians should be ready to make sacrifices for the sake of God. Be
    ready to lead humble lives.

    Jeremiah’s open confessions to God encourage Christians to be open to
    God. Christians should let God
    avenge for them just like Jeremiah prayed to God to revenge his enemies.

    Christians should not lose

    hope in times of difficulty.

    Christians learn that tribulations strengthen
    their faith.

    Christians should
    learn to deal with negative emotions such as self – pity, grief and trust
    God.

    Jeremiah was told by God to
    repent of his negative utterances.

    Christians should do the same as they
    are assured of divine security
    and protection against their persecutors.

    Lesson Four. Jeremiah’s Teaching About the New
    Covenant

    A covenant is an agreement. Another word for covenant is testament.
    Jeremiah taught that there would
    be a new covenant between God and Israel.

    This new covenant would be
    different from the Old (Sinai)
    covenant.

    The new covenant would renew the broken relationship
    between God and his people.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading Jeremiah’s teaching:

    une. State the terms of the new covenant.

    b. Identify the differences between the old covenant and the new covenant

    c. Summarize the similarities between the old covenant and the new
    engagement

    une. The New Covenant.

    In the new covenant, the law would be written in
    the hearts of the people unlike
    the old covenant where the law was written on stone tablets.

    Chaque
    individual would know God
    personally and not through prophets as it was during times of Jeremiah
    and previous one.

    Each person
    would be responsible for his/her sins.

    God would forgive sins and
    remember them no more.

    Le nouveau
    covenant would be established after God’s punishment of Israel and
    establishing a’ new Israel’, a ‘new

     
    people’ of God.

    The new covenant would establish a new beginning. People would forget
    the first Exodus.

    The second
    Exodus would be deliverance and restoration from Babylon.

    God would
    initiate the new covenant as he
    did with the first.

    It would be a new covenant of peace, unity, prosperity,
    Joy and gladness. In the new
    covenant a ‘righteous branch’ would be established.

    The new covenant
    would be everlasting. Il serait
    not be broken again.

    b. Differences between the old covenant and the new covenant
    Old Covenant New Covenant

    1. Based on law Based on faith

    2. Word written on stone tablets Word written in peoples hearts

    3. God known personally by a few priests prophets and prophets Each to
    person to know God personally

    4. Covenant broken when people sinned Everlasting covenant

    5. Sins punished collectively Sins punished individually

    6. 1st Exodus from Egypt 2nd Exodus from Babylon

    7. Sealed by animal sacrifice Sealed by Jesus sacrifice (blood)
    What are the similarities between the old and the new covenant? Jésus
    fulfilled the new covenant.

    Jésus
    is the ‘righteous branch’ from the lineage of David. In the last supper,
    before his death, Jesus said ‘this
    cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.

    Lis
    Luke, 22:20.

    The death and
    resurrection of Jesus marks the new covenant.

    Jesus spoke of forgiveness
    of sins of humanity Jesus
    forgave people’s sins, for example, the sinful woman in Simon’s house
    (Luke7: 36 – 50). In the new

    covenant the law would be written in people’s hearts.

    Jesus summarized
    the Mosaic Law into ‘love God
    with all your heart, mind, strength and love your neighbour as you love
    yourself.

    Jesus established the
    kingdom of God as a new community of God’s people based on faith (the
    Christians).

    Jesus fulfilled the new covenant prophecies The teachings of Jeremiah
    new covenant of hope and
    restoration is fulfilled in Jesus Christ and the new testament church
    (Christians) Heb.8:7 – 12.

    Lesson Five. Jeremiah’s Teachings on Hope and
    Restoration

    Learning Outcomes

    (a) Explain the symbolic acts related to hope and restoration.

    (b) Describe the fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the Israelites.

    (c) Relate the relationship of the teachings of Jeremiah to the New
    Testament and Christian life today.

    A. Symbolic acts related to hope and restoration.

    The symbolic acts were one hope and restore. Hope is to expect
    something that is desired; while to
    restore is to bring back as nearly as possible the former or original state or
    condition.

    The symbolic acts
    were 5 in number.

    The first symbolic act was a vision of 2 baskets of figs. On a
    discussed it. Refer to the symbolic act
    related to judgment.

    The second symbolic act was Jeremiah buying a field.

    God instructed
    Jeremiah to buy a field from his
    cousin Hanamel of Anathoth.

    Jeremiah bought the field for 17 cents of
    silver.

    He then handed the title

     
    deed and open copy to Baruch.

    Baruch was told to keep the title deed and
    the copy in an earthen vessel
    for preservation for a long time.

    Jeremiah prophesied the restoration of
    the exiles to their homeland.

    The significance of this symbolic act is the assurance of restoration of
    Judah and Israel after suffering.

    People will be restored to their homeland.

    After 70 years people of Judah
    would reconstruct their
    homes, cultivate their land, and own property (Jer 32; 1 -15).

    The third symbolic act was Jeremiah’ letter to the Jews in Babylonia.

    Jeremiah wrote to the people of
    Judah a letter of encouragement while in exile.

    They were to settle down,
    build houses, marry and have
    children, live in peace with the Babylonians.

    They were to pray for the
    welfare of their masters and to
    ignore false prophets who lied to them about the safety of Jerusalem and a
    quick return.

    God would
    restore them back to their land after 70 years of exile were over. le
    exiles were to trust in God and not
    give up (Jer.29).

    The fourth symbolic act was a wooden ox yoke.

    The yoke represented
    captivity and suffering of Jews in
    exile.

    It was also a sign of hope if the people of Judah were willing to
    submit to the Babylonian rule.

    Dieu
    would restore them back to their land. Their yoke would be broken and
    they would be set free.

    The fifth symbolic act was the visit to the porter’s house

    b. The fall of Jerusalem and the exile of the Israelites (Jer.39)

    Jeremiah’s prophecy came to pass. Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians in
    the ninth year of king Zedekiah

     
    in 587BC.

    The Babylonians conquered Jerusalem and seized it. Roi
    Zedekiah fled but; il a été capturé
    by the Babylonians army.

    He witnessed the execution of his sons. Le sien
    eyes were gauged out.

    Il était
    then taken in chains to captivity in Babylon.

    Solomon’s temple was looted
    and destroyed. Villages,
    Jerusalem and the palace were destroyed and burnt down.

    The priests,
    court officials, army officials,
    people in the upper class, craftsmen were executed.

    City people were
    taken to Babylon as captives.

    le
    poor, aged and a few people were left behind and given vineyards to farm.

    Nebuchadnezzar’s army was brutal to the Israelites. Many were killed.

    UNE
    few like Ebed – Melech were
    spared as prophesied by Jeremiah (he had rescued him from the well).

    Nebuchadnezzar ordered the
    release of Jeremiah.

    He was treated well
    Judah became a province of Babylon.

    Gedaliah was appointed governor
    of Judah.

    He stayed at Mizpah,
    the headquarters of Judah.

    Ishmael killed Gedaliah. Later Jeremiah was
    forced to go to Egypt by the
    Israelites.

    Jeremiah died in Egypt, an old man, and still faithful to his call.

    Lesson Six. Relating the Teachings of Jeremiah to the
    New Testament and Christian Life Today

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1.Describe the teachings of Jeremiah in relation to Christian life today

    2. Describe the teachings of Jeremiah in relation to the new testament

    Jeremiah was rejected by his; relatives, friends and the Israelites. dans le
    New Testament, Jesus was

    rejected in his hometown of Nazareth: and by the religious leaders of
    Israel.

    Jeremiah compared himself
    to a lamb being led to the slaughter.

    Jesus in the New Testament is
    referred to as a lamb led to the
    slaughter.

    Jeremiah’s suffering symbolizes divine judgment over Judah.

    However Jesus sufferings was to
    bring salvation to all mankind.

    Both Jeremiah and Jesus experienced
    spiritual agony. Jeremiah
    experience agony and felt left alone by God.

    Jesus too felt agony when
    praying in the garden of
    Gethsemane and when on the cross.

    Jeremiah taught that God is universal and a just judge.

    The gospel of
    Jesus is universal and everybody is
    judged according to his or her faith in God.

    Jeremiah and Jesus accused
    the Israelites of turning the
    temple into a “den of robbers”.

    Jeremiah and Jesus were both accused of
    blasphemy.

    Both challenged
    false beliefs about the temple.

    Both Jeremiah and Jesus spoke of the
    coming judgment of God.

    The new covenant was fulfilled in the life and ministry of Jesus Christ
    Jeremiah spoke of hope and
    restoration.

    Jesus gives hope of eternal life in the New Testament.

    ii. Relationship of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christian today.

    Christians are to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ.

    They are empowered
    by the Holy Spirit to endure
    suffering and to grow spiritually.

    Christians like Jeremiah face false
    prophets who speak in Jesus name.

    Christians are to be watchful and obey Yahweh
    Like Jeremiah Christians should call people to repentance.

    Le nouveau
    covenant is fulfilled in Christian’s
     
    individual relationship with God. Christians are the new people, the new
    Israel as prophesied by
    Jeremiah.

    His teachings reveal that God is universal.

    Christians are from
    all corners of the earth.

    Christians should prepare for divine judgment by practicing love,
    righteousness, self-denial, and faith in
    God.

    Revision exercise

    1. List the evils that Jeremiah condemned

    2.What are some of the evils that church leaders condemn today?

    3. Explain the symbolism used during the call of prophet Jeremiah

    4. What did Jeremiah teach about the new covenant?

    5. Why did prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites worshipped?

    6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in jeremiah7: 1-15

    7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would use
    on Judah?

    8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon

    9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment as
    demonstrated by prophet
    Jeremiah

    10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christians today

    11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of
    Jesus?

    Topic Six. Nehemiah

    introduction

    The book of Nehemiah is a historical writing.

    Nehemiah is a record of his
    deep dependence on God and
    his frequent prayer to God.

    Nehemiah means “Yahweh has comforted.

    Nehemiah was the son of

    Hacaliah of Judah.

    He was not a prophet.

    He was exiled to Babylon.

    Persians captured Babylon and
    improved the living condition of the Israelites.

    They were allowed
    religious freedom but had to pay
    tributes.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of this topic you should be able to;

    une. Describe the historical, religious and social background to Nehemiah

    b. Identify occasions when Nehemiah prayed

    c. Explain the importance of prayer in Christian life

    D .Describe leadership qualities of Nehemiah and relevance to Christians
    aujourd'hui.

    Lesson One. Background to Nehemiah

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson,

    i. Describe how the people of Judah lived and worshipped.

    ii. Explain the conquest of Israel and Judah by foreign forces.

    iii. Give reasons why God allowed Judah and Israel to be conquered and
    exiled.

    une. Political and historical background.

    From 587 BC to 538 BC, Israelites
    were in exile. In 538 B.C., the
    first group of Israelites was set free and returned to Judah.

    Cyrus the
    Great, of Persia ruled his subjects
    through governors.

    They were led out of Babylon by Joshua the high
    priest and Zerubbabel who became
    the first governor of Judah.

    Some Jews remained in Babylon.

    They were referred to as Jews in
    Diaspora or dispersion. Other Jews
    remained in other lands including Egypt, and Mediterranean lands
    Nehemiah.

    He was a cupbearer in the palace of the Persian king
    Artaxerxes I.

    He later became a

     
    governor of Judah.

    Even after the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem,
    Israelites remained subjects of the
    Persian king.

    The Wall of Jerusalem was important to Israel and Judah.

    The Wall
    represented a sense of pride,
    ownership, privacy, independence and
    Sécurité.

    The Greeks conquered the Persians; who were later conquered
    by Romans.

    b. Social background

    The Jews in foreign lands retained their Jewish way of life.

    The land of
    Israel was partly occupied by
    les étrangers.

    The foreign cultures of neighboring rulers influenced Israelites
    who returned.

    They for
    example, intermarried with foreigners, a custom that God did not allow.
    Israelites were not to
    intermarry with other people according to the Mosaic Law.

    In spite of this
    however, Jews maintained
    their separated identity.

    Some of the foreigners despised Jews.

    le
    wealthy Jews oppressed the poor
    Jews.

    In Jerusalem there was starvation.

    Nehemiah condemned
    oppression of the poor.

    c. Religious background

    Jews returned to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem and the altar of God for
    sacrifices.

    While in exile, Jews
    were allowed by the Babylonian king to practice their religion.

    Ils
    worshipped Yahweh, practiced
    circumcision, obeyed dietary laws and observed the Sabbath.

    The exiles
    could not however observe all
    the religious practices for example offering animal sacrifices.

    Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem to rebuild it’s the wall.

    The temple of
    Jerusalem was rebuilt, cleared
    and dedicated to God.

    Lesson Two. Prayers by Nehemiah and modern Christians

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson the learner should be able
    to:

    une. Outline occasions when Nehemiah prayed to the Lord.

    b. Discuss the importance of prayer

    Nehemiah prayed, mourned, and fasted.

    He prayed often and for all
    actions, keeping God’s law,
    forgiveness, punishments, human relations, Jerusalem, good works,
    contributions and offerings,
    observance of Sabbath day, and preparing duty allocations for priests and
    Levites. .

    i. When he learnt about the suffering of Jews who remained in Judah and
    the ruined state of Jerusalem;

    He prayed for forgiveness on behalf of his people (Neh.4: 1 – 11).

    ii. Making a request to King Artaxerxes to be permitted to return to Judah
    (Neh.2: 4 –

    iii. When his enemies ridiculed the Jews and planned to discourage them
    from rebuilding the wall of
    Jerusalem.

    Tobiah in particular said that the wall was poorly constructed
    and it could be brought down
    by; a fox jumping on it.

    Nehemiah requested God to punish the enemies
    who were mocking temple
    builders (Neh.4: 4 – 5).

    iv. When he learnt that his enemies were conspiring to attack Jerusalem to
    stop the construction work

    He prayed and organised people to provide a 24-hour guard of the wall
    (Neh.4: 7 – 9).

    .v. For his good work,

    He prayed for his works (Neh 5:19).

    vi. When his enemies plotted to destroy him

    He prayed God for strength
    and courage to overcome his
    enemies (Neh 6: 19).

    vii. When Shemaih attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple
    claiming that there was a plot to kill
    him,

    Nehemiah prayed and asked God to punish his enemies (Neh 6:14).

    viii. When he organized contributions for Levites and musicians; et
    people to distribute them.

    Il a demandé
    God to remember his work for the house of God (Neh 13:14).

    ix. He stopped trade on the Sabbath day, and organised rest on the
    Sabbath day.

    He warned traders
    against violating the Sabbath law. He asked Lord to remember him for
    these actions (Neh.13: 22).

    x. Nehemiah prayed for punishment of the son of Joiada.

    The son of
    Joiada had brought disgrace to the
    priest hood by marrying a foreigner, the daughter of Sanballat from the
    town of Beth Horon, (Neh
    13:29).

    After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence, he forbade
    mixed marriages.

    xi. He prepared duty regulations for priests and Levites.

    He allocated
    them duties. He then organised
    Jews to bring offerings for maintaining priests and Levites.

    He prayed
    God to remember his work for the
    temple, priests and Levites (Neh 13:31).

    b. Importance of prayer in Christian life

    Through prayers, Christians express their faith in God and praise God for
    his greatness, goodness,
    holiness, and majesty.

    Prayer brings Christians closer to God; il
    strengthens their relationship with God.

    Through prayer Christians request for their needs, blessings, success,
    good health, and protection
    among other requests.

    Prayers help Christians to listen to God and to seek his will. Prayer is a
    source of strength.

    It gives
    Christians courage to face and overcome life’s challenges.

    Christians seek
    guidance, comfort and support
    in times of trials.

    In prayer, Christians intercede for the sick, poor, hungry,
    prisoners, friends, family and
    community. The communal / public prayers unite Christians together.

    Through prayers, Christians ask
    for forgiveness and the ability to forgive others.

    In prayers, Christians
    trust that God listens and answers
    their prayers.

    Lesson Three: Leadership Qualities of Nehemiah

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State the leadership qualities of Nehemiah.

    2. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership qualities to Christians
    aujourd'hui.

    Introduction.

    A leader is someone charged with the responsibility of
    guiding, controlling, directing and
    leading others.

    Nehemiah had many leadership qualities. These were: –

    1) God fearing man.

    Nehemiah feared God, relied and depended on God.

    2) Prayerfulness.

    He prayed constantly before and after making
    decisions.

    3) Courageous.

    He displayed courage even when his life was in danger.

    4) Hard work and commitment.

    He was dedicated to the rebuilding of the
    wall of the temple and
    Jerusalem.

    5) Team spirit

    He was a team leader, motivating people to work.

    6) He had planning and organizational skills

    7) He was visionary

    He had compassion for the needy especially the poor, Levites and priests

    9) He was patriotic loved his country

    10) Wisdom. He made wise decisions at the right time.

    11) He led by example, a role model

    12) He was honest and sincere in his prayers

    13) He was shrewd and impartial

    14) His trusted God absolutely.

    15) He was decisive.

    He told God about decisions he had made and asked

    for their recognition.

    16) He was humble.

    He asked to be allowed to return to Jerusalem and
    oversee the repair of its wall and
    temple.

    17) He believed in law and punishment of wrong doers.

    He asked God to
    punish lawbreakers especially
    Jews who married foreigners.

    b. Relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to Christians today

    Christians should copy all the leadership qualities of Nehemiah.

    Ils
    should trust in God and seek his
    guidance in all their activities and needs.

    1. Christians should live a life of prayer.

    2. Christians should be courageous, be ready to defend the gospel of Jesus
    Christ.

    3. Christians should be dedicated to their work. Work diligently and
    honestly.

    4. Christians should set realistic goals and organize their activities.

    5. Christians should seek wisdom from God to be able to choose.

    appropriate activities to attain their
    visions.

    6. Christians should care for the needy and be compassionate to all.

    7. Christians should be patriotic and ready to defend their country against
    internal / external threats.

    8. Christians should need to fight for the rights of the helpless children,
    widows, orphans, and aged.

    9. Christians should seek God first, view themselves as servants of God
    and be good role models.

    Lesson Four. Building the Wall of Jerusalem

    The wall of Jerusalem was destroyed when Babylonians conquered Judah.

    After finishing the wall, he
    dedicated it to the Lord.

    Dedication is to devote something in honor of a
    person held dear or to set aside
    something for some special purpose.

    Learning Outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: –

    une. Describe the problems that Nehemiah faced when building the wall of
    Jerusalem.

    b. Describe the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.

    c. Identify lessons, which Christians can learn from Nehemiah.

    une. Nehemiah rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem.

    The rebuilt wall had several
    gates with different names.

    le
    gates were the entrances to Jerusalem.

    Their names were Dung gate,
    Potsherd gate, Fountain gate,
    Water gate, Horse gate, East gate, Sheep gate, Fish gate, Watch gate and
    Ephraim gate.

    Knowing the
    names of the gates may not be necessary but its good information.

    b. Problems faced by Nehemiah.

    When Nehemiah was building the wall
    of Jerusalem, he faced many
    challenges.

    There was lack of cooperation by the nobles of Tekoa.

    Ils
    did not want to do manual work

     
    at first but they later repented.

    Nehemiah faced opposition from enemies
    such as.

    Sanballat, and
    Tobiah, the Arab who tried to thwart the progress of Nehemiah’s work.

    As he built Jerusalem, the rich oppressed the poor.

    This was worsened by
    famine
    The priests misused the temple and the offerings.

    For example, temple
    duties had been abandoned.

    le
    Levites were not getting their share of the offerings and the Sabbath was
    violated.

    There was laxity in
    observance of the Sabbath.

    This was a challenge to Nehemiah because
    Sabbath day should be kept holy.

    There was a lot of foreign influence because of the conquests by several
    foreign armies, intermarriages
    and interactions between Jews, neighboring people and foreigners.

    Marriages in particular threatened
    the identity of the Israelites as a nation.

    Worse still Priests married to
    foreign women defiled the
    priesthood according to Nehemiah.

    Because of these assimilations of Jews
    through marriages,
    Nehemiah knew that Israel and Judah would eventually be lost as God’s
    nation.

    Because of his
    opposition to these interactions, Nehemiah received death threats.

    c. Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:27 – 47)

    The rebuilt wall was dedicated to God. The wall restored security and
    prestige of God’s people.

    The wall
    of Jerusalem was set-aside for God in a solemn ceremony.

    Il y avait un
    dedication ceremony in which
    people sung with symbols, harps, lyres, trumpets and other instruments.

    The priests, and Levites
    purified themselves.

    The people led by Ezra, Nehemiah, the priests and other leaders of Judah
    walked around the wall.

    Ils
    divided themselves into two groups.

    One group walked from the right side
    and the other group from the
    left side and converged at the temple.

    Sacrifices were offered and people
    rejoiced.

    Some men were
    appointed to be in charge of the storehouses; where tithes, and first fruits
    of harvest were kept.

    ré. Relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today

    Christians should expect opposition, as did Nehemiah.

    They should not be
    afraid of being ridiculed,
    mocked and despised.

    If it happens, Christians should persevere in God’s
    travail.

    They should put their
    trust in God like Nehemiah did.

    They should also fight for the welfare of the disadvantaged groups and
    not exploit them.

    They have a
    moral obligation to condemn injustice and take practical steps to help
    solve problems that afflict
    individuals, groups, nations, and society.

    They should be in the forefront
    fighting HIV/ AIDS and drug
    abuse.

    Christians should be on the look out for external influence that may
    corrupt morals of the society and
    the church.

    They should learn that leadership involves suffering,
    persecution, and sacrifices.

    C'est
    foregoing personal interests for the sake of the kingdom of God.

    Lesson Five: Renewal of the Covenant

    Learning outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to: –

    i. List the stages followed to renew the covenant.

    ii. Identify issues that Ezra mentioned in his prayer.

    iii. List the vows that were made by the Israelites during renewal of the
    covenant.

    i. Stages of the renewal of the covenant.

    Israelites were the chosen people
    of God.

    They had suffered
    many hardships.

    There was therefore a need for the renewal of the
    covenant between God and
    Israelites.

    The ceremony to renewal the covenant was held in Jerusalem
    and was led by Ezra, the Levites
    and other religious leaders.

    The renewal of the covenant can be discussed
    in 3 main stages:

    Stage 1.

    A great public assembly was held in the square of Jerusalem
    inside the water gate. God’s law
    was read and expounded to the people.

    The people of Israel praised and
    worshipped God.

    They cried
    and grieved.

    They were sad because they realized that they had failed to
    observe the Mosaic Law.

    Ils
    were instructed to go and celebrate, as it was a holy day of God and an
    occasion for joy not sorrows.

    State 2.

    The feast of booths/tabernacle was celebrated for 7 days.

    It was a
    reminder of the days in the
    wilderness when the Israelites dwelt in tents.

    The Law of Moses was read
    each day during the
    celebrations.

    Stage 3.

    There was a public confession of sin. People fasted, prayed and
    praised God.

    The public
    confession was followed by the renewal of the covenant vows and a
    promise to keep God’s law in
    future.

    Ezra’s prayer closed the celebrations. In his prayer, he recalled God’s acts
    of creation.

    He then recounted

     
    the history of the Israelites.

    He mentioned the previous acts of God; où
    the Lord had demonstrated
    His love and mercy for the Israelites.

    He then confessed the sins of their
    ancestors and the present
    Israelites.

    These were the sins of rebellion and disobedience.

    ii. Promises and vows made by Israelites during the renewal of the
    covenant.

    Israelites promised God
    that they would.

  • Live according to God’s law, by obeying all his commands and
    exigences.
  • Stop intermarrying with foreigners living in their land.
  • Cancel debts every 7th year.
  • Contribute annually towards the temple expenses to ensure that the
    house of God was not neglected.
  • Provide sacrifices and offerings for the temple and arrange for provision
    of wood for burnt sacrifices
    according to the law.
  • Offer first fruits of their harvest and dedicate the first born and flocks as
    required by the law.
  • Pay for their tithes as required by the law.

    Which lessons can we learn from the renewal of the covenant?

    God is
    good, loving, merciful, and faithful
    to his promises.

    God forgives all people and we are all sinners.

    We fail in
    our moral obligation to God
    and to one another.

    Since we are sinners, we should repent our sins and strive to live
    according to God’s law.

    Christians are
    to encourage one another as well as others to repent as it brings about
    reconciliation with God and with
    one another.

    Christians should be forgiving and avoid situations that lead them to sin.

    SAQ. Check from form 1 work, this information.

    1. Outline Nehemiah’s final reforms.

    2. What is a covenant?

    3. What are the components of a covenant?

    4. Discuss how the covenant was renewed.

    5. List examples of covenants in the Old Testament and modern life.

    6. Explain what Christians can learn from the experiences of Nehemiah.

    7. Compare or relate the teachings from Nehemiah’s exemplary life to the
    teaching of St. Luke’s Gospel
    and Christian life today.

    Lesson Six: Final Reforms of Nehemiah

    Introduction.

    Changes for improvement are known as reforms, which are
    either political, economical,
    social, religious or a combination of any of them.

    Examples of reformers
    are King David, Prophet Elijah,
    and Martin Luther King among others.

    Nehemiah. After building the wall, Nehemiah went back to King
    Artaxerxes II who if you remember had
    given permission to go to Jerusalem and build its destroyed perimeter
    wall.

    Later he returned to
    Jerusalem and carried out these reforms.

    Lesson outcomes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to:

    une. List reforms of Nehemiah

    b. Suggest what we can learn from the teachings of Nehemiah and that of
    St. Luke’s Gospel.

    une. Reforms by Nehemiah.

    We have discussed reforms, which Nehemiah
    carried out during his stay in
    Judah, where he was the governor (Neh 5:14).

    The major reforms were

    i Rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem as well as its gates.

    ii Cleansing of the temple:

    Nehemiah threw him out Tobiah a foreigner
    who was living in the temple
    quarters.

    iii Reinstatement of the Levites and other temple workers.

    Levites, and
    musicians had left the temple
    duties to work in their farms to earn a livelihood.

    They were supposed to
    work in the temple and be
    supported by member contributions.

    Nehemiah organised Jews to make
    offerings and tithes to support
    temple workers. With these contributions, Nehemiah reinstated and
    redeployed Levites, priests,
    musicians and other temple workers.

    iv Reform of the Sabbath observance.

    The Israelites were told by the Lord
    to work for 6 days and rest on
    the Sabbath day.

    The Jews started working on the Sabbath day. le
    merchants camped outside waiting
    for the reopening of the gates of the temple to do business.

    Quand
    Nehemiah started rebuilding
    Jerusalem, he ordered closure of the gates of Jerusalem from the eve of
    Sabbath to the end of the
    Sabbath.

    Separations from foreigners (Neh.13: 23 – 30).

    It was against God’s law
    to marry foreigners.

    Nehemiah
    cursed the men who had married foreign wives.

    He beat Jews, pulled their
    hair and forced them to take
    oaths that neither they, nor their sons nor daughters shall intermarry.

    vi Purification of priesthood and the office of the Levites.

    Nehemiah
    cleansed the priesthood.

    He sent
    away Eliashib, a grandson of the High Priest Joshua, because he had
    given Tobiah a foreigner, a room in

    the temple.

    b. Comparing teachings of Nehemiah and St. Luke’s Gospel

    i Nehemiah lived a prayerful life while St. Luke’s gospel emphasizes
    importance of prayer.

    Jesus taught
    the role of prayer in Christianity.

    ii Nehemiah fasted, St. Luke’s gospel records that Jesus fasted.

    iii Nehemiah prayed for forgiveness of sinful Jews. We see Jesus in St.
    Luke’s gospel being a leader who
    prayed for the forgiveness of his enemies.

    iv Nehemiah cared for the needy.

    Jesus showed compassion to the needy
    and taught his followers to
    follow His example.
    v Nehemiah condemned evil so did Jesus

    vi Nehemiah is seen as a reformer of the Mosaic Law. In St Luke Gospel,
    Jesus was also a reformer.

    Il
    insisted on inner holiness.

    vii Nehemiah cleansed the temple of traders so did Jesus.

    viii Nehemiah was very strict on the Sabbath observance. St. Luke’s
    gospel teaches that Jesus is lord over
    Sabbath.

    He healed and “Worked” on Sabbath.

    ix Nehemiah was opposed to racial intermarriages, St. Luke Gospel was
    dedicated to Theophilus, a
    gentile convert.

    x Christianity kingdom of God in St. Luke’s gospel is for all, not just the
    Jews.

    xi. Nehemiah had good leadership skills and wisdom. Ceux-ci sont
    demonstrated in St Luke Gospel.

    c. Relating Nehemiah’s teachings to Christian life today

    i Prayers and fasting are fundamental to Christians just like they were to
    Nehemiah who led a prayerful

     
    la vie.

    ii Nehemiah’s example teaches Christians to face all forms of opposition
    with courage, wisdom, and
    firmness.

    iii The good leadership qualities of Nehemiah are relevant to Christians
    and they are to be emulated.

    iv Nehemiah cared for the needy. Christians should learn to give spiritual
    food, physical food and
    clothing to the needy, orphans, widows.

    v As Nehemiah renewed the covenant, Christians should seek spiritual
    renewal publicly and privately.

    They should seek for communal as well as individual forgiveness.

    vi Nehemiah cleansing the temple and organised an inventory for temple
    contributions, offerings and
    tithes. He also appointed key people to look after temple contributions
    and pay Levites and priests.

    Christians should learn to use the church buildings and contributions
    rightly.

    vii Nehemiah was guided by the Law of Moses and land just like
    Christians are guided by the scriptures.

    (Bible) and the law of the nation. The Bible is the source and basis of
    Christian principles.

    Revision questions

    1. Describe the political background of Nehemiah

    2. Describe the social background to the vocation of Nehemiah

    3. Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah

    4. Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed

    5. State occasions when Christians pray

    6. What is the importance of prayer in Christian life?

    7. Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism

    8. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today

    9. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians today

    10. explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation

    11. Explain the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant

    12. State the promises the Israelites made during the renewal of the
    engagement

    Study activities.

    Visit a church or your church and observe the display of
    the gifts of the Holy Spirit by the
    membres.

    Study the books of Amos, Jeremiah and Nehemiah before hand.

    Form three answers.

    Topic One: the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

    Qn a. Explain the meaning of the Pentecost.

  • Pentecost means fifty days after the harvest.
  • It was one of the religious festivals celebrated by Israelites annually.
  • In the Old Testament, the day of the Pentecost was celebrated during the
    wheat harvest in order to
    thank god for the blessing of the harvest.
  • Israelites came from all over the world and gathered in Jerusalem for
    this celebration.
  • In the New Testament, the meaning of the festival changed.

    C'était
    celebrated to commemorate the
    coming of the Holy Spirit upon God’s people as they gathered in the
    upper room.

    Qn b. Describe the manifestations of the Holy Spirit on the day of
    Pentecost. (Acts 2: 1-40) OR (narrate
    the events that took place on the day of Pentecost).

  • Disciples gathered in a room.
  • Sounds came from heaven like a rush of mighty wind and filled the
    maison.
  • There appeared tongues of fire.
  • The tongues of fire were distributed on each one of them.
  • They were filled with the Holy Spirit.
  • They were speaking in foreign languages and tongues.
  • Those who were observing them were amazed, as they could not
    understand what they were saying.
  • They accused them of being drunk.
  • Peter stood up and explained that they were not drunk as it was too
    early in the day to get drunk.
  • He explained how they were filled with the Holy Spirit as prophesied by
    prophet Joel.
  • He told them that it was Jesus whom they had rejected and crucified
    who had sent them the Holy
    Spirit.
  • The people asked peter what they could do.
  • Peter told them to repent and be baptized.
  • On that day about 3000 people were added to the church.

    Qn c. write down five teachings we learn about Jesus from Peter’s speech
    on the day of Pentecost.

  • Jesus was from Nazareth
  • He had a divine nature or was son of God
  • He had a human nature
  • He was attested by God to work miracles and wonders through Jesus.
  • Jesus’ death/ crucifixion was according to God’s plan
  • God raised Jesus from the dead
  • Jesus conquered death
  • The death and resurrection of Jesus fulfils the prophecy of David
  • Jesus was a descendant of David
  • The Holy Spirit was from Jesus Christ as he had promised.
  • God has made Jesus Christ both lord and Christ/ messiah
  • Jesus ascended into heaven. He is exalted at the right hand of God
  • The risen Christ is a source if hope or salvation to many
    sinners/crippled/the dead

    Qn d. What were the qualities of peter that made him a successful leader
    for the apostolic church?

  • He was a man of great faith
  • He was a good orator
  • He dedicated his life to Jesus
  • He was filled with the holy spirit
  • He could perform miracles or wonders
  • He was an eye- witness of the ministry of Jesus Christ.
  • He was full of wisdom and knowledge i.e. Anania’s and Saphira’s case.

    Qn e. what lessons can Christians learn fro the events of the day of
    Pentecost

  • They learn that Jesus always honors and keeps his promises e.g. il
    promised to send the Holy spirit
    and did it.
  • Baptism in the holy spirit is very important for every believer.
  • That obedience yields immediate results i.e. the disciples obeyed Jesus
    by testifying in Jerusalem and
    they received the Holy Spirit.
  • It is important for believers to meet for fellowship. The disciples did
    this and they received the Holy
    Spirit.
  • That the Holy Spirit enables Christians to declare the gospel with
    boldness.
  • It was the plan of God that Jesus was crucified.
  • Jesus indeed rose from the dead as peter witnessed
  • Jesus was the son of God.

    Qn f. state the teachings of Jesus on the Holy Spirit

  • The Holy Spirit comes from the father
  • The Holy Spirit will comfort disciples
  • The Holy Spirit will abide with believers forever.

    He was to teach the
    world and reveal the truth about
    Dieu

  • The Holy Spirit would guide them into all truth and make them
    understand or know more about Jesus
  • The percolate i.e. comforter/make strong/counselor who give advice
  • He was to help them attain eternal life. If it was necessary for him to die
    and return to the father so
    that Holy Spirit will be sent to them.

    It was to replace Jesus as a counselor
    and an advocate

  • He was to give the disciples authority to forgive or not to forgive
  • The spirit would remind them all that Jesus had taught them
  • The holy spirit will reprove the world of sin, righteousness and
    jugement
  • He would glorify Jesus amongst the believers
  • He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the whole world
  • He was to strengthen disciples as a wonderful counselor
  • He was to continue with the work of Jesus as a witness

    Qn g. what is the role if the holy spirit according to Jesus?

  • He comforts believers
  • He teaches believers all things
  • He bring into remembrance all that Jesus taught his disciples
  • The holy spirit would convict the world of their sins and lead them to
    droiture
  • He will guide the believers in all the truth
  • He will glorify Christ and teach about him
  • He will tell of the things to come in the future
  • He would not speak on his own authority but would speak only what he
    hears from the father.
  • He will enable believers to be witnesses of Jesus in the world
  • He will counsel believers because he knows the mind of God
  • He will enable believers know the perfect will of God

    Qn h. what is the role of the Holy Spirit in the believers (or Christians or
    the church)

  • He enables believers to preach with power
  • He comforts believers
  • He guides believers in all truth
  • He gives believers boldness to witness about Jesus
  • He enables Christians to produce the fruit of the spirit
  • He washes sacrifices and justifies the believer in the name of Jesus
  • He teaches believers all things
  • He enables Christians to access God the father and son in prayer
  • He enables Christians talk in tongues in worship
  • He enables Christians to perform miracles in the name of Jesus
  • He enables Christians to declare sins and transgressions of others

    Qn i. Outline the fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:6-26)

  • Love -showing compassion to one another
  • Joy -deep happiness when one has a good relationship with God
  • Peace -being at peace with all people
  • Patience -being to wait in difficulties
  • Kindness -being caring and helpful towards others
  • Goodness -seeking to do best in their lives
  • Faithfulness -having confidence in God
  • Gentleness -being calm and avoiding violence
  • Self-control – have strong control over their emotions

    Qn j. state the criteria for discerning of the spiritual gifts

  • The gift must glorify Jesus so that one who is under the influence of the
    Holy Spirit will be able to
    recognize Jesus as lord and savior.
  • The gifts must not call Jesus accursed
  • The test of love. The gift must be accompanied with a good or true frit.
    To discover whether or not
    the person who has the holy spirit must bear the fruits of the spirit.
  • One who is user the influence if the Holy Spirit is known by his or her
    way of life. He/she will act and
    behave in accordance with the teachings of Jesus.
  • Doctrinal test for example, prophecy should always in agreement with
    the scripture because the Holy
    Spirit cannot contradict what is written.
  • Loyalty or conformity to Jesus. The gift doesn’t envy other believers
  • The gift must be subject to the word of God
  • The true gift will be guided by principles of sincerity and honesty
  • The true gift will humbly submit to God
  • The gift should encourage the growth of the church and edify her

    Qn k. List down the gifts of the Holy Spirit.

  • The gift of wisdom (a deep understanding of who God is an his purpose
    for human life)
  • The gift of knowledge that is the basic understanding of the truth about
    Jesus Christ
  • The gift of faith that refers to the confidence or truth in God’s
    inspiration and help in undertaking
    difficult tasks
  • The gift of healing: the power to heal all types of sicknesses
  • The gift to perform all types of miracles including healing
  • The gift of prophecy: that is the ability to expound on the scriptures and
    foretell its future
    implications
  • The gift of distinguishing gifts: the ability to tell the difference between
    gifts that come from the spirit

    and those that are not

  • The gift of speaking in tongues: the ability to understand and interpret
    langues
  • Lastly the gift of love, which is the greatest of all the spiritual gifts.

    Qn l. Explain why Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts.

  • Paul taught that love is the greatest of all spiritual gifts. He said that
    l'amour est patient et gentil
  • It’s not jealous or boastful.

    It is not arrogant or rude or conceited. Il
    does not hold grudges or ill
    mannered or selfish

  • It does not insist on its own way. It is not irritable or resentful
  • It does not rejoice at wrong doings but rejoices in the truth
  • Love bears, believes, hopes and endures all things
  • It is ready to deep firm its faith, hope and its patience
  • Love does not succumb to pressure but always perseveres
  • He justified that love is the greatest gift of the spiritual gifts because in
    prayer, the gift of tongues
    becomes nothing but meaningful when accompanied by love (charity)
  • On faith, Paul says that even if one has faith that can move mountains
    but has no love, he is nothing
  • Charity or generosity including sacrificing own life is nothing without
    l'amour

    Qn m. Explain how the Holy Spirit is manifested in the church today

  • Through dynamic, power, bold and vigorous teaching of the gospel
  • Through speaking in tongues in many evangelical churches
  • Through the gift of healing many people are healed as they are prayed
    pour
  • Through the gift of love, Christians show mercy to all members of the
    society regardless of their race,
    sex or age (helping the poor in the society)
  • Through the gift of prophecy some believers give proper guidance to the
    église
  • Through the gift of discernment of spirits believers are able to tell the
    type of spirit that is in
    opération
  • Through the gift of faith, believers have been able to accomplish tasks
    that seem rather impossible
  • Some Christians through the holy spirit are able to withstand a
    persecution to the point of death
  • The holy spirit convicts sinners and makes them confess their sins
  • Through the holy spirit many Christians see heavenly visions and
    rêves
  • The fear of the lord is upon many evangelical groups through the Holy
    Spirit
  • In some evangelical gatherings, there are many supernatural things
    during worship e.g. shaking and
    balancement
  • It is also manifested through prayer at individual or congregational
    les niveaux
  • Through decision making in church i.e. solving problems and issues in
    église
  • Through singing and dancing or music
  • Through offertory and alms or sadaka
  • Holding fellowship meetings, bible study and reading the bible
  • Celebration of sacraments e.g. Eucharist and lord’s supper
  • Bringing new converts to the church
  • Pastoral cave and counseling It is manifested in Ecumenism: working
    together of the churches
  • Writing Christian literature e. g. books, pamphlets and magazines
  • Enabling Christians to confess their sins and reconciliation meetings
  • Education and giving instructions

    Qn n: State ways in which the gifts of the Holy Spirit have been abused in
    the church today.

  • Cheating that one has a certain gift of the Holy Spirit
  • Commercialization of the gifts.

    People are asked to pay money before
    being prayed for or being
    healed.

  • False interpretation of the bible, prophecy or predicting the future.
  • Unscrupulous Christians may impart demoniac powers or innocent
    faithful.
  • Some Christians who possess the gifts of the Holy Spirit develop pride
    or selfishness or superiority
    complexe.
  • Wrong use of the gifts of the Holy Spirit where faithful get into ecstasy
    or trance which may lead to
    injuries.
  • Distinguishing oneself as a person with a special call e.g. preacher with
    intention of exploiting others
    or situations.

    Topic Two: Unity of Believers

    Qn a. Write down the terms used in the New Testament to refer to
    believers in Christ

  • The people of God
  • The body of Christ
  • The bride of Christ
  • The vine and the branches
  • The assembly of God
  • Christians
  • The people of the way (followers of the way) other terms
  • Followers of Christ
  • New Israel
  • Church
  • The sheep
  • The royal church
  • Brethren
  • Royal race
  • Royal priest hood
  • Holy nation
  • The children of light
  • Saints
  • Brothers and sisters in Christ

    Qn b. identify five causes of disunity in the early church

  • The question on the inclusion of the gentiles in the church.

    Some Jewish
    Christians were not ready to
    accept gentile Christians in the church unless they underwent
    circumcision.

  • There was negligence of the widows in the distribution of food
  • Disagreement between and among leaders e.g. Paul and Barnabas, Peter
    and Paul
  • Groupings in the church where some Christians owed loyalty to
    individuals.

    They said that they
    belonged to individuals like Apollo others Peter and others Paul

  • Question of immorality, where some Christians did not live according to
    the teachings of Christ.
  • The problem of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians became
    arrogant because they were more
    gifted than others.
  • Different interpretations of the doctrines e.g. resurrection, sin, salvation,
    Christology, Holy Spirit,
    dressing.
  • Behaviour during the lord’s supper
  • Christians took others to a pagan rule of law
  • Question of the resurrection of the body
  • Question of celibacy
  • Question of incest sexual immorality
  • Different approaches to common life between Christians communities
    in Jerusalem and Antioch

    Qn c. identify factors, which cause disunity among Christians today

  • Selfishness or greed for money by some Christians
  • Rivalry or competition for leadership positions or greed for power
  • Misinterpretation by some Christians of the work of the holy spirit
  • Arrogance or pride by some Christians
  • Corruption in the church
  • Failure by some Christians to live according to the law of God or their
    failure to live exemplary
  • Lack of concern by some Christians about the plight of others
  • Misinterpretation of the bible or doctrinal differences
  • Misuse of church funds or power by some leaders
  • Lack of transparency and accountability in running church affairs
  • The emergence of charismatic movements in the church creates a
    situation where some Christians
    think that they are more spiritual or holier l than others
  • Political interference where Christians find themselves in different
    political camps
  • Sexism where women are not involved in decision-making. Women are
    under represented
  • Discrimination against the youth or churches ignoring the youth in
    running the church
  • Tribalism where Christians are divided along tribal lines
  • International differences

    Qn d. Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it
    difficult to harmoniously live
    ensemble

  • Unfaithfulness or promiscuity
  • Misuse of family resources or lack of resources
  • Child abuse e.g. beating, raping, incest or favourism
  • Alcoholism or drug use and abuse
  • Separation of family members e.g. due to wage labour or education
  • Denial of conjugal rights
  • Sickness e.g. HIV/AIDs, impotence, barrenness or cancer
  • Child delinquency
  • Lack of tolerance or forgiveness or presence of cruelty
  • Greed for wealth or self esteemed prestige or professionalism
  • Religious fanaticism or denominational differences
  • Traditional or cultural inhabitation or western cultural influences or
    permissif
  • Generation gap

    Qn e. explain how the church strengthen family relationships today

  • Through guidance and counseling and mediation
  • Hold seminars, conferences for couples, children the youth through
    publications on Christian living
    e.g. magazines, books or pamphlets
  • Use of mass media e.g. televisions. Radios or videos
  • Through offering pastoral care in homes or house to house visits
  • Giving financial support to the needy families
  • Praying for families
  • Through preaching, teaching and condemning vices
  • Offering employment to the jobless
  • Providing vocational training skills

    Selected Old Prophets and Their Teachings.

    Q1. Define the terms prophet and prophecy

    Prophet: Refers to one who speaks God’s message. He is God’s
    spokesman.

    His message includes
    predictions of the future.

    Prophecy: Is the message spoken by a prophet. Oracles spoken by
    prophets.

    Q2. List the five categories of true prophets

    i) Major prophets

    • These include Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel.

    • They are called Major Prophets because the books are long and contain
    clearly written messages.

    • They bear the names of the writers.

    ii) Minor prophets

    • These refer to 12 books that are short and contain less important than
    those in major books e.g. Amos,
    Hosea, Joel, Obadiah through to Malachi.

    iii) Canonical prophets

    • Both the major and minor prophets are together referred to as canonical
    prophets.

    iv) The early prophets

    • They belonged to guilds or schools.

    • They lived together in communities under a chief prophet. Elijah and
    Elisha are examples.

    • These are those who served in places of worship e.g. at Dan, Bethuel)

    • They were called cultic prophets because they were associated with
    religious activities in shrines.

    • They traveled around together delivering oracles.

    v) Cultic prophets

    • They worked side by side with priests and said prayers especially
    people’s petition to Yahweh.

    Q3. State the difference between true and false prophets

    True prophets False prophets

  • They were called by God to be His spokesmen
  • Not called by God.
  • Were obedient to God.
  • Not obedient to Him.
  • Believed in one God.
  • Could worship other gods and led people into
    immorality.
  • They were prayerful.
  • Not prayerful.
  • Spoke and acted with authority from God.
  • No authority from God.
  • They led holy lives.
  • Were immoral e.g. believed in false gods.
  • Spoke God’s word.
  • Spoke their opinion.
  • Suffered physically and psychologically because of speaking the truth.
  • Run away suffering.
  • Spoke the truth.
  • False.
  • Did not ask for pay.
  • Asked for pay.
  • Spoke form a common tradition based on the Mosaic Law.
  • Did not
    have any reference.

    Q4. In what ways were God’s prophets called?

  • Some were called through visions or dreams e.g. Amos and Samuel.
  • Others were called through other prophets e.g. Elisha.
  • Words or message came into their minds.
  • Through prophetic symbolic actions e.g. Jeremiah
  • Through common objects – an object becoming a significant sign of
    God’s power and activities Jer. 1:11-13.
  • Through prayers.

    Q5. Outline the similarities and differences between the Old Testament
    prophets and the Traditional
    African Ones

    a) Similarities:

  • Both possessed spiritual powers.
  • Both were mediators between people and a Supreme Being.
  • Both performed the role of healing people physically and spiritually
    (miracle).
  • They received calls mainly through visions/dreams, which were
    considered supernatural.
  • Were both expected to be people of integrity and obedient to religious
    codes.
  • Gave warnings and solutions to their people in case they offended the
    Supreme Being.
  • Foretold the future.

    b) Differences:

    Old Testament Tradition African

  • Received their message from God
  • Received their message from spirits
    and ancestors.
  • Appointed by God.
  • Inherited
  • Rejected by people
  • Respected and feared in society
  • Prophecy went to other nations
  • Confined in tribal community
  • Prophecies preserved in writing
  • Passed on orally
  • Believe and worship of one God
  • Believe in god spirits
  • Performed miracles
  • Did not

    Q6. What is the relevant of prophets to Christians today?

  • Through reading their prophecies, Christians get to know the will of
    God.
  • Jesus who is the cornerstone of Christianity is stressed throughout
    prophecy – since Abraham.
  • Prophecy has helped many to be preachers (i.e. prophecy = preaching).
  • Christians learn to be faithful to Yahweh just like the Old Testament
    prophets.
  • They too learn to be holy and prayerful like them e.g. Jeremiah.
  • Prophets encouraged justice e.g. Elijah, Christians should do the same.
  • As prophets, Christians should provide hope to the people in times of
    suffering.
  • They learn that they can face suffering just like the prophets did e.g.
    Jeremiah e.g. persecution,
    rejection etc.
  • They should condemn sin like the prophets.
  • The writings of the prophets strengthen their faith when they need them.

    Prophet Amos

    Q1. List the visions that Amos saw

  • He saw a swarm of locusts. Amos 7:1-3
  • He saw a great fire. Amos 7:4-6
  • The plumb line/crooked wall. Amos 7:7-8
  • Basket of ripe fruits. Amos 8:1-3
  • The destruction of the temple. Amos 9:1-4

    Q2. Explain the evils that Amos condemned in his teachings

  • Sexual immorality (Amos 2:17)
  • • Amos condemned temple prostitution – 23:17.

    • Father and son were going to the same woman.

    • They copied these from the Canaanite pagans, which was wrong and
    unfaithful to Yahweh.

  • Slavery: (Amos 2:6)
  • The righteous, the rich made the poor slaves.

    This is because they
    borrowed from the rich and could not
    repay so they made them work like slaves and treated them harshly.

    Certains
    sold them for a paid of
    sandals.

    This was breaking God’s laws, which guided them on how to
    treat their poor fellow Israelites.

  • Idolatry: Amos 5:26
  • Amos accused them for breaking God’s covenant by worshipping other
    gods.

    Cheating in Business: He condemned the following:

    • Merchants used false measures

    • They overcharged the poor

    • Sold goods of low quality

    • They sold poor people for not paying debts

    • They too charged high interest rates

  • Bribery and Corruption Ex. 23:8
  • • He condemned elders who were unjust and corrupt.

    • They took bribes and grew rich from heavy levies from innocent people
    in law courts.

  • Greed and excessive luxury
  • • He condemned women of Samaria who drink and lived in luxury when
    there were poor needy people.

  • Breaking God’s law on garments secured for pledges

    • God gave Israelites items that were to be given out to the creditors as a
    guarantees for the goods

    borrowed e.g. Millstones for grinding, were to be taken and returned in
    the evening because they were
    used daily.

  • Robbery and Violence
  • • Poor were being oppressed and violated.

  • Self – Indulgence and false sense of security

    • Leaders thought God could not punish them because they were a chosen
    race.

    • But Amos told them they would be attacked.

    Q3. Give reasons why Prophet Amos condemned idol worship in Israel

  • It broke the covenant way of life.
  • It was against the 10 commandments, which directed the Israelites to
    worship one God.
  • It was a sign of disobedience to God.
  • It promoted immorality e.g. temple prostitution.
  • The worship of God belittled and degraded God.
  • It promoted falsehood in the society.
  • Religion became commercialized.
  • Led to false prophecy.
  • People got concerned with external behavior and not internal.

    Q4. List evils in society today that Amos would condemn

  • Tribalism
  • Bribery and corruption
  • Robbery with violence
  • Dishonesty in business
  • Grabbing of public land and property
  • Stealing
  • Oppression of the poor e.g. sous-paiement
  • Immorality e.g. la prostitution

    Prophet Jeremiah

    Q1. List evils that Jeremiah condemned

    • Human sacrifice

    • Hypocrisy in worship

    • Dishonesty in business

    • Defilement of the temple – temple prostitution

    • Social injustice

    • Idolatry

    • False prophecy

    • Necromancy

    • Exploitation of the poor

    Q2. What are some of the evils that the church leaders condemn today?

    • Hypocrisy/pretence in worship

    • Murder/suicide/abortion/genocide

    • Exploitation of the poor/robbery

    • Dishonesty

    • False prophets

    • Human sacrifices among devil worshippers

    • Sexual immorality e.g. adultère

    Q3. Explain the symbolisms used during the call of Prophet Jeremiah

  • God touched Jeremiah’s mouth. This was to symbolize that God was the
    source of the message.
    Jeremiah was to deliver.
  • A branch of an almond tree that was base – God was watching to see the
    fulfillment of the message
    he gave to Jeremiah.
  • A pot of boiling facing away from the North and about to tilt toward
    Judah. God would use a nation
    from the North to bring judgement on the people of Judah because of their
    wickedness.
  • A fortified city. A bronze wall and an iron pillar. God was going to
    protect him even though he was
    going to meet opposition.
  • To uproot and pull down, to destroy and overthrow. God would pass
    judgement on the nation of
    Judah and other nations.
  • To build and to plant. There was still hope of the restoration of people
    of Judah after exile.

    Q4. What did Jeremiah teach about t the New Covenant?

  • The new covenant was to be written in people’s hearts.
  • The covenant was to be made between God and the remnant community
    after exile.
  • The people were to have a personal knowledge of God in the new
    covenant.
  • God was to forgive their sin and remember them no more.
  • Each individual was responsible for his won sins.
  • The new covenant was to be initiated by God.
  • The new covenant was to last forever.
  • It was as a result in the emergence of a new people of God or new
    Israel.

    Q5. Why did Prophet Jeremiah condemn the way the Israelites
    worshipped?

  • They broke God’s commands e.g. the 1st and do not worship other gods
    – they worshipped idols.
  • They practiced hypocrisy i.e. they were concerned with external
    religious observance while their
    hearts were far from God.
  • They forgot the saving history of God and worshipped other gods e.g.
    Asherah.
  • They practiced syncretism i.e. they worshipped both Yahweh and
    foreign Gods.
  • They listened to false prophets and rejected God’s prophets e.g.
    Jeremiah. They even killed some.
  • They dishonored the sanctity of human life by offering human sacrifice.
  • They neglected the disadvantaged (widows & orphans).
  • They were dishonest in business and deceitful to one another.
  • They narrowed themselves in necromancy, divination and magic.
  • They rebelled against God by breaking the covenant relationship.

    Q6. Explain Jeremiah’s temple sermon as recorded in Jeremiah 7:1-15

  • God commanded prophet Jeremiah to speak in the temple.
  • It was a response to the people of Israel to stop understanding religion
    through the practice of
    syncretism and immorality.
  • At the gate to the temple, Jeremiah proclaimed that the people of Judah
    had to change their way of
     
    life and stick to the covenant they made with God.
  • They had to stop defiling the temple of placing idols in it.
  • They had to stop committing social injustices and as
    murderer/exploitation of the weak, orphans
    widows and foreigners.
  • The practice of human sacrifice was murder and displeasing to God.
  • Hypocrisy was bad.
  • The Israelites believed that the temple was secure from destruction
    because of its holiness was not
    true.
  • God would destroy Israelites/Jerusalem through invasion of a foreign
    nation.
  • If the people stopped their evil ways, God would not bring judgement
    upon them.
  • God would destroy the temple of Jerusalem and send the people to
    exile.

    Q7. What forms of punishment did Jeremiah prophesy that God would
    use on Judah?

  • The punishment would be in form of a foreign body that God use to
    conquer Judah.
  • They would be attacked and their city destroyed.
  • People would suffer and die due to their sins.
  • The punishment would in form of drought. This would affect people
    and animals.
  • God’s punishment would come through death, diseases and sword.
  • Their punishment would be a defeat inflicted to them by Babylonian.
  • The punishment would be the loss of their land to a foreign nation and
    their enslavement.
  • God would allow the enemy to destroy Jerusalem and take survivors to
    captivity.

    Q8. Outline the content of Jeremiah’s letter to exiles in Babylon (Jer. 29)

  • He encouraged the Israelites in Babylon to build houses and live in
    leur.
  • Plant gardens and eat their produce.
  • Marry and increase.
  • Pray for their rulers.
  • Not to worship false gods.
  • Not to be cheated by false prophets.
  • To obey their masters.
  • Worship one God.

    Q9. Explain four symbolic acts related to judgement and punishment as
    demonstrated by Prophet
    Jeremiah

  • Linen waist cloth – the rotten/useless linen cloth that had been hidden in
    the caves and lift to rot
    stood for Israel’s state of being useless before the eyes of God. A sign that
    they had soiled their
    priesthood.
  • Jeremiah was asked not to marry the solitary life symbolized solitude in
    exile.
  • Two baskets of fig fruits – the bad fruits signified that the bad people
    would be punished.
  • Wooden yoke – he was asked to carry a wooden yoke and work around
    with it signifying suffering in
    Babylon – exile.
  • Breaking an earthly flask – destruction of the temple.
  • Visit to a potter – whereby the potter destroyed a pot due to poor shape
    and remolded it. God would
    remold Israel to a shape befitting them.
  • Not to comfort anybody – these would be sorrow and suffering, no help
    while in exile.

    Q10. Identify the relevance of Jeremiah’s teaching to Christians life today

  • Christians are called to preach God’s gospel as Jeremiah did.
  • Christians should accept suffering like Jeremiah did.
  • They should learn to distinguish between false and true prophets.
  • Like Jeremiah, they should condemn evil in society.
  • They have a duty to call people to repentance as Jeremiah did.
  • Christians should be good examples to the people by living, holy and
    upright lives as Jeremiah did.
  • People should be able to know the nature of God through the lives of
    Christians.
  • They should believe they are the new community as prophesied by
    Jeremiah in the new covenant.

    Q11. In what ways is the prophetic mission of Jeremiah similar to that of
    Jesus?

  • Both were rejected by their own relatives and communities.
  • Both experienced opposition from political and religious authorities.
  • Both prophesied the destruction of the temple.
  • Both lamented over the stubbornness of the people of Jerusalem.
  • Both predicted divine judgement and punishment in Israel.

    Jeremiah predicted the new covenant that is fulfilled by Jesus.

    Prophet Nehemiah

    Qn 1. Describe the political background of Nehemiah

  • He worked during the Babylonian exile which lasted between 589- 538
    avant JC
  • During his vacation, Israelites were oppressed politically
  • The Israelites hoped that God would soon liberate them fro this bondage
  • In 538 BC the Babylonians were conquered by Cyrus the great king of
    Persia
  • In 538 BC king Cyrus allowed Israelites to return to Judah
  • King Cyrus gave the Israelites a decree to rebuild the temple of
    Jerusalem
  • In 538BC the first exile under Zebu Babel
  • Joshua the priest departed from Babylon and started to rebuild alters of
    Dieu
  • Under the guidance of prophets Haggai and Zachariah the temple was
    rebuilt and dedicated
  • The second exile arrived under prophet Ezra; after king Artaxerxes
    authorized Ezra to re establish

    Israelites religious and moral expectations of the Mosaic Law.

  • Nehemiah was a servant the king Artaxerxes palace.

    The king
    authorized him to go and rebuild the
    walls of Jerusalem.

  • Amidst all opposition from Samaritan, Nehemiah accomplished the
    reconstruction of the walls of
    Jerusalem in 52 days. He then dedicated the walls to God.
  • This restored the sense of political pride in Israel.

    However the
    Israelites remained subjected to the
    Persians and continued to pay tribute.

    The Persians were later overthrown
    by Romans who ruled the
    entire region until the time of the birth of Jesus.

    Qn 2. Describe the social background to the vacation of Nehemiah

  • Israelites men married foreign women
  • Children spoke different languages from their mothers
  • Hebrew language almost became extinct
  • Nehemiah condemned mixed marriages and even banned them
  • Exiles who returned home were humiliated by foreigners who partially
    occupied their land
  • The Samaritans threatened Nehemiah’s life as the rebuilt walls of
    Jerusalem
  • Rich Jews oppressed the poor e.g. they would confiscate their property
    for failure to repay debts

    Qn 3. Describe the religious background to the vocation of Nehemiah

  • While in exile the Babylonians allowed the Jews to continue with their
    religious lives.
  • The exiles became the period of purification
  • They returned with a new zeal to worship God; they rebuilt the altar
    under Zerubbabel for offering
    burnt offerings to God
  • The returnees built the temple of Jerusalem under Haggai and Zachariah
    and dedicated to god by Ezra
  • Nehemiah embarked on rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem amidst
    opposition in 52 days the wall was
    complete.

    Consequently, Jerusalem once more became the centre of
    worship for Israel. Idolatry was not
    allowed again in Israel after the exile.

  • The temple of Jerusalem was dedicated to Yahweh. The Israelites
    renewed their covenant with God
    under prophet and priest Ezra.

    Nehemiah carried out various religious
    reforms.

    Qn 4. Describe occasions when Nehemiah prayed

  • When he heard about the suffering of his fellow Jews back in Judah
  • When he learned about the state of ruin of Jerusalem and king
    Atarterxes to request him to allow him
    go back to Judah.
  • When his enemies e.g. Tobiah and Samballat ridiculed him as he
    reconstructed the walls of Jerusalem.
  • When he learned of his enemies conspiracy to attack Jerusalem.
  • When his enemies conspired to destroy his life/ kill him
  • When Shemiah attempted to frighten him to hide in the temple as hi life
    was in danger.
  • When he cleansed and arranged the temple as a house of God.
  • When he warned the people of Judah against violating the Sabbath law
  • After chasing away the son in law of Samballat from the temple
  • After cleansing the Israelites of foreign influence

    Qn 5. State occasions when Christians pray

  • When they are faced with diverse persecutions.

    They ask God to protect
    leur

  • When they don’t understand certain scriptures.

    They ask God to give
    them revelation

  • When they are faced with certain difficulties of life.

    They ask God to
    les aider à

  • When the nation is facing political crisis. They pray for peace
  • When they feel inadequate and sinful. They ask God to perform certain
    miracles for them e.g. healing.

    Qn 6. What is the importance of prayer in Christian life?

  • Prayer helps Christians to praise God, give thanks to him and to repent
  • It helps Christians to pour out their hearts to God
  • It helps Christians to rely to God for emotional and mental stability.

    Il
    helps put our problems to God

  • It strengthens Christians. It gives them determination and character to
    remain steadfast in their
    responsibilities despite the challenges
  • Through prayer a Christian can request to stand against personal attacks
    and temptations
  • Prayer is the source of courage and strength in times of tribulations
  • It brings one closer to God, we use it to praise God, use it to ask for
    God’s supply of their needs, used

    to ask for forgiveness and promotes important virtues e.g. persistence and
    patience and promotes unity
    among different communities

    Qn 6. Identify the leadership of Nehemiah’s patriotism

  • He was a tune patriot i.e. after talking to the Jews and getting the news
    of distribution of Jerusalem,
    he was forced to go back home.
  • Reliance to God. He totally relied on God and to his call i.e. in most
    cases he prayed before carrying
    out an activity
  • Devoted/ talented. As a cupbearer to the emperor he was an educated,
    talented and trustworthy
    un jeune homme
  • Visionary. He had a vision and he shared it with enthusiasm to inspire
    Jerusalem leaders to rebuild
    the wall.
  • Initiative.
  • He took the initiative to persuade the emperor to put things right.
  • Exceller organizer. He carefully organized the rebuilding process.

    Il
    organized how the wall of
    Jerusalem was to be built in steps.

  • Careful planner. He carefully examined and inspected the wall before
    starting the work.
  • People’s representative. He was a proper representative of his people in
    Israel.

    he had a sense of
    responsibility to his community.

  • Shrewd. He avoided the meetings organized by his opposer and
    overlooked the abuses placed on him.
  • Impartial. He appointed men of integrity and God fearing to keep guard
    over Jerusalem.
  • Selfless and kind. He had the skill of solving problems. He hence
    cancelled all debts that people had.
  • Homogenous. He employed different strategies to counteract his
    opposer.

    Qn7. explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s leadership to a Christian today

  • A Christian should use his/her present position to serve God
  • Christians should acknowledge God as their source of power and giver
    of gifts
  • A leader should appoint people who are trustworthy and honest to help
    him/ her in ruling the
    pays
  • God answers our prayers as a result of asking others for help
  • A Christian leader should keep his /her plans a secret until it matures to
    make an announcement.
  • Christians should share their visions with others the way Nehemiah did.
  • Leaders should take care of the needy in the society.
  • As a Christian one could be lured to temptations; the way Nehemiah
    was opposed we should be
    ready to resist temptations.
  • Christians should be ready to help in solving problems in the society
    Christians should act as role.

    models by carrying out spiritual activities with the truth and helping in
    work after starting projects.

    Qn 8. Explain the relevance of Nehemiah’s experience to Christians

  • They should not exploit the needy and disadvantaged
  • They should defend the rights of the weak and use their work place,
    famille et amis
  • They should ask God to protect them from the mischief of their enemies
  • That they should pray to God to give them guidance in their endeavors
  • That they should persevere in all difficulties as Nehemiah did
  • The should condemn the injustices in the society
  • They should know that leadership involves challenges and difficulties
  • They should be practically involved in problem solving e.g. HIV/AIDs
    fléau

    Qn 9. Explain the problems that Nehemiah encountered in his vocation

  • Oppression of the poor Jews by the rich Jews e.g. demanded high
    interests on borrowed money
  • Great opposition from the enemies they tried to frustrate his/her efforts
    to build the walls of
    Jerusalem
  • Threat to his own life. His adversaries wanted to kill him
  • Lack of co-operation and support from the Jews. They refused to work
    with him on the wall project
  • Excessive foreign influence in Israel. Intermarriage brought about
    foreign influence which threatened
    to extinct the Jew culture and language
  • Violation of the Sabbath laws. Israelites went on to do their daily chores
    on the Sabbath day
  • Abuse of the temple. Eliaship housed Tobias the heathen and God’s
    ennemis
  • Misuse of offerings. The levies were denied their share of sacrificial
    offerings as required by the law

    Qn 10. Describe the steps taken by Nehemiah to renew the covenant

  • Ezra the priest read the book of the covenant and explained the meaning
    of the Law of Moses.

    le
    Israelites listened carefully and their lives changed.

    They responded
    Amen, amen

  • Celebration of the feast of shelters.

    After reading the scriptures, they
    realized that they had not been

    celebrating the feast of shelters.

    This was to remember their deliverance
    from Egypt.

    They were also to
    think about God’s protection and guidance.

  • The Israelites confessed of their sins as they learnt that they had not
    been following God’s
    commandments.

    Nehemiah was devoted to confession of national sin and
    prayers to God’s grace.

  • Recital of God’s dealings with Israel.

    They recital of God’s mighty acts
    is done in this.

    Ils
    remembered their history and this renewed God’s grace and power in
    leur.

  • A renewed covenant sealed. The covenant was renewed in writing and
    the leaders put seals.
  • The binding agreement that people and God was done by the Israelites
    joining hands.

    Qn 11. State the promises that Israelites made during the renewal of the
    engagement

  • That every seventh year, they would cancel debts according to the
    Mosaic Laws.
  • That they should observe God’s commandments and live according to
    his laws.
  • That they would offer the first of their harvests as required by Torah.
  • That they would dedicate their first-born sons to God.
  • That they will not intermarry with foreigners at all.
  • That they will not buy corn or anything else on the Sabbath day.
  • That they will remit their arrival temple expenses to ensure that God’s
    house was okay.
  • That they will provide sacrifices and offerings at the temple.
  • That they will pay their tithes according to the law.

    Group study activities

    1. Read and study the book of Luke by

    2. Dividing up the chapters in the book of Luke among the members of
    the class and let every group
    present a summary of the chapters allocated to them.

    3. Check out movies about the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ
    but note that your study
    according to the syllabus is based on St. Luke’s gospel.

    Form Four – Contemporary Christian Living

    Form four work deals with social issues in society. We shall compare the
    issues in the following
    communities – The Traditional African Society Christian community and
    the contemporary one.

    By the
    end of it the student should be able to understand the meaning of life and
    live to it’s fullest.

    Topic One. Introduction to Christian Ethics

    Instructions. Form four work covers contemporary issues in a Christians
    la vie.

    You are advised to read
    newspapers, listen to radio news, watch television news and current
    affairs and any other relevant news
    la source. Work in twos.

    Give yourself topics to study and then give a
    presentation to your partner or colearner.

    Learning outcomes. After reading and discussing Christian ethics, you
    should be able to:

    une. Explain the meaning of Christians ethics

    b. Explore the basics of Christian’s ethics

    une. Christian ethics.

    The word ethics comes from a Greek term ‘Ethikos’
    which means custom, or conduct.

    Ethics are moral principles, which influence a person’s behaviour. Éthique
    are defined as the systematic

     
    study of human actions and behaviour.

    We use ethics to judge, determine
    and assess the right and
    wrong of human behaviour.

    Morals refer to human character, which is the
    inclination to behave in oneway or another.

    Ethics is the study of morals
    and they determine and influence personal and societal
    behaviour.

    Christian ethics is the study of human conduct or behaviour
    from a Christian point of view.

    b. Basis of Christian ethics. Sources of Christian’s ethics: –

    1. The bible, teachings of Jesus Christ

    2. Human reason and experience

    3. Natural law

    4. The Christian community – the church

    5. Situation ethics

    6. Authoritative Christian literature – based on the bible

    7. Gods revelation – through prophets

    i. Human reason.

    These are internal thoughts that guide us when we are
    making decisions and taking
    actions.

    We use our minds and thoughts when confronted by situations.
    They also rely on internal
    thoughts in their life experiences.

    Internal guiding thoughts have many parts.

    One is our Conscience. C'est
    our inner self that tells us and
    lets us know what is right and wrong.

    There are four types of consciences;
    doubtful conscience, sensitive
    conscience, certain conscience and perplexed conscience.

    For a Christian, rights and wrongs are in the Bible. God gave the Law of
    Moses to Israelites.

    Jesus came
    and explained the Old Testament and taught new scriptures in the New
    Testament.

    These teachings,
     
    which we have covered from Form one to three, explain very clearly what
    is right and wrong.

    Quand
    doubtful of the morality of an action, Christian consults the Bible to know
    if a decision is right or wrong.

    ii. Human Experiences:

    These are internal and external guides

  • When confronted by situations, Christians use their minds i.e. human
    reason and their life
    experiences in making decisions.
  • They rely on internal guides, (Human reason) and experience (external
    guides)

    Internal guides

    (i) Conscience:

    Mind, aspect of knowing right or wrong. When right,
    there’s’ approval when wrong it
    registers guilt.

    When doubtful of the morality of an action we should not do it
    If conscience is perplexed then make us decision.

    A decision should be
    based on a certain conscience.

    Types of conscience

    – Doubtful conscience

    – Sensitive conscience

    – Certain conscience

    – Perplexed conscience

    2. One can also make decisions based on knowledge and free will
    To make a decision one should have

    – Facts about the act, its aims, circumstances.

    – One should be free to perform

    A decision ought to be thoughtful

    3. Intuition:

    Inner feeling, insight
    It’s an internal moral sense to do good or avoid evil.

    Intuition is important
    in situations that require

     
    quick and immediate that requires quick and immediate action.

    4. Feelings

    Feelings are subjective e.g. it feels good to do so this, hence will do…” it
    can be dangerous to make
    decisions purely based on feelings especially in marriage friendship etc.

    Eternal guides Experience

    Guides here include authoritative persons such as parents, teachers,
    police, civil leaders philosophers,
    and religious leaders.

    Rules from secular, religions, and African traditional culture are part of
    external guides.

    The bible

    The bible, quoted in the text but now out of text guides Christian
    behaviour.

    God communicates to his
    people through the Bible.

    The Bible offers answers to questions in
    relation to the life of a Christian.

    Today, there are ethical issues not found in the bible e.g. HIV / AIDS,
    sexual and reproductive health
    rights, contraceptives, abortion, globalization, cloning, environmental
    degradation, genetically modified
    foods, terrorism, international trade etc. this gives reason and other
    sources / factors are basis of
    Christian ethics in addition to the bible.

    Moral principles in the bible

    – They are mostly found in the teachings of Jesus and the ten
    commandments, sermon on the mountain

    – Christians are also encouraged to have
    Faith

    – The virtues encouraged include generosity, love, kindness, faithfulness,
    patience, humility, peace,
    mercy, loyalty etc.

    Christian community – church

    Church leadership can make decisions, which touch on their followers.

    They guide people on ethical
    issues e.g. politics, land, justice, abortion, contraception etc.

    Church organizations give rules on those conduct of their members.

    Natural law

    – The awareness that one has to choose good and avoid evil

    – If one studies human nature and reflects upon it he/she will discover
    natural laws of human behaviour

    – Natural law, natural rights such as right to education, life own property
    many etc. are incorporated into
    the constitution of any nation.

    – The constitution then guides the behaviour of list citizens; Christians
    being citizens of a country are
    guided in their behaviour by the constitution.

    Situation ethics

    One should reason out the rightness or wrongness of an act. The rightness
    or wrongness of an act
    depends on its uniqueness, the circumstances.

    – Christians are warned against making decisions based on circumstances
    or the situation e.g. une enceinte
    student seeking abortion as the option so as to continue with education.

    Gods revelation

    God reveals himself to people through prophets, natural events, the law,
    dreams and visions.

    Through
    such ways God guides Christian on how they should approach certain
    issues.

    God’s revelation does not

     
    contradict with the bible.

    Revision questions

    1. What is the meaning of Christian ethics?

    2. What is the basis or source or foundation of Christian ethics?

    3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life

    Topic Two: Christian Approaches to Human Sexuality,
    Marriage and Family
    introduction

    Christian approaches refer to how Christians view and handle issues of
    human sexuality, marriage and
    the family in accordance with Christians ethics. Through marriage, the
    family is formed.

    Lesson One: Human Sexuality

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    a Define human sexuality, marriage, and family

    b Explain the Christian teaching of human sexuality

    c Assess the traditional African understanding of human sexuality

    d Determine gender roles in traditional African home

    e Explain Christians teachings about male and female relationships

    f Explain and appreciate Christian teaching on responsible sexual
    comportement

    g Explain Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour and their
    conséquences

    une. Human sexuality.

    This is a sacred gift from God. It was given to Adam
    and Eve. Human sexuality is that
    which makes us male or female.

    It is our biological or physiological
    differences associated with the state
    of being male or female.

    It is part of our biological make up. Males and
    female have different body

     
    structures, features, appearances and biological characteristics.

    En terme de
    physical strength more men
    are stronger than females.

    Besides the biological make up, we have an
    emotional side, which includes
    our attitudes, and feelings.

    Females are said to be more emotional, and
    talkative than males.

    Humain
    sexuality is also in our brain and mind and it is what makes us human
    beings.

    If you look at animals they
    also have different physiological features based on sexual differences.

    b. Christian teaching on human sexuality.

    Males and females are God’s
    creation. Men and women were
    created for many reasons.

    Ceux-ci sont

    (1) to be fruitful and to multiply; et

    (2) for companionship.

    Dans
    Genesis we learn that men and women share the image of God because
    God intended man and woman
    to play complementary roles and both are equal before God.

    Sex in marriage is a sign of love and it is sacred.

    In marriage man / and
    woman become one flesh.

    Tous les deux
    of them have the ability to control their sexual desires.

    Christian teaching
    forbids:

    sex before marriage,
    adultery or unfaithfulness, and other unnatural sexual behaviours like
    lesbianism, homosexuality or
    being gay, and incest. God created human body and it is to be kept holy.

    Chastity is encouraged while
    unfaithfulness in marriage is discouraged. Husbands / wives are to respect
    one another and give to each
    other in mutual love.

    c. Traditional African understanding of human sexuality.

    Humain
    sexuality is highly valued in traditional

     
    African communities.

    It is understood in terms of marriage and
    parenthood.

    Procreation was the sole
    purpose of sex.

    Sex was to be practiced in marriage and it was regarded as
    another sacred duty.

    Adultery was discouraged and offenders punished.

    Irresponsible sexual relationships were forbidden.

    Virginity before
    marriage was highly valued.

    If a girl
    lost her virginity before marriage, she was treated with scorn and
    punishment.

    If a boy impregnating a
    girl, he was fined.

    In traditional African society it was a taboo to discuss openly sex matters.

    Grandparents taught sex
    education to their grandchildren.

    Sex education was taught during
    initiation stages.

    Free mixing of girls
    and boys was not allowed except under supervision.

    Girls were married
    off immediately after initiation
    to avoid temptation of engaging in pre-marital sex.

    To reinforce self –
    discipline in relationships between
    the opposite sexes the African traditional society instilled the fear of
    supernatural curses through myths,
    taboos and rules.

    Marital status. Husbands and wives were expected to relate to each other,
    their parents, and in laws
    according to the community customs.

    Conflicts between a husband and a
    wife were resolved through
    intervention of relatives.

    ré. Gender roles.

    There are specific chores and duties for either male or
    female in African traditional
    societies.

    Roles were therefore according to gender. Boys went hunting,
    herding, while girls fetched

     
    firewood, and helped in cooking.

    At an early age, girls and boys would
    mix freely as they played
    together.

    Mature boys and girls however, were restricted from mixing
    freely without supervision by
    elders.

    But there was gender identification. The boys identified with their
    fathers and other male adults,
    while girls identified themselves with their mother and other female
    adults.

    Education. Children belonged to the community and not just to their
    biological parents.

    Au
    adolescent stage; 13 – 18 years education was given to the adolescents
    and intensified at initiation
    stage.

    Boys and girls were taught traditional rules, and secrets of the
    society during initiation.

    Apprentissage
    was informal. Knowledge was communicated through songs, stories and
    riddles among other forms of
    presentations.

    All adults acted as parents to the young ones.

    Socialisation. Men were socialized to be superior, while women were
    socialized to accept their
    subordinate position and role.

    Everyone knew and accepted what he/she
    was culturally supposed to do.

    Division of labour was based on sex.

    In the African communities, despite
    their differences, there were
    many common customary roles, rules, regulations, taboos and beliefs that
    governed the practices
    related to male – female relationships from early childhood to old age.

    These traditional African
    practices relating to male – female relationships existed at various levels.
    In all of them, man held
    superior positions when compared to those of women.

    Age. Old women and men were accorded respect. They were consulted
    for advice and counsel.

    Kinship
    system was emphasized.

    e. Christian teaching on male- female relationships.

    We learn that the
    husband is the head of the house
    and should love his wife like Christ loved the church.

    Once a wife is
    loved, she should submit to her
    husband.

    We also learn that both male and female are equal and co –
    creators with God.

    Adam and Eve
    were created to complement each other.

    Likewise men and women should
    love each other.

    Jesus taught
    that each man should have one wife and vice versa. Once married, the
    husbands’ body belongs to the
    wife and hers belong to him.

    If that is the case, wife and husband should
    avoid immorality.

    Males and females are to relate freely.

    But the youth are to avoid the
    passions of youth.

    Ceux-ci sont
    sexual sins. There are no specific chores or duties for either male or
    female. Relationship between sexes
    should be governed by love, chastity, respect, self-control, and selfdiscipline.

    Parents are to love their
    children, while children are to obey and honor their parents.

    Parents are
    asked to bring up their children
    in a Godly way.

    Lesson Two. Christian Teaching About Human Sexuality

    Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

    une. Outline Christian teaching on responsible sexual behaviour

    b. Analyse Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour

    c. Discuss effects and consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    ré. Give examples of the effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour
    Sexual behaviour is part of human behaviour.

    The Bible gives principles
    of sexual behaviour in the Ten
    Commandments.

    une. Christian teaching on responsible human sexuality.

    Christianity teaches
    us about responsible sexual
    behaviour.

    Being responsible means that one is exercising self – control
    or self-discipline in matters of
    sexual behaviour.

    Self-discipline is necessary when we have a
    relationship with the opposite sex (Read, 1
    Cor.7: 9 1 Peter 5:8).

    It is called responsible sexual behaviour, which is
    obedience to God’s commands.

    Christians promote healthy social relationship between boys and girls,
    men and women, and husbands
    and wives.

    Responsible sex is between male and female. Sexual
    intercourse is allowed only between
    married couples (1 Cor.7: 3 – 5).

    Married couples are obliged to be
    sexually faithful to one another
    (Heb.13: 4) adultery is condemned (exodus 25:14). Relationship between
    a husband / wife should be
    one of respect faithfulness, love, care, mercy, submission, tolerance, and
    forgiveness.

    b. Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    Il y a beaucoup de
    irresponsible sexual behaviours.

    They include among others all acts and forms of: perversion, misuse, and
    abuse of sex, incest, rape,
    fornication, adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism or gay, prostitution,
    concubine, masturbation, bestiality
    and child marriages among others.

    These irresponsible sexual behaviours
    are against God’s will for

    humanity.

    Christians are to shun irresponsible sexual behaviour. C'est
    because their bodies are the
    temples of the Holy Spirit.

    Thus whatever Christians do with their bodies,
    it should be for the glory of
    God.

    Let us now discuss in brief some of the irresponsible sexual behaviour;
    beginning with

    (i) Incest.

    which is a sexual relationship between people who are closely
    related by blood. Par exemple,
    sex between a brother/sister, father / daughter. Incest is condemned in the
    Bible.

    It was punishable by
    death in the Old Testament. Read Leviticus 18:6 – 8.

    ii) Rape.

    Rape cannot be justified and it is condemned in The Bible.

    Rape
    is an act of forcing another
    person to have sexual intercourse without his or her consent.

    It is sexual
    violence and a crime against
    humanity.

    It is also a denial, and a violation of human rights of the
    victims who are sexually assaulted.

    Victims of rape include boys, men, girls, women, and babies especially
    girls.

    Rape is an expression of hatred toward the opposite sex.

    In traditional
    African society rape was
    abhorred and culprits were punished by death.

    In Kenya rape is
    punishable by 20 years imprisonment.

    Indecent assaults or sexual abuses such as touching a person of the
    opposite sex without their
    permission or use of vulgar language are both punishable by up to 5 years
    imprisonment.

    iii. Fornication.

    This is consensual sexual intercourse between unmarried
    personnes. It is condemned by

     
    both African and Christian teachings and punishment in African
    traditional society was by either
    payment of fines, stoning, and ritual cleansing.

    In the Old Testament, men
    were forced to marry the girl.

    Jesus said that fornication was due to people’s evil thoughts.

    Abstinence
    for the youth is encouraged
    and preached.

    Why do the youth engage in pre – marital sex?

    There are several reasons.

    Certains d'entre eux sont:

    sexuel
    curiosity, proving manhood, human weakness, lack of self control, testing
    fertility, fear of being jilted /
    rejected; commercial sex for money; copying acts in the print and
    electronic media.

    Others reasons are

    frustrations, drug abuse, bribe to get a job, and permissiveness in the
    society.

    iv. Adultery

    Is committed by adults who have extra marital affairs;
    between “married partner and
    another party”.

    Adultery is having sex outside marriage with a person
    with whom one is not married to.

    Adultery is caused by lack of self – control, sexual dissatisfaction, long
    periods of wife and husband
    separation, sexual dysfunction and vengeance by an initially faithful
    spouse who wants to be even with
    the unfaithful spouse.

    v. Prostitution.

    This is the practice of giving sexual pleasure for money or
    other material benefits.

    UNE
    prostitute can either be male or female.

    Prostitutes are referred to as
    commercial – sex workers.

    Why is there prostitution?

    There are factors leading to prostitution.

    Celles-ci
    are economic reasons such as

     
    unemployment, poverty, rejection of a girl at home, drug abuse, stress,
    anger, anxiety, frustrations in
    the family and pornography.

    The church condemns prostitution because it
    defiles the body, which is a
    temple of the Holy Spirit. It’s sexual immorality. Read Gal 5: 19 – 21.

    vi. Homosexuality/ Gay/ Lesbianism.

    This is sex between people of the
    same sex for example; homme et
    man (homosexuality), woman and woman (lesbianism).

    Homosexuality is
    a common practice in modern
    monde.

    It is also a church problem.

    The Anglican Church in USA, and
    Canada have accepted
    homosexuality.

    The Anglican Church has gay bishops.

    African Anglican
    churches are opposing this
    entraine toi.

    What makes people prefer sex with the same sex?

    The Christian view is
    that homosexuality is a sign of a
    lack of Christian moral values.

    It may also be due to confinement in a
    prison and permissiveness in
    society.

    If it is allowed to continue, it shall disintegrate traditional African
    valeurs. Because of its threat to
    God’s people, the Church condemns homosexuality.

    Other reasons for
    condemning it is because

    (1) God
    created a male and a female. Read, Genesis 1:28.

    Two, sex is sacred.
    Homosexuality is an unnatural
    relationship, which lowers human dignity.

    It does not provide sexual
    fulfillment (as traditionally).

    Homosexuality is illegal in Kenya.

    vii. Sexually transmitted Diseases (STDs).

    There are many diseases
    passed from one person to the other

     
    through sex. These are gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes genitalis is, hepatitis B,
    clamydia, trichonomiasis,
    HIV/AIDS. Lets discuss them one by one.

    HIV / AIDS.

    This is human immune deficiency virus (HIV) that causes
    acquired immune deficiency
    syndrome (AIDS) condition.

    Syndrome refers to many symptoms.

    HIV is
    transmitted largely through sex
    with an infected partner; through blood transfusion; sharing sharp objects
    with infected persons; et
    from an infected mother to the unborn child.

    The HIV virus destroys the
    white blood cells, and weakens
    the body ‘s immune system.

    When the body is weak, it is not able to fight,
    and defend itself against
    infections.

    Persons with the virus are vulnerable and susceptible to
    opportunistic infections.

    The signs / symptoms of AIDS are manifestations of symptoms of the
    opportunistic infections.

    Certains
    symptoms include persistent coughs, loss of weight, oral thrush, loss of
    appetite, and diarrhoea.

    Churches encourage Christians to be compassionate to HIV/AIDS
    affected people, and to support the
    infected and the affected individuals like the orphans, widows, and
    widowers.

    It also teaches against
    sexual immorality and against all forms of discrimination.

    Gonorrhea

    Is caused by a bacterium called “Neisseria gonorrhea”.

    Its
    symptoms appear a4 days after
    infection.

    Its symptoms are burning sensation when passing urine; pain or
    discomfort in the genitals;

    sticky discharge or pus in the vagina or through the urethra.

    Le bon
    news is that Gonorrhea is curable

    if treated early.

    Syphilis.

    Primary syphilis may show up in the form of a sore or a wound
    in the genitals a few days after
    infection.

    The wound heals by itself without treatment after some time.
    Syphilis infection may take
    several years about 7 years before its symptoms re appear.

    The symptoms
    of syphilis are a painless sore
    or pimple on the man’s penis or woman’s vulva; and swelling of the
    glands in the groin.

    Autre
    symptoms, which may appear later, are skin rashes, and sores either in the
    face armpits, under breasts,
    mouth or throat.

    Herpes genital

    Is a sexual disease caused by a virus. It creates wounds in
    the genitals.

    A pregnant woman
    can transmit the infection to her newborn baby during delivery.

    Cette
    disease can be controlled although
    there is not an effective treatment.

    Hepatitis B virus

    causes Hepatitis B. It is transmitted through sex,
    injections by unsterilized needles and
    contact with contaminated blood.

    The infection does not show on the
    genitals.

    The signs and symptoms
    of Hepatitis B include yellowness of the eyes (jaundice) due to liver
    damage and pain around the upper
    abdomen.

    c. The effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    There are many effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour.

    They include
    among others HIV / AIDS,
    sexually transmitted infections (STI), abortion; family separations and
    divorces, deaths, unplanned

     
    pregnancies; children living in the streets; school drop outs and
    psychological problems.

    i. Effects of incest.

    These are many. One, incest undermines the healthy
    relationships between members
    of a family as it brings shame and guilt among the parties involved.

    Two,
    incest destroys relationships
    within the family and can lead to breaking up of a marriage. Three, incest
    destroys self-esteem, self –
    respect, and dignity of the victim.

    We find that abused boys and girls end
    up having problems when
    trying to establish healthy relationship with members of the opposite sex.

    Four, incest can lead to
    pregnancy, and abortion.

    And as you have read in the newspapers, it can
    lead to infections with sexually
    transmitted diseases (S.T.I.’s) and HIV / AIDS.

    As I write, a father was
    jailed for life for raping his
    daughter and infecting her with HIV/AIDS virus.

    ii. Effects of Rape.

    This crime has very serious consequences and harmful
    effects on the victim.

    Rape
    may result in pregnancy and can led to physical, psychological, social,
    and spiritual side effects.

    le
    victim may suffer

    (1) serious physical injuries and

    (2) may contract both
    the STI’s, and HIV / AIDs.

    le
    victim is traumatized, and ashamed of self.

    The victim suffers from guilt,
    loneliness, humiliation,
    posttraumatic stress disorders, and depression among others psychological
    manifestations.

    Young rape
    victims in particular may loose trust in the opposite sex.

    All these
    sufferings can lead to suicide and
    death.

    iii. Effects of Fornication.

    Some of these are having children out of
    wedlock; feelings of distrust, guilt,
    and hurt; contracting STI’s and HIV/AIDS; loss of self-respect; tôt et
    forced marriage and abortion.

    iv. Effects of Adultery.

    Christians teach against adultery because it is
    against God’s commandments and
    can lead to divorce, abortion, STI, HIV/AIDS, domestic violence, murder
    (death) and psychological
    problems.

    v. Effects of Prostitution are many.

    It can lead to break up of marriage,
    and family.

    It lowers a person’s
    dignity and can lead to unplanned pregnancies, school dropouts;
    infections such as STI’s and HIV /AIDS
    and improper use of family resources.

    vi. Effects of homosexuality.

    It is a threat to procreation. It promotes
    loose short-term informal
    relationships and therefore promotes HIV / AIDS.

    Homosexual couples
    are prone to HIV/AIDS infections
    because of having many partners; although this is changing in USA where
    homosexual couples are being
    married in churches.

    vii. Effects of Sexually transmitted diseases

    HIV / AIDS effects are numerous.

    They include recurrent illness due to
    opportunistic infections. Il y a
    also stigmatization.

    Some individuals have feelings of guilt, anger, denial
    and depression.

    The sick
    persons have to look for extra finances to care for their health.

    They have
    the burden for medications,
    and special diet. HIV/AIDs has no cure and leads to death like many other
    diseases.

    Parents die and

    leave their children as orphans.

    Gonorrhea effects are many.

    The disease damages a woman’s fallopian
    tubes leading to infertility; et un
    man’s epidydymis leading to sterility.

    An infected expectant mother can
    infect her newborn baby with
    gonorrhea.

    The disease may affect the eyes of the unborn child causing
    blindness.

    Gonorrhea can also
    cause inflammation of joints, the heart and liver.

    Effects of Syphilis

    They are damage to the heart, brain and the nervous system.
    This disease can lead to
    madness and death of the victim.

    If a child is infected while in the womb,
    or during birth, the brain
    maybe damaged.

    The child may have either physical deformities or the
    infected mother may give
    stillbirths.

    Effects Herpes genitals.

    Infection can cause severe brain damage; cancer
    of the neck of the womb.

    Si un
    woman is pregnant, the disease can cause death of the baby.

    The wounds
    and sores exposes the sick
    person to HIV /AIDS infections.

    Effects of Hepatitis B.

    This disease damages the liver and may lead to
    death of the infected person.

    Il a
    a vaccine, but not treatment.

    viii. Other consequences of irresponsible sexual behaviours

    Ceux-ci sont
    death, unplanned pregnancies,
    children living in the streets, school dropouts and psychological problems
    related to irresponsible sexual
    behaviour.

    These include among others: stress, depression, self – pity,
    withdrawal, aggressiveness, and
    la violence.

    Stress is the response of the body and mind to any situation that exerts
    pressure or makes demands on
    a person.

    The intensity or pressure experienced determines the level of
    stress.

    Some of the signs of
    stress are: anxiety, worry, drop in performance, chest pains, mood swings,
    rebellion, ulcers, heart
    palpitations, fatigue and guilt feelings.

    Solutions.

    To avoid stress, it is suggested that individuals should accept
    that one is stressed; identifier
    sources of stress, rest, exercise, listening to therapeutic music and talk to a
    counselor.

    Depression.

    This is an acute mental disorder. It is also a state of
    hopelessness and low spirits.

    Une dépression
    can be mild or severe.

    It has physical, emotional and behavioural signs
    and symptoms.

    Let me caution
    you that it is only a medical doctor who can know if one has a depression
    ou pas.

    We are told by doctors
    that signs of a depression are: persistent headaches and chest pains; perte
    of appetite; trop
    appetite; loss of memory; insomnia i.e. lack of sleep; weight loss or gain;
    nervousness and mood swings;
    low self-confidence; suicidal tendencies and self-pity.

    Other signs and
    symptoms are loss of libido
    (sexual desire); poor performance in school and in work places;
    hopelessness; loss of interest in ones
    activities; hypertension and high blood pressure.

    ré. Irresponsible social and human behaviour.

    There are social and human
    behaviours that are contrary
    to Christian life.

    These unacceptable behaviours are abortion, and divorce.

    Abortion is termination of pregnancy before the foetus is capable of
    independent life.

    There are two
    types of abortions.

    One is spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. The other
    is induced abortion, which is
    deliberate and illegal in Kenya.

    Induced abortion has been debated in
    Kenya.

    The main question is
    should abortion be legalized or not.

    This is because abortion is legal in
    some European countries.

    Why do mothers seeking abortion?

    There are many reasons, which are
    known only to mothers.

    Celles-ci
    are one, pregnancy due to rape and incest.

    Two, if the mother believes
    that the unborn child will be a
    burden.

    This may be because the baby is conceived outside wedlock and
    the mother lacks economic
    resources to take care of the baby.

    Another reason maybe that the mother
    is in school, and she cannot
    look after the baby and continue with her education.

    Three, medical
    personnel may abort a deformed
    foetus or in order to save the life of the mother if it is in danger.
    Christian’s view of abortion as murder (Exodus20: 13).

    This is because
    abortion interferes with the
    mother’s body, and destroys the baby. Christian view is that the body is
    the temple of the Holy Spirit.

    God is the giver of life and He alone has the right to take it away.

    Abortion carries with it stigma and the
    effects mentioned above make Christians condemn abortion.

    e. Effects of irresponsible social and human behaviour.

    Effects of abortion are infertility, ectopic pregnancy, destruction of a
    woman’s body parts; fœtal

     
    malformation; risk of the mother bleeding to death and destruction of
    uterus.

    Other effects are that the
    mother may experience in future still births, miscarriages, risk of
    barrenness; failed abortions leading to
    deformed babies and psychological problems that we have discussed.

    These are stress and depression.

    Revision questions.

    1. Explain the T.A. understanding of human sexuality

    2. Explain Christian attitudes towards human sexuality

    3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?

    4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya?

    5. Explain the Christian teaching on male/female relationships

    6. What is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behaviour?

    7. List the different types of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    8. Explain the Christian teaching on irresponsible sexual behaviour

    9. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour

    Lesson Three: Marriage

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to;

    une. Explain in brief the meaning of marriage

    b. Explain Christian teachings about marriage

    c. Describe courtship in African Traditional society

    ré. Discuss the traditional African and Christian approaches to marriage
    préparation

    e. Explain celibacy as an alternative to marriage

    une. Definition of marriage.

    Marriage is a binding legal union between a
    man and a woman who agree to
    have a lasting relationship as husband / wife.

    Marriage partners choose
    each other.

    In some cases,
    senior member of the family and church influence the choice of a
    marriage partner.

    When marrying

     
    partners agree to marry, they are joined in church and they become
    husband and wife.

    Marriage is thus
    a covenant in which the partners give themselves to one another.

    Marriage involves other members of the community hence it is a social
    and community affair.

    Mariage
    is a permanent union.

    Marriage is a community requirement in which
    everyone in the community
    participates.

    Each person is expected to undergo marriage because it is a
    rite of passage.

    Marriage gives
    a person, a high social status and prestige in the community.

    Marriage is also a covenant between a man and a woman that should not
    be broken.

    Two people are
    joined in marriage in order to procreate and perpetuate the community.

    Once married, a couple is
    allowed to have sexual relationship, and companionship.

    Marriage is an
    expression of and fulfillment of
    mutual love and comfort.

    It enhance unity; social prestige, and respect in
    society.

    Purpose of marriage is
    sexual fulfillment; cultural and social requirement; obligation to build a
    family; and procreation although
    children are a gift from God.

    Forms of marriages

    There are many forms of marriages.

    There is a marriage ceremony
    organised as a symbol or mark of the
    union between a man and a woman.

    These marriages ceremonies are
    either civil, or religious. The main
    religious ceremonies are Christian, Islamic, Hindu, and Sikh among
    autres.

    We also have African
    customary ceremonies many of which are polygamous.

    Christianity does
    not allow polygamous

    marriage.

    Secular approaches to marriage.

    In the modern world, some people choose not to marry for personal
    reasons.

    Some people have
    children without getting married while others opt to have a marriage
    without children.

    Husband and
    wife are equal.

    Monogamy is practiced for economic reasons.

    In some
    families’ women are the heads of
    the family.

    Choosing a partner is an individual act and not communal.

    Dans
    marriage traditional qualities of
    a good wife such as industrious, honesty, and hospitality are not
    considered.

    The modern society values
    external beauty, financial status and social status.

    As a result, there is a
    high rate of marriage,
    separation, and divorce.

    At times young people fail to be married in
    church.

    There is no formalization of
    marriages.

    These marriages are called “Come-we-stay” arrangements.
    Gender issues in marriage. The wife is subordinate to the husband but had
    droits.

    Marriage did not end
    with death of the husband.

    The wife was inherited by one of her
    husband’s brother.

    This is widow
    inheritance / Levirate marriage.

    She could also refuse to be inherited but
    remained married to that man
    even in death.

    The wife could not marry outside the family because of
    dowry.

    There was dowry payment
    to parents.

    If a wife died, the man would marry the sister of his dead wife.
    This is surrogate marriage.

    Those who did not marry were considered “lesser humans”. Young people
    were prepared for marriage

     
    during initiation, which was witnessed in a public ceremony.

    During
    marriage, couple makes vows to
    each other.

    The ancestors are invoked to bless the marriage.

    Factors that lead to a stable, healthy and successful marriage
    People are different and they understand their roles differently.

    Here am
    giving you a few suggestions.

    Discuss with your study companions and come up with other suggestions.

    One important factor is
    mutual responsibility by the couple.

    This occurs if there is mutual
    consultation with each other in
    decision-making.

    Two is forgiveness of each other.

    Three is good
    treatment of each other especially with
    equal respect.

    Four is sharing scriptures together.

    Five is giving love and
    respecting each other.

    Six is
    having a faithful sexual relationship and lastly being open and honest.

    Seven is African traditional qualities of a good wife who is described as:
    hardworking, fertile, morally
    upright, generous, kind, obedient, humble, clean, beautiful, polite, warm
    hearted and hospitable.

    Eight
    are the qualities of a good husband, which are described as: being able to
    provide good leadership in the
    family.

    Other qualities are being aggressive, wise, brave, courageous,
    responsible and good property
    manager.

    b. Christian Teaching about Marriage.

    Christians teach that marriage is
    sacred and that it is a divine
    institution, which is ordained God.

    God started it when he created Adam
    and Eve.

    Marriage should
    therefore be monogamous and permanent as God protects marriages.

    le
    woman should submit to the

     
    husband who is told to love the wife as Christ loved the church.

    Church
    teaches respect of each other.

    Marriage is complete even without children as it is between a male and a
    female.

    Marriage is not
    obligatory and it ends when one partner dies.

    Christian’s preparation and approach to marriage

    Christians organise youth seminars, and rallies to teach the youth how to
    choose marriage partners and
    how to treat wife / husbands; care for the children; behave towards in
    laws; acquire wealth (men); et
    head a family.

    Youth are taught to avoid sexual intimacy before marriage.
    Those intending to marry are
    encouraged to go for pre marital counselling.

    During counselling, they are
    informed that love is the most
    important bond of unity in marriage.

    Church encourages partners to go for
    HIV /AIDs test before
    marriage.

    Marriage ceremony is conducted in church

    Choice of a marriage partner

    There are many ways of identifying a marriage partner.

    L'un est
    arrangement by parents.

    If not one can
    make an individual decision and choose a wife or husband.

    Two is
    through an intermediary or third
    fête.

    In African traditional polygamous marriages, the first wife
    identified a wife for her husband.

    Girls would be given out to a chief as a gift

    c. Courtship in African Traditional society (A.T.S).

    Courtship varied from
    community to community.

    Courtship is the period between engagement and wedding ceremony.

    During courtship premarital sex is

    forbidden. Girls and boys dressed with bracelets and rings.

    Courtship was
    important in A.T.S.

    This was
    parce que

    The man and woman who were girls and boys got to know each
    other better before marriage.

    Il
    was a period when girls/boys were instructed in family life education. Il
    was also a period for linking the
    two marrying families.

    The couple had time to learn about one another’s
    character, and know their
    families.

    It is a symbol (sign) of the girl’s presence in her home (maternal
    home).

    She continues to live
    with her own people.

    The families and clan had an opportunity to check if the marrying couple
    was related and if their clans
    were acceptable to the parents.

    Courtship gives time to the two families to
    negotiate and pay the bride
    wealth or dowry.

    Bridal Wealth, dowry, bride price are all expressions of partnership.

    le
    family of the man pays dowry to
    the family of the woman.

    Some churches disregard bride wealth, while
    others encourage it.

    Dowry is
    paid in different forms.

    The girl’s family decides what it wants. Will it be
    livestock (poultry, pigs, camels,
    cows, goats, sheep), beer, grain, jewellery and clothes among others.
    Importance of dowry.

    It acts as a compensation for the girls labour and
    seals the marriage covenant.

    Il est
    a public expression of appreciation for the coming of a new wife/mother
    into the man’s family.

    Il
    promotes friendship and cements relationship between families.

    It shows
    commitment and seriousness

    of the future husband.

    After dowry payment, the woman belongs to her
    husband.
    A ceremony is carried out depending on the community.

    Bride price
    payment is accompanied by
    marriage ceremonies.

    Lastly dowry helps in maintaining peace

    Traditional African approaches to marriage preparation.

    Polygamy is one
    husband, married to many
    wives.

    Polygamy is allowed by the African traditional religion because it
    occurs if the first wife is barren;

    ensures that all women have husbands; prevents infertility; provides extra
    labour in farms.

    UNE
    polygamous man has a higher status because many wives symbolize
    wealth.

    Children are important in a marriage because

    They promote social status of
    their parents.

    They cement a
    bond of unity between husband / wife.

    They are a source of labour, and
    wealth.

    They are heirs to the
    family wealth
    They provide security to the family.

    Divorce is legal dissolution of marriage. Christians allow divorce because
    of specific grounds. Divorce
    was rare in African traditional societies.

    Divorce is granted under
    circumstances of: adultery, witchcraft,
    laziness, cruelty and disrespect of wife.

    In the contemporary society, divorce is sought after or allowed because
    of: unfaithfulness in marriage or
    adultery; domestic violence; misuse of family resources; childlessness; inlaw
    interference and alcohol
    abuse.

    Legal reasons for divorce

    According to the laws of Kenya, divorce is allowed under the following
    reasons;

    adultery; si un homme
    deserts his wife for more than 3 years; if a partner becomes insane; et
    domestic violence for example,
    physical, and psychological torture.

    Christian teaching about divorce.

    Christians discourage divorce because
    marriage is a permanent status.

    There is no room for divorce.

    Church discourages divorce because of its
    adverse effects.

    Certains
    denominations allow divorce if there is adultery.

    God hates divorce.

    Married couples should remain
    faithful to each other

    Effects of divorce

    They are strained relationships, children suffering
    psychologically, and experiences of
    rejection.

    A divorcee faces social stigma, rejection, and isolation.

    Si
    parents separate, they create single
    parent families.

    These families suffer from economic hardships and
    feelings of failure and inadequacy.

    e. Celibacy as an alternative to marriage.

    Celibacy is a Latin word
    “Coelebes” meaning bachelor.

    Why do
    some people fail to marry?

    There are many reasons.

    Some of these are to
    pursue education leading to
    delayed marriage;

    and career demands (workaholic).

    Other people are
    discouraged by examples of
    failed marriages.

    Other reasons maybe economic independence, poor
    health, HIV /AIDS, mental illness;

    parental interference and disappointment from past failed relationships.

    This happens if parents do not
    approve a partner.

    Revision questions

    1. Explain the traditional African understanding of marriage

    2, what is the importance of children in traditional African society?

    3.what is the Christian teaching about marriage?

    4. What is the importance of courtship period in T.As

    5. Why are many people opting for celibacy?

    Lesson Four: the Family

    Introduction.

    As society grows and changes, the family grows and changes.

    Par conséquent,
    there are several types and
    practices of the family.

    In this lesson, we shall discuss the traditional
    family as it is practiced in the Bible,
    the traditional African societies and some Christian families.

    Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to

    a Explain types of families in society

    b Analyse traditional African family values and practices

    c Explain Christians family values and practices

    d Discuss problems related to family life today

    e Compare approaches to family by Christians and traditional African
    société

    f. Discuss responsible parenthood

    The family.

    What is a family? Family is the basic social unit of human
    society.

    This basic unit is extended
    to include relatives bound together by blood, marriage, friendship, and
    adoption.

    They are all members
    of the family.

    In Kenya, there are many types of families.

    une. Types of families

    i. Nuclear family is parents and their children. .It is father, mother, and
    children.

    There is an increase of
    monogamous families or nuclear because of urbanization as rural youth
    come to towns in search of

    white-collar jobs.

    Migration to cities by people of different tribes has led
    to pluralism.

    Education, high
    cost of living have led to the death of the African culture, which required
    men and women to marry
    many partners to produce many children to defend their tribe.

    Advantages of nuclear families are many.

    One, the man is able to give
    undivided attention to one wife
    and children.

    Two, there is sharing of mutual love, and peace in the home.

    Three it is economical to
    manage one family.

    Four there is little competition for attention, less
    strife, quarrels and stress.

    Five, it is
    easier to monitor the behaviour of a few children.

    ii. Polygamous family

    Father, mothers, children. These type of family
    have disadvantages in modern
    Kenya.

    Modern society is a cash economy.

    Thus if a man has many wives
    and children, they may lack
    basic necessities like food, shelter, education and clothes.

    iii. Single parent family

    one parent, and children. Single – parent
    families are created by several
    conditions.

    One is by parents separating. Separation of parents is due
    to several reasons.

    Ceux-ci sont
    for example, one partner going to another country and failing to return to
    his or her country and family.

    Two, a single family is created by divorce.

    Divorced parents may decide
    not to marry again.

    Three is
    when one parent refuses to marry.

    This happens when a girl gets pregnant
    and the boy does not marry
    her. Four is because of death of a spouse.

    The remaining parent may
    decide not to remarry.

    Five is when

     
    some mothers decide to have children without marriage.

    This may not be
    correct as there is no research
    to suggest it.

    Six is imprisonment of one partner for a long time.

    Un
    parent is left looking after children
    because one is in jail.

    iv. Extended family father, mother, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins.
    This is the common family
    type in traditional African communities.

    v. Children led family. This happens when parents die and the 1st born
    takes care of brothers and sisters
    including cousins.

    vi. Grandparent headed family.

    The HIV/AIDs epidemic has introduced
    this type of family where
    grandparents take care of their grandchildren due to the death of both
    parents especially the mother
    due to HIV / AIDS disease.

    This scourge has made many children
    orphans.

    In other cases parents go for
    further studies abroad and leave their children with their parents.

    b. Traditional African family values and practices.

    In African societies
    creation of a family is through
    marriage, and subsequent procreation.

    Family is viewed as a sacred
    institution in African society.

    le
    African traditional family includes the dead (ancestors), the unborn
    children and the living.

    An African traditional family has obligations and duties.

    These were

    (1)
    offering sacrifices to ancestors,

    (2) pouring libations; et

    (3) giving the dead decent burials

    (4) providing
    basic needs to their children

    (5)
    bringing up children to be morally upright individuals.

    Further to this, the
    African traditional family is

    responsible for the upbringing, caring, and protection of its children.

    Cette
    is demonstrated by the nuclear
    family, which provides necessities required to meet and satisfy the
    economic needs of its members.

    The African traditional family is expected to participate in communal
    Activités.

    Work in the family was
    divided according to age, gender and social status.

    Each family member
    worked for its basic needs as
    well as the welfare of the community.

    The African family had well-stated and practiced values

    Il y avait

    (1)
    respect for family members

    (2)
    providing responsible parenthood, which is the process of bringing up
    children to become all round or
    self reliant persons

    (3) educating children in all aspects of life. Parents
    and the extended family
    members helped their children to develop intellectually and cognitively.

    The family taught children physical skills.

    It also gave children
    confidence to appreciate their physical
    strength.

    Children were taken through a rigorous physical curriculum of
    games such as wrestling,
    swimming and running to develop their physical strength. Children’s
    bodies were nourished thoroughly.

    They were served good and nutritious food, which improved their muscle
    strength.

    Children were taught social skills.

    They learnt how to behave towards
    adults, peers and grandparents.
    They developed social skills since parents allowed them to socialize and
    interact with other children,
    grandparents and the community.

    This made them grow socially,
    emotionally and psychologically.

    They had a curriculum for teaching and training in traditional African
    religious values, family matters,
    moral and social values. This teaching of children started from an early
    age.

    The teaching method used
    was observation and practice.

    Parents taught by being good role models.
    They were expected to model
    desired values and family practices.

    Children were taught how to relate
    with one another as brothers
    and sisters.

    Parents were to show tolerance to children.

    These values show
    that African parents
    understood their parental roles and responsibilities.

    These values were sometimes; exploited by the irresponsible family
    members or specific individuals.

    This exploitation encouraged dependency, leading to conflicts,
    competition, hatred, and jealousy.

    Christian parents are expected to train their children to know God; be self
    -disciplined, and follow the
    Christian way of living. Another duty is to provide basic needs to their
    children.

    Christian understanding of the family

    Among Christians, family is sacred and instituted by God.

    Read again
    about the Christian teachings about
    marriage.

    Role of children in the Christian family

    A Christian child is expected to obey parents, honor them, and respect
    Parents.

    This is one of the Ten
    Commandments given to Moses by God.

    Parenting styles

    a) Dictatorship /authoritative / autocratic – the parents is the final
    authority, imposes decisions.

    b) Permissive or liberal style – also referred to as “Laissez faire” the
    children do as they want.

    c) Democratic style – parents discuss with their children on family issues.
    This is the best style.

    Problems related to family life today

    Families are faced with numerous problems such as

    a) Children abuse – sex assault, beating

    b) Domestic violence – abusive language, frequent fights, emotional
    abuser de

    c) Diseases e.g. HIV / AIDS epilepsy , autism.

    d) Children with special needs, blindness, deafness or those with mental
    challenges, motor co – ordination (Autism)

    e) Separation, divorce

    f) Childlessness

    g) Single parent families – economic hardships

    h) Misuse of family resources, economic crisis

    i) Affluence – a lot of wealth

    j) Unemployment, underemployment

    k) Retrenchment – laying off of some employees in order to reduce the
    la main d'oeuvre

    l) Mismanagement of family finances

    m) Alcohol and drug abuse

    n) The generation gap

    o) Poor relations with in-laws

    p) Cultural and religious differences

    Traditional African approaches to problems related to family life today

    1) Individuals were prepared for challenges of family life right from
    enfance

    2) Adolescents, initiates were given family life education

    3) People entered marriage knowing that it’s a life long union

    4) Rules were clear to govern marriage relations

    5) Polygamy helped reduce unfaithfulness

    6) There were no single parent families. Members lived together reducing
    solitude

    7) Widows / widowers were encouraged to marry again

    Traditional brew was taken in moderation

    Christian’s approaches to problems related to family life today

    1) Christian families are obliged to live according to Christian principles
    and values such as mutual
    respect, self discipline, understanding, honesty, faithfulness, love and
    le pardon

    2) Premarital counseling is carried out

    3) Church holds regular seminars and conferences on family life matters.

    Love and respect for each
    other.

    Christian wife to submit to husband who is head of the family.

    They are taught to take each other
    as complementary and equal partners.

    4) Women are encouraged to form participate in church organizations e.g.
    mothers union, women’s
    guild where they learn roles of being a wife, mother, and a woman.

    5) Some churches offer advice to families on management of their
    families. They are encouraged to
    have investments.

    6) Breadwinner is encouraged to write a written will.

    7) To improve the parent – child relationship churches offer guidance and
    counseling to the youth
    Christian parents are advised to set positive role models to their children.

    9) Parents are encouraged to be open and promote effective
    communication with their children.

    10) Churches in case of serious family conflicts such as child abuse,
    domestic violence, advise legal
    action.

    11) Churches organize youth seminars where they talk about drug abuse,
    premarital sex, negative peer
    pressure and media influence etc.

    12) Relevant information is passed through books, pamphlets, magazines,
    media FM, TV etc.

    13) Some churches welcome unwed mothers

    14) Churches provide health services, guidance on HIV / AIDS

    15) Some churches care for widows, orphans widowers and the needy

    Revision questions

    1. State the different types of families

    Topic Three: Christian Approaches to Work

    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic you should be able to

    a Define the term “work” and “vocation”

    b Explain and appreciated the traditional African attitude towards work

    c Explain the role of professional ethos, ethics and code in society

    d Explain virtues related to work

    e Discuss the moral duties and responsibilities of employers and
    des employés

    f Discuss Christian approaches to issues related to employment

    Lesson One: Definition of Terms
    Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

    une. Explain the meaning of work. Vocation, profession, trade, craft, and job

    b. Give general reasons why people work

    Travail

    Use of energy, physical or mental, for the purpose of improving human
    la vie.

    It is any activity that requires

    expenditure of energy or application of skills e.g. studying, teaching,
    cooking, farming etc.

    Vocation

    Work can be described as a vocation, profession, trade, craft, career or a
    job.

    Vocation is from a Latin word “Vocare” which means call ‘
    Christians believe that every individual has been called of God to various
    duties.

    Vocation is work that requires special skills, special training or a unique
    call or a special mission in
    society.

    Métier

    Work that is characterized by a code of ethics, lengthy specialized
    training, advance knowledge and self
    – disciple.

    Professionals have their own set standards.

    The professionals
    determine entry requirements
    for new members and usually have machinery for dealing with errant
    membres. Par exemple. Law, medicine,
    architecture etc.

    A trade

    Refers to an occupation, a way of making a living.

    Some trades require
    specialized training examples
    coiffure

    A craft

    An occupation which requires manipulative skills or use of the hands e.g.
    woodcarving, pottery,
    weaving.

    A craft may be a trade depending on the nature of occupation.

    A career

    An occupation that one chooses to pursue in his/her life. It’s the general
    way of earning a living.

    Emploi

    Refers to tasks performed, services rendered in return for payment of
    wages.

    Most jobs are temporary
    others casual and others permanent and pension able.

    What determines one’s career, vocation?

    1. Available opportunities for future development in a particular job

    2. The need to serve others especially the church and the needy

    3. Interests, strengths, talents, abilities

    4. Inclination or attraction to a certain kind of work

    5. Pressure from parents, peers etc

    General reasons why people work

    a) It’s an essential element of life

    b) God ordained work. Humans work for their food

    c) Work contributes to the development of the community

    d) Work is personal. It defines a person

    e) People work to earn a living

    f) People work for enjoyment, leisure

    g) To assist and give to the needy

    h) To get luxuries

    i) People work to raise their standards of living

    j) For self satisfaction and fulfillment

    k) For personal development

    l) To keep a person occupied and not idle

    m) To acquire wealth and status in the society

    n) To socialize with other members of the society

    o) To attain independence and not depend on someone else

    Lesson Two: Traditional African Attitude to Work

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

    une. Explain importance of work

    1. Work is essential to the well being of the individual and survival of the
    communauté

    2. Work ensured basic needs such as food, shelters etc were provided.

    3. In traditional African society work was divided according to the age,
    gender, and status e.g. chief,
    elder of the individual.

    4. Everyone was a worker. Boys assisted in herding, fishing, girls assisted
    in cooking fetching firewood.

    Women cooked, took care of babies constructed houses (maasai) etc.

    5. Works among the traditional African societies included pastoralist,
    farmers, livestock keeping, fishing,
    bee keeping etc.

    6. Work was a communal affair; people would work together and assist
    each other.

    7. Work was not for a wage (Money). The rewards of work-included food,
    communal unity, acquisition
    of moral values etc.

    8. Hard work was emphasized, laziness was condemned.

    9. There were some specific works for specialization e.g. phytothérapie
    men, divination, prophecy, rain
    making, pottery etc.

    10. Work involved giving prayers, offerings, and sacrifices to God.

    11. Through work, the basic needs of the individual, community were
    fulfilled.

    12. Through work potentials; talents and skills were explored, acquired
    and utilized.

    13. Work had a religious dimension as well as a social dimension. Il
    brought people together improving
    their relations.

    14. SAE

    1. Find out how different communities in Kenya lived in the past and how
    they live today

    2. How did the lifestyle of the communities influence daily activities

    Lesson Three: Christian Teaching on Work

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the christians teachings about work

    The Christian teaching on work is based mainly on the interpretation of
    the bible, the teachings of Jesus
    and the teachings of the apostles.

    Some of the teachings are: –

    1. God himself instituted work. He created the heavens and the earth and
    all in it. Since God worked
    man should work. (Gen. 2:1)

    2. God’s work of creation is good (Gen. 1:31) Christians should endeavor
    to produce good works.

    3. Work is a duty, an obligation, a command Christians are responsible for
    God’s creation (Gen.2: 15).

    They are to protect it – animals, birds, plants, marine life are all under the
    care of man.

    4. Human beings should work to acquire their basic needs (Genesis. 1:29
    – 30, 3:19) God blesses the
    work of our hands.

    5. Human beings are co – creators with God (Gen.1: 28) God continue to
    create through human beings.

    Human beings glorify God through their work.

    6. God reveals himself through his work of creation. God had a purpose
    for his creation. He is orderly,
    source of life, Almighty etc.

    7. Work is a co – operative undertaking.

    Eve was created to be Adam’s
    helper (Gen. 2:20) Christians
    should co – operate in their undertakings.

    8. Hard work is praised and laziness is looked down upon.

    (Proverbs
    31:27). Christians should work for
    their daily needs and not become a burden to others.

    9. Work should be accompanied with rest (Gen.2: 2) God rested on the
    7th day from all his work. Dieu
    commanded the Israelites to rest on the 7th day.

    10. People should enjoy what they have worked for (Ecc.3: 22).

    11. Work should be done for the glory of God and for the good of the
    society.

    12. People should work honestly not steal but work to earn an honest
    living (Eph.4: 28).

    13. Those who do not work should not eat.

    They should always work since God is always at a work (John 15:17)

    Lesson Four: Roles of Professional Ethos, Ethics and
    Codes in the Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: –

    1. Define the following terms, professional ethics, professional codes and
    professional ethos.

    2. Describe the role of ethics.

    Définitions

    Professional ethics –:

    principles of behaviour / conduct that guide
    members of a particular profession.

    What workers are allowed to do and not to do.

    Professional ethos

    The group identity of members of a profession, their unique custom or
    character e.g.

    what identifies
    doctors, lawyers etc.

    Profession codes or code of ethics

    Collection of laws arranged systematically according to major concerns
    and core functions of the

    profession.

    Roles

    – To regulate the behaviour of professional (workers)

    – Enables professionals to understand their role

    – Ensures professionals provide quality of services to their clients

    – To encourage respect among professionals

    – Give guidance on how professionals should relate to one another

    – They safe guard professionals against being compromised / misused

    – They determine expected level of performance

    – They serve as a measure of competence

    – Act as a measure of quality service

    – They protect the professionals

    – They provide a reference point for disciplining (used to discipline the
    errant professional)

    – They inspire respect and high esteem for professionals

    – Through professional codes, ethics, ethos, professional earn public trust

    Lesson Five: Virtues Related to Work

    Learning outcome. By the end of the lesson the learner should be able to:

    1. Define the term virtue

    2. Give examples of virtues related to work

    Définition

    A virtue is a good human habit. It’s a moral principle, moral quality or
    goodness of character and
    behaviour.

    Examples of virtues elated to work

    (i) Diligence – hardworking

    (ii) Honesty, integrity – ability to be relied upon (Integrity) Honest is
    being truthful.

    (iii) Faithfulness – being trustworthy and loyal

    (iv) Responsibility – ability to make decisions and take action
    independently. Being mindful of other
    people’s welfare.

    (v) Tolerance – ability to bear with others or with difficult situations.

    Lesson Six: Moral Duties and Responsibilities of
    Employers and Employees

    Learning outcomes: by the end of the lesson, you should be able to: –

    1. State and explain the duties and responsibilities of employers towards
    des employés

    2. List the rights of employers

    3. Outline the moral duties of employees

    4. List the rights of employees

    Employers: government, non – governmental organization, private sector
    – individuals, company, selfemployment.

    Employers have several duties and responsibilities towards their
    employees.

    Elles sont:

    – To organize and conduct business efficiently for the benefit of the
    institution, employer, community

    – To respect the employee, treat them with dignity

    – Pay a fair wage to the employee

    – Ensure good healthy and safe working conditions

    – Provide social welfare for the employees e.g. time off, leave days, time
    pour les loisirs

    – Grant leave as required by law or the terms of contract

    – Take care of the welfare of the employees give medical cover, pension
    scheme etc

    – To motivate their employees

    – To reward employees

    – Compensate employees made redundant

    Rights of the employer

    Employers have a right to / are entitled to

    (a) Get profits from their businesses

    (b) Carry out their businesses without unfair taxation

    (c) Form association with other employers

    (d) Obtain and conduct business

    (e) Hire, dismiss employees in accordance with the requirements of their
    firms and contract

    (f) Demand a fair days work

    (g) Conduct business without subjection to unfair conditions and
    compétitions

    Moral duties of the employees

    1. Carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision

    2. Respect and protect the property of the employer

    3. Encourage peaceful solutions to any problems encountered in their
    work place

    4. To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development

    5. To respect their employer and fellow employees

    6. Observe terms of contract with employer

    7. Be loyal, honest, respect to the employer

    Rights of the employees

    To receive fair wages

    To have a reasonable work load

    Have reasonable hours of work

    Have safety and protection at work

    Right to join a labour union

    Right to further individual training and development education

    Rights to retirement, terminal benefits

    Rights to a fair opportunity for provision

    A right to time for rest

    Right to Favourable working conditions

    Lesson Seven: Christians Approaches to Issues Related to Employment

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to; –

    1. Define the following terms, wages and industrial action

    2. State the Christian teachings on wages

    3. List the reasons for industrial action

    4. State the results of workers strike/ industrial action

    5. Explain the Christian approaches towards strikes

    Wages and industrial action (Strikes)

    A wage is payments for work done. Payment is in modern times done
    according to hours, weeks or days
    that one works.

    Christian teachings on wages

    – Human beings have the right to work for a decent living (Matt.20:1 – 16) They should be paid for their
    travail.

    – Workers should be paid wages to the amount and value of their work (1
    Timothy 5:18)

    – Wages should be paid as agreed upon (Mathew 20:13)

    – Employers should not take advantage of the poverty of the employee
    (Deuteronomy 24: 14 – 15)

    – Human beings should not be enslaved to work (Ex.5:22 – 23)

    – Employers who degrade their workers in wages are condemned
    (Deut.24:14 – 15, Jer.22:13)

    – Oppression is condemned (Amos 5:18, 8;4)

    – Workers wages should never be withheld (James 5:4)

    Industrial action

    Also commonly called ‘Strike’ this is an effort by workers to stop work in
    protest by boycott go-slow sit –

     
    ins or refuse to work.

    There has been increase of industrial action in the
    recent past in most countries of
    le monde.

    Reasons for industrial actions

    1 Due to increased awareness of workers rights

    2 Exposure to global trends through the media

    3 Formation of trade unions that fight for the rights of workers

    4 Due to poor working conditions

    5 Underpaying workers

    6 Threatening workers with unjustified dismissals

    7 Suspending the workers / interdiction – unjustly

    8 A hostile working environment

    Results of workers strikes (industrial / action

    a) Pay cuts

    b) Demotions

    c) Loss of jobs

    d) Employers suffer losses

    e) Inflation

    f) Injuries even death when confronted by police

    g) Victimization of some individuals

    h) Bitterness among the workers and employers

    Christian approaches towards strikes

    a) Christians recommend a peaceful co – existence between workers and
    employeurs

    b) There should be fairness, justice, love among workers, employees

    c) There should be an open communication channel across the ranks from
    top to bottom

    d) Employees should not destroy property

    e) Working conditions should be better and improved

    f) Employees to be human when dealing with employees

    Lesson Eight: Child Labour

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the term child labour

    2. State the reasons why children are employed

    3. State the disadvantages of child labour

    4. List down the causes of child labour

    5. Describe the position of the church in dealing with child labour

    A child is a person below 18 years. A child does not have an identity card,
    does not vote (in Kenya).

    According to International Labour Organization the minimum
    employment age is 14 years.

    Child labour

    It is engaging a person below the age of 14 years in wage / paid
    employment.

    Reasons why children are employed

    – To provide cheap labour

    – They cannot fight for proper terms

    – They are easily hired and fired

    Disadvantages of child labour

    Children are not yet mentally and physically prepared to do adult jobs.

    This leads to

    a) Exploitation of children

    b) Children paid less, taken advantage of
    c) It inhibits the growth of a child and denies them a chance to enjoy their
    childhood.

    d) It deprives them of their right to basic education.

    e) It exposes children to hazards (dangers) from machines, chemicals.

    f) Heavy workload deprives children of social educational, moral,
    psychological, physical rights.

    Places where children are employed.

    – Plantations – coffee, tea

    – Domestic services – homes

    – Tourism sector

    – Industries

    – Children are trafficked and employed as commercial sex workers

    Causes of child labour – reasons why children work

    1 Lack of money / poverty

    2 Death of parents

    3 Dropping out of school due to pregnancy, indiscipline, (truancy), poor
    academic performance or lack of
    school fees.

    4 Those who never went or taken to school.

    5 Lack of good role models e.g. coast province Mombasa, Malindi has
    several of the financially stable
    people being school dropouts, engaged in drug trafficking, commercial
    sex etc.

    6 Influence of cultural values e.g. circumcision of boys in some
    communities is done later in life and one
    is declared an adult e.g. the kikuyu circumcising at 13 years, or 12 years

    7 Children being lured by employers.

    8 Greed for material benefits

    9 Being homeless ending up as a street child

    Position of church in dealing with child labour

    – The church condemns it

    – It has put up homes for poor children (orphanages)

    – It provides guidance, counseling to both parents and children

    – Children are blessing from God hence should be loved and cared for

    – Parents have the responsibilities to protect their children from harm.

    Lesson Nine: Unemployment and Self –employment

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the term unemployment and self employment

    2. State the causes of unemployment

    3. Describe the response of Christians to issues of unemployment

    4. List the problems faced by self employed people
    Unemployment

    When people are capable and willing to work but are unable to find a
    viable income or occupation it is
    referred to as unemployment.

    Causes of unemployment

    1 Preference for prestigious white collar jobs (Office jobs, non – manual
    jobs)

    2 Corruption – tribalism, nepotism, bribery denying jobs to the qualified
    in preference for the
    unqualified.

    3 Unequal distribution of wealth – some regions are more resourceful than
    autres. Industries, good
    infrastructure concentrated in some areas.

    4 Inadequate resources for self – employment (lack of capital, skills)

    5 Limited job opportunities – probably due to high population growth

    6 Few international investors in Kenya, probably due to high crime rate,
    insecurity.

    Identify ways of creating job opportunities
    Response of Christians to issues of unemployment

    a) They encourage self – employment in cases of unemployment

    b) They have set up vocational training, polytechnics to train people
    towards jobs that are for self –
    employment.

    c) Christians condemn idleness

    Self-employment

    Self-employment is an economic activity initiated, controlled by an
    individual.

    It is an occupation in
    which a person initiates a personal enterprise and manages it with the help
    of others.

    Examples
    Small businesses enterprises, Jua kali sector, music industry,
    entertainment (e.g. comedians),
    community work, agriculture etc

    Problems / challenges

    – Some lack sufficient capital to start a business and keep it running

    – Lack of necessary skills to run the business

    – High taxation leading to some business closing down

    – Small scale traders face undue competition from larger firms

    Revision questions

    1. What is work?

    2. List any six reasons why people work

    3. Explain T.As attitude towards work

    4. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work in
    the modern society

    5. What are the rights of employers?

    6. State the duties of employees

    7. Why has child labour become common in Kenya?

    8. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?

    9. What can the government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?

    Topic Four: Christians Approaches to Leisure

    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic, you should be able to

    a Explain the meaning of leisure

    b Discuss the traditional African understanding of leisure

    c Discuss Christian teaching on leisure

    d Discuss the importance of leisure

    e Outline various forms and uses of leisure

    f Explain how leisure is misused in the society today

    g Discuss the abuse of alcohol and other drugs and their effects

    h Explain Christian criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

  • Christian criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

    Lesson One: Meaning of Leisure

    Work is an obligation – however people cannot work 24 hours. They need
    to rest.

    God rested on the 7th
    day after work.

    Work and rest are complementary elements of human life.
    Definition of leisure
    This is the time when one is free from work or other duties.

    Time at one’s
    own disposal, which can be
    utilized in a productive manner depending on one’s interests and abilities.

    Leisure provides mental, physical relaxation, spiritual, emotional
    relaxation and enrichment.

    Forms of leisure

    1. Passive

    2. Active leisure

    Passive involves use of mental energy

    Active leisure – there is use of physical energy

    Examples of activities of passive leisure are

    – Watching television

    – Reading story books

    – Playing video games

    – Chatting with friends

    Examples of activities of active leisure are

    – Jogging

    – Mountain climbing

    – Gardening

    – Dancing

    – Tree planting

    – Playing football

    Leisure is used for

    – Enjoyment

    – Entertainment – song, dance, watching movies etc

    – Relaxation – exercises

    – Socialization – sharing, education

    – Religious engagement – wedding ceremonies, visiting the sick, worship

    In passive leisure others entertain while in active leisure the person is
    active, whole body is involved.

    Active leisure enables a person to

    1. Develop his/her body

    2. Build stamina

    3. Strengthen relationships etc

    Some leisure activities are dangerous e.g. boxing, motor racing; tandis que
    others are expensive e.g. golf.

    leisure activities are addictive while others are unproductive.

    – Leisure activities should be planned for

    – Leisure activities can also be economic, income generating activities.

    Lesson Two: Traditional African Understanding of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: –

    1.Define leisure according to the traditional African understanding

    2. State the various forms of communal leisure activities

    In traditional African society leisure permeates all aspects of life.

    Loisir
    activities accompany work.

    Leisure and work were entertainment. Work was accompanied by singing,
    reciting stories sharing past

     
    events.

    Examples of leisure activities in traditional African society
    comprendre

    – Wrestling

    – Running

    – Playing ajua

    – Mock fighting

    – Swimming

    – Spear throwing

    – Poetry

    – Music and dance etc

    Leisure activities that were communal include

    • Bull fighting

    • Tongue – twisters

    • Poetry recitation

    • Telling of myths legends

    • Dancing

    • Brain teasers

    • Riddles etc

    o Work in African society included fishing, tilling the land, herding,
    hunting, harvesting

  • Most leisure activities in traditional African society were active form of
    leisure, communal, not
    individualistic and not for monetary gains
  • All forms of leisure had an educational value. Folk stories had a moral
    valeur.

    People were taught not to
    be selfish, greedy jealousy etc Myths and legends tell of the origin of the
    community and its history of
    important people as well as history of the community.

  • In African traditional society, leisure led to acquisition of values or
    virtues such as co – operation,

    sharing, solidarity, love, bravery, empathy, endurance, tolerance etc.
    o Most activities were linked to the worship of God and, veneration of the
    ancestors.

  • Leisure activates were organized along gender and age group season
    (E.g. harvest – dancing, singing);
    wet rainy seasons – boat swimming
  • Rites of passage e.g. initiation, marriage, birth and naming provided
    loisirs
  • Leisure activities were planned for

    Lesson Three: Christian Teaching on Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the Christian teachings on work

    2. State the various ways that Christians use their leisure
    Christian teach that

    a) Work and leisure are of divine origin. God rested on the 7th day after
    travail

    b) Leisure is a gift from God leisure should be put to good use. Its not be
    perdu

    c) Leisure provides us with the opportunity to worship God. Loisir
    should be used to serve God.

    d) Christians associate leisure with personal growth and fellowship

    e) Jesus recognized the need for rest by withdrawing his disciples from
    their active ministry. Its good to
    have time alone for reflection, rest, visit friend etc.
    f) Leisure should be used to seek God and help others e.g.

    Jesus prayed,
    helped the needy restored
    people’s health.

    Ways Christian use their leisure time – activities

  • Worshipping God
  • Visiting the sick
  • Caring for the needy
  • Resting
  • Watching television
  • Chatting with family members
  • Retreat – time spend away with a group of people to be alone with God
  • Visiting friends, relatives
  • Reading the bible
  • Praying etc

    Lesson Four: Important Use and Misuse of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State the importance of leisure

    2. List the ways that leisure can be used properly

    3. Describe how leisure is misused today

    Importance of leisure

    Leisure is necessary. It’s important in various ways

    1) It is a good time to assess the work we have done (Reflection time)

    2) It brings people together leading to self – growth and fulfilment (Social
    function of leisure)

    3) Leisure helps individuals to discover their hidden talents

    4) Leisure relaxes the mind – a change of activity, relieves the mind

    5) Leisure refreshes the body – restores lost energy

    6) Leisure enables Christians to offer charity to those in need

    7) Leisure provides time for worship and spiritual renewal
    Leisure gives one time to rest

    9) It’s time for recreation

    10) Give one time to attend social occasions

    11) Allows people to travel and visit friends and relatives

    12) Leisure can be used to enhance and acquire new skills and knowledge

    13) It’s a time to develop and discover ones talents

    Uses of leisure – proper of leisure

    Leisure can be used for

    une. Religious experience

    b. A time for rest

    c. Leisure is used to provide us with time to help others

    ré. Leisure can be used to spread the word of God

    e. Development of talents

    f. Its an opportunity for individual growth

    g. Leisure strengthens social relationships

    h. Leisure can be used for reflection on one’s decision; actions etc leisure
    activities reveal who we are.

    i. Leisure can be used for educative and economic purposes
    Proper use of leisure is when leisure time is spent doing activities that add
    value to us.

    Misuse of leisure today

    Leisure time can be misused through various activities e.g.

    1) Spending too much time in passive activities e.g. pornography
    watching, watching films that are
    violent

    2) Spending leisure time in idle talk – gossip-leading to conflicts

    3) Spending time in gambling, casinos making bets on horses playing
    Ajua games etc

    4) Alcohol and drug taking – when a person over drinks alcohol, spends
    time drinking at the expense of
    family, abusing drugs is misuse of leisure time.

    5) Leisure can also be misused by engaging in dangerous activities.

    Night dancing, disco dancing has become a common form of leisure
    worldwide.

    Quels sont les
    advantages and disadvantages?

    Lesson Five: Drug Abuse and Its Effects- Alcohol,
    Soft and Hard Drugs

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to: –

    1. Define the terms drug, drug use, drug abuse

    2. State the different ways that drugs are administered

    3. List the various categories of drugs

    4. List the different types of drugs

    5. Describe the various effects of different drugs

    A drug is any substance which when taken may alter or cause changes in
    the normal functioning of the
    corps.

    Drug abuse

    Improper use of drugs. Using a drug for another purpose than what it is
    intended for Drug use

    Proper use of drugs

    Drugs are taken in various forms namely

    1 Liquids

    2 Lotions

    3 Ointment

    4 Powder

    5 Cake form,

    Drugs are classified as legal and illegal
    Ways of administering drugs

    Drugs are taken /administered in various ways

    – Infecting

    – Inhaling / smoking

    – Chewing

    – Swallowing

    – Drinking

    – Sniffing / snuffing

    Categories of drugs

    a) Medicinal

    b) Soft drugs

    c) Hard / narcotic drugs

    Types of drugs

    1) Preventive drugs e.g. drugs to prevent polio, cholera, yellow fever

    2) Curative drugs – drugs that cure diseases

    3) Sedatives, palliatives – drugs that alleviate pain, put patients to sleep
    e.g. drugs for diabetes, heart
    diseases, asthma, painkillers.

    4) Tranquillizers – drugs that relieve tension induce sleep e.g. piriton,
    valium.

    5) Stimulants – drugs used to increase physiological activity of a
    particular organ.

    They arouse the
    activity of the central nervous system / senses.

    6) Volatile drugs – these drugs intoxicate the user, they are derived from
    petroleum products paint
    thinners dry cleaning fluids glue etc. stimulants and volatile drugs
    classified as soft drugs.

    7) Hard drugs or narcotic drugs

    These are highly addictive drugs. The body forms dependence on these
    drugs.

    These drugs affect the
    mind causing drowsiness; sleep, stupor and they are the most commonly
    abused drugs.

    Examples are

  • Cocaine

    – From coca leaves

    – Its highly addictive

    – Causes mental problems

    – Can lead to death on overdose

    – A very expensive drug

    Other side effects are confusion, Convulsions, circulatory collapse and
    rapid heart beat

  • Bhang / Marijuana

    – A plant of Indian hemp

    – Also called marijuana, Hashish, Cannabis, Sativa depending on which
    part of the plant is taken i.e.

    leaves, stem, or roots.

    – Users become aggressive excited or high

    – Bhang changes perception of space, time and reality

    – It causes drowsiness and irresponsible behaviour

    – Its side effects causes people to be engaged in criminal activities e.g.

    robbery with violence as it gives
    changes in perception

  • Morphine

    Its used to suppress pain clinically

    – Its addictive

    – Its derived from cocaine

    – Used as local aesthetic

  • Heroine

    – Its pain relieving

    – Highly addictive

    – Powder heated in foil paper, vapour forms hence smoked referred to as”
    chasing the dragon”

    – Also called brown sugar

    – Its injected and inhaled

    – An overdose can lead to death

    – its expensive

    – It causes respiratory problems

    – Its depressive

    – Withdrawal symptoms when heroine is not available are nausea,
    vomiting, diarrhoea and severe
    anxiété

  • Soft drugs

    – Cigarette

    – Alcohol

    – Miraa / khat

    Cigarette

    – Made from tobacco
    – Cigarettes contain
    a) Nicotine – a highly addictive substance.

    b) Carbon monoxide, which damages arteries heart and lungs
    c) Tar – black substance which promotes cancer of the throat, heart and
    poumons
    Cigarettes are legal drugs in Kenya.

    Pregnant women may miscarry or terminate the pregnancy if they smoke.

    Leads to chest respiratory diseases poor blood circulation
    Leads to destructive fires due to carelessness

    Miraa / khat

    1 Plants / legally in Kenyan, and other parts of the world

    2 They are chewed

    3 Causes temporary excitement

    4 Makes one loose appetite for food and sex

    5 The juice in miraa causes temporary excitement in the user when
    ingéré

    6 Miraa makes the user to be irritable

    De l'alcool

    – Alcohol is a drug made through fermentation

    – It’s a drink used in social ceremonial occasions

    – It’s in form of beer wines, traditional brew (e.g. busaa, muratina, mnazi
    )and spirits e.g. whisks, brandy,
    gin, chang’aa

    – Alcohol is prepared by fermentation or distillation – heating to a certain
    degree.

    In African traditional society, alcohol was fermented and used for

    1. Medicinal value

    2. Entertainment

    3. Marriage celebrations

    4. Beer parties given to visitors

    – Excessive drinking was discouraged

    – Drunk people were scorned or scolded

    – Young people were not allowed to drink alcohol

    – When alcohol is taken excessively it is abused

    L'abus d'alcool

    – Alcohol can lead to body dependence or addiction

    – Consequences of abusing alcohol are such as

    (i) Squandering family resources

    (ii) Health deterioration

    (iii) Lack of concentration leading to poor quality of work

    (iv) Family break-ups due to frustrations

    A man experiences a desire for sex but lacks the ability to perform leading
    to break ups

    (v) Deformed foetus if a mother abuses alcohol when pregnant

    (vi) Alcohol destroys brain cells

    (vii) It leads to unruly behaviour such as fights, violence

    (viii) One is vulnerable to risky behaviour – a drunk person is unable to
    make proper decisions hence
    vulnerable to sexual infections such as HIV / AIDS

    (ix) Can make a person cause accidents if driving under the influence of
    alcohol or staggering on the
    road.

    Lesson Six: Causes of Alcohol and Drug Abuse
    (Reasons Why People Abuse Alcohol and
    Drugs)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State and explain the effects of drugs

    2. State and explain the causes of drug use and abuse

    (i) Frustration due to unemployment, inability to perform well and meet
    set standards or other personal
    frustrations.

    (ii) Idleness – when idle some turn to alcohol and drug use

    (iii) Addiction

    (iv) Boredom

    (v) Bad examples from adults

    (vi) Availability of drugs in the Kenyan market

    (vii) Negative peer pressure

    (viii) Experimentation then addiction

    (ix) Media influence

    (x) Societal permissiveness

    (xi) Urbanization

    (xii) Pressure of work

    (xiii) Financial stress

    (xiv) Globalization – foreign world influences

    Effects of drug abuse

    Drug abuse poses danger to the health of a person, affects family, society
    in general.

    Effects of drug
    abuse are

    A. Psychological problems – drugs are addictive. The body becomes
    dependant on them. It cannot
    perform without the drugs.

    It leads to depression, irritability,
    aggressiveness, paranoia, one becoming
    afraid to face reality etc.

    B. Crime – robbery, theft, people abusing drugs will rob, steal so as to get
    money to buy the drugs.

    Médicaments
    have led to students setting schools on fire, killing their fellow students.

    C. Illusion – users do not face reality.

    D. Health problems – one is prone to diseases because of frequent use of
    drugs.

    Drugs weakens the
    body’s system e.g. alcohol leads to liver Cirrhosis, stomach ulcers. L'un est
    susceptible / prone to HIV /
    AIDS infection STI’s lung cancer, still birth etc

    E. Economic problems
    Drugs are expensive. Abuse leads to depletion of family resources leading
    to poverty

    F. Loss of job and income

    G. Social problems

    Abuse of drugs leads to family conflicts, leading to separation, divorce,
    family quarrels fights and even
    murder (domestic violence)

    H. Accidents

    I. Frustrations

    J. Poor performance in school work

    K. Death

    People die out of drug abuse. An over dose of heroine, cocaine kills.
    Alcohol can lead to a blackout, this
    affects the brain.

    Lesson Seven: Remedies to Drug Abuse

     
    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to:-

    1. List down the various remedies to drug use and abuse
    Drug abuse has become a global problem. Remedies or solutions include

    a) Law enforcement

    Through bodies such as UNDCP United Nations
    International
    Drug Control Programme Anti Narcotics Police Units, NACADA
    National Agency for
    the Campaign Against Drug Abuse so as to control abuse of Narcotics and
    other drugs.

    b) Education

    People to be educated on the effects of drugs.

    The curriculum from
    primary to secondary to include
    topics on drug abuse.

    Guidance and counselling

    Religious teachings – all religious condemn the abuse of drugs
    Family values to be promoted. Parents should set good examples to their
    Enfants
    Every individual to cultivate individual values.

    Respect their body and
    take care of their bodies
    Rehabilitation of drug users / abusers

    Lesson Eight: Christian Criteria for Evaluating the
    Use of Leisure

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the Christian’s criteria for evaluating the use of leisure
    Criteria – criterion – a principle or standard for judging something.

    How does a Christian determine whether a certain leisure activity is
    lawful, acceptable before God –
    criteria for evaluating the use of leisure

    1) Christians, should engage in leisure activities which promote their
    respect and dignity they should

    socialize with people who are morally upright (bad company corrupts
    good morals)

    2) God ordains leisure hence it should serve God’s purpose.

    3) Leisure should come after work.

    4) Leisure should be used for the good of others. The activities that are
    harmful to others should be
    avoided.

    5) Activities chosen should enrich their knowledge of God

    6) Activities should provide service to others

    7) Leisure doesn’t mean laziness

    A Christian should not engage in a harmful activity to self but those that
    promote respect and dignity
    9) Christians to avoid activities that lead to sin or to addiction

    10) They should perform an activity which develop their physical
    emotional social and spiritual well
    étant

    11) Leisure should be enjoyed with moderation

    12) Activities for leisure should be moral, within the laws of God and
    pleasing to good.

    Revision questions

    1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of spending
    leisure is condemned

    2. Write down five ways in which modern Christians use their leisure time

    3. Give five ways in which drug use and abuse could affect a Christian

    4.identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug use
    and abuse

    5(a). Why is leisure important in the life of a Christian?

    5(b). What factors have contributed to the misuse of leisure in Kenya?

    6.state the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya

    Topic Five: Christians Approaches to Wealth,

     
    Money and Poverty
    Learning Outcomes:By the end of this topic, you should be able to: –

    une. Define the concepts wealth, money and poverty

    b. Explain and appreciate the traditional African understanding of wealth
    and poverty

    c. Describe the impact of the introduction of money economy in the
    traditional African society.

    ré. Explain Christian teachings on money, wealth and poverty

    e. Discuss Christians approached to some issues related to wealth money
    and poverty

    f. Uphold the Christian principles in acquiring and using wealth

    Lesson One: Definition of the Concepts Wealth,
    Money and Poverty

    a) Wealth: – accumulation…

    Accumulation of materials owned by an individual, family or a group of
    personnes.

    Wealth is property that
    has economic value e.g. land, animals, money, valuable possessions such
    as jewellery, commercial and
    residential buildings etc.

    Ways of acquiring wealth

  • Héritage
  • Entreprise
  • Commercial farming
  • Salaried Jobs
  • Investment of money in financial institution
  • Provision of commercial services

    b) Money

    It’s the medium of exchange that functions as a legal tender. Il est
    something that is generally accepted as

    a medium of exchange, a means of payment. It is usually in form of coins
    or notes.

    Good monetary
    media (money) has certain qualities.

    Qualities of money

    • It should be acceptable

    • It should be fairly stable

    • Easy to divide into small units

    • Easy to carry

    • Should be relatively scarce

    • It should be durable

    • Its value should be maintained through proper control of its circulations

    Money is a measure of wealth. What it can purchase is the value.

    Argent
    is used to buy services, goods,
    pay debts etc.

    Examples of currencies in the world are
    Ksh. (Kenya), Rand (South Africa) US & Dollar, Pound (Britain) Euro
    (Europe), Yen (Japan) Etc

    c) Poverty

    State of being without adequate basic necessities of life e.g. food, shelter,
    Vêtements
    It’s a state of helplessness. It is characterized by poor health, hunger, and
    lack of education facilities,
    uncared for environment.

    Causes of poverty

    une. Adverse climatic conditions (Geographical factors)

    b. Poor family background (historical and social factors)

    c. Political stability leading to civil wars

    ré. Poor governance

    e. Regional imbalance of natural resources

    f. Low level of technology

    g. Laziness

    h. Over dependence on foreign aid

    Lesson Two: the Traditional African Understanding
    Of Wealth and Poverty

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the terms wealth and poverty according to the traditional
    African understanding

    2. State the various ways in which wealth was acquired in traditional
    African communities

    3. List the causes of poverty in tradition African communities
    Richesse

    In African traditional societies wealth was measured in terms of the
    amount of land, livestock, grains,
    wives, children possessed by an individual or the community.

    Wealth was acquired in various ways.

    (i) As a gift from God

    Most Africans believe that wealth is a blessing from God.

    (ii) Inheritance

    In cases where the head of the family is dead, the eldest son becomes the
    custodian of the estate.

    le
    clan and community elders give direction on how the wealth is to be
    shared out.

    (iii) Bride wealth

    (iv) Farming

    (v) Exploitation of natural resources – honey, wood for carving, building
    materials etc

    (vi) Trade

    African communities were involved in barter trade where they exchanged
    good and services

    (vii) Raids

    wealth was also acquired by raiding other communities –
    goats, sheep,
    Cattle.

    – People were encouraged to work hard to acquire wealthy honesty
    – Wealthy people were highly regarded and were considered for
    direction
    position.

    – Wealth was incomplete without a family

    Poverty

    Poverty was viewed as punishment or curse for wrongdoing.

    Other causes of poverty according to African Traditional Society were: –

    • Laziness

    • Lack of inheritance

    • Raids by other communities

    • Famine

    • Natural calamities

    • Sickness – rendering the individual weak to acquire wealth
    – In acquiring wealth, principles such as value for human life, mutual
    responsibility, and sharing,
    communal ownership were emphasized.

    – Places that were communal include grazing land, rivers, and watering
    des endroits
    – Laziness was ridiculed through songs, riddles and proverbs.

    Lesson Three: Impacts of the Introduction of Money
    Economy in Traditional African
    Société

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define economy, development and money economy

    2. Explain the reasons for the introduction of money

    3. Explain the impact of money economy in traditional African society

    introduction

    – Money was introduced to Africa by the Europeans

    – Before colonial period, Africans practiced barter trade – actual goods
    exchanged with other goods e.g.

    animals would be exchanged with food grains, millet, sorghum, cowpeas,
    children exchanged for food
    during famine.

    – Trade merchants from Asia had introduced into Africa forms of currency
    such as the cowrie shells, gold
    and the Indian rupees. Europeans introduced currency still used today

    Économie:

    – careful management of resources, finances, income and
    expenditure of a family, a business
    enterprise, community or a country.

    The economy of a country is to be
    well managed if it has the ability
    to meet the social economic needs of her members.

    Développement

    It’s measured by the healthy of its economy in the provision of health,
    education, housing, sanitation,
    employment, longevity of life, decrease of material and child mortality.

    Money economy: – Use of money as a means of exchange in economic
    activities e.g. banking,
    investment, insurance, payment of goods and services.

    Reasons for money introduction

    1) Colonization brought a lot of changes such as unoccupied land declared
    ‘Crown land’ for colonialists.

    2) Tax introduction
    Africans were supposed to pay taxes to the government. Taxes were paid
    in form of money.

    3) Introduction of formal education
    School fees was introduced. Fees were paid in form of money.

    4) Introduction of modern medical services
    People paid medical services using money.

    5) Emergence of new lifestyles
    Converts to Christianity were emphasized on to have materials, hence had
    to work to improve their
    living standards.

    They built houses, took their children to schools
    practiced modern family techniques
    hence had to use money.

    Impact of the introduction of money economy in traditional African
    société

    1) Introduction of wage – labour

    2) Break up of family ties as people migrated from rural to urban areas in
    search of employment

    3) African land taken by the colonialists, reducing people to squatters
    hence need to work

    4) There was creation of a gap between people – the rich and the poor

    5) Emergence of vices e.g. corruption, bribery, prostitution, robbery

    6) Deterioration of cherished African values e.g. bride wealth has become
    commercialized, customs lost
    etc.

    7) Loss of African human dignity. Africans had to pay taxes to the
    colonial government.

    They were forced
    to work in European farms so as to get money. They worked under
    dehumanizing conditions
    Production of traditional food crops declined replaced by cash crops.

    9) Individual ownership of land was emphasized. Land could be sold at
    volonté

    10) There was increase of rural – urban migration leaving the rural people
    less educated.

    11) Exploitation of the poor by the rich – poor wages, overcharging prices
    on foods.

    12) Destruction of the natural environment to create room for building
    projects, urban centres.

    13) The cost of living increased. Almost everything is acquired by money.

    Lesson Four: the Christian Teaching on Wealth,
    Money, Poverty

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Explain the Christian teachings on wealth

    2. Explain the Christian teachings on poverty

    Teaching on wealth

    1) Wealth is a blessing from God

    2) Those who obey God’s laws, teachings of the prophets are promised
    blessings by God Deut28: 1 – 4

    3) Wealth has duties associated with it e.g. 10% tithe, alms to the poor,
    and an aspect of stewardship.

    4) Wealth should be used wisely. People are not owners of their property
    but are stewards. Should
    share with the poor, needy.

    5) Wealth is not permanent e.g. parable of the rich fool. When people die,
    they take nothing with them.

    Naked into the world, naked out of the world. Job. 1:21

    6) Wealth can create a false sense of independence feeling of self reliance
    no need for God.

    7) Wealth should be obtained justly – no happiness for a person who gets
    riches in the wrong way.

    Wrong attitude to wealth can lead to idolatry and other dangers. Matt.19:
    23 – 24 danger of
    materialism – making riches their God, the love of money is the root of all
    evil (1 timothy 6:10)

    9) It is wrong to discriminate against others on the basis of material
    possessions. Jesus associated with
    the rich, the poor, the sick etc.

    10) Seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more fulfilling than
    material wealth, which is
    transitory – temporal. Matt 6:19 – 20)

    11) Acknowledge God as the source of ones riches

    12) Use wealth to help the needy

    13) Wealth is an instrument to enable us live decently.

    14) Obsession with money and wealth leads to sin.

    15) Church leaders should avoid greed for wealth (1 Timothy 3:3)

    16) God will judge rich exploiters.

    Christian teaching on poverty

    1) Christian teachings discourage irresponsible behaviour and habits e.g.
    laziness, idleness and
    negligence. Some people became poor because of such.

    2) Some people become poor because of misfortunes

    3) Others are poor because of judgment due to disobedience to God

    4) God cares for the poor

    5) Those with more should share with the poor

    6) People should work to alleviate poverty in the society

    7) Jesus helped the poor so should we

    The poor in spirit will be blessed

    Lesson Five: Christian Approaches / Response to Issues
    Related to Wealth and Money.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the Christian’s response towards wealth and poverty

    2. State the factors causing poverty

    3. Describe how wealth/ resources can be distributed fairly
    Christian can respond by

    A. Insistence on fair distribution of wealth

    B. Fighting against bribery and corruption

    C. Using life skills

    D. Practicing Christian values

    introduction

    – Affluence – having a lot of material possessions and a luxurious
    standard of living. Poverty is a state of
    lack of the basic necessities.

    – Illegal means of acquiring wealth include fraud, grabbing public land,
    selling narcotic drugs etc

    Factors that have contributed to poverty

    1. Political instability

    2. Lack of formal education

    3. Laziness

    4. Negative attitude towards work – choosing jobs

    5. Historical factors – colonization lack of land

    6. Exporting unprocessed agricultural products cheaply then sold back
    expensively.

    A. Fair distribution of wealth / resources

    a) Christians to promote the value of justice, fairness, social
    responsibility.

    Comment? By having anti –
    corruption crusades, be role models, teach or import skills, advocate for
    cancellation of foreign debts,
    taxation to all etc.

    b) Fair salaries.

    c) Promotion of affordable and decent housing.

    d) Favourable terms of loans.

    e) Encourage Jua Kali artisans

    f) Christians to demand transformation of society through implementation
    of just economic policies that

     
    can ensure fair distribution of wealth.

    g) Encourage foreign investors through good infrastructure, incentives
    e.g. shorter process to register
    business, security.

    h) Christian to encourage investments by churches and inculcate in people
    the values of hard work,
    proper time management free education free health care for the poor or
    needy.

    Fair distribution of wealth / resources refers to jobs, infrastructure,
    hospitals, water, agricultural
    products etc.

    Lesson Six: Bribery and Corruption

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the following terms bribery and corruption

    2. Explain the factors that contribute to bribery and corruption

    3. Explain the consequences of bribery and corruption

    Fighting against bribery and corruption

    Bribery and corruption are related terms.

    Corruption: – practice of giving a bribe in the form of money, goods or
    privileges in return for a service.

    Bribery: – act of giving money, material goods or services to someone to
    influence the recipient to give
    underserved favour.

    It is aimed at influencing a decision to favour.

    Bribery is a form of corruption.

    – Corruption is some kind of moral degeneration.

    A practice whereby
    someone uses
    his/her influence in an activity that is not morally acceptable.

    – Example of corruption include promotion by a senior for a favour,
    colluding to miss work, use of

    government vehicles to attend to personal matters.

    In Kenya, Kenya Anticorruption commission KACC is a national body
    formed to fight corruption.

    Factors leading to bribery and corruption

    1. Un-employment – one will bribe to secure employment

    2. Greed for money – caused by peer pressure, poor moral values, wrong
    ethical foundation about
    money etc.

    3. Fear – fear of being imprisoned

    4. Ignorance – giving bribes in form of gifts

    5. Disintegration of traditional African values

    6. Lack of moral integrity – no Christian values, one having no spiritual
    base

    7. Frustration in the place of work

    8. A perverted conscience

    Consequences of corruption and bribery

    1. Leads to injustice

    2. Leads to incompetent supplies of goods or services being awarded
    hefty contracts – leads to poor
    services e.g. construction de route

    3. Poor infrastructure, poor public service delivery

    4. Leads to undermining moral fabric of society – leading to social
    hopelessness and despair

    5. Has led to lack of trust in public servants, and the government
    6. Discontentment among people.

    7. Degrades the personality of an individual

    8. Can lead to imprisonment and lose of job

    Lesson Seven: Christian Attitude Towards Bribery
    And Corruption

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the Christian attitude towards bribery and corruption

    2. Define the following terms life skills, decision making, critical
    thinking, creative thinking, self esteem
    and assertiveness

    3. List the steps involved in decision making

    2. Bribes cause injustice proverbs 17:23

    3. Seen as morally wrong as they negatively affect one’s family
    4. Jesus drove out merchants from the temple. They had started
    exploitation of the poor.

    5. Condemned because it degrades the personality of an individual

    6. Amos condemned taking and giving of bribes

    7. Bribes blinds the eyes

    In the parable of John the Baptist condemned soldiers from taking bribes
    Corrupt judge and the widow, corruption is condemned.

    8. Christians are to live righteously and not give bribes or receive. Ils
    are the light of the world.

    9. Money gained from corruption is not acceptable before God.

    C Using life skills

    Life skills are abilities, which enable a person to face the challenges of
    life in an effective way they are

  • Decision making
  • Esprit critique
  • Creative thinking
  • Self esteem
  • Assertiveness

    une. Decision making

    Process of identifying the best alternative to overcome a challenge
    encountered.

    Often decisions we
    make do not only affect us but those around us.

    Steps to decision – making

    1. Identify the challenge (problem)
    what’s the problem? What is bothering you?

    2. Understand the challenge / problem: – What is really bothering you?

    3. Find out possible solutions

    4. Find out the possible options and alternatives

    5. Consider the possible consequences for each option

    6. Select the best option

    7. Implement

    8. Evaluate the outcome of the action

    b. Esprit critique

    g. Ability to examine and assess a given situation impartially or
    objectively.

    It involves reasoning
    carefully.

    Getting detailed information, consider the option before making
    a decision.

    Esprit critique

    makes a person responsible for their actions.

    c. Creative thinking

    This is the act or practice of using ideas imaginatively to solve a problem

    ré. Self-esteem

    – This is the regard one has about himself or herself. Self-esteem can be
    low or high, positive or negative.

    A positive or high self-esteem person has confidence, is outgoing, social,
    appreciates self, realistic and
    independent.

    – A person with low, negative self-esteem is naïve, withdrawn, shy, feels
    inadequate, and no selfconfidence.

    e. Assertiveness

    Ability to express ones feelings and wishes without hurting others.

    Assertive people are confident; direct
    in dealing with others assertive people have a high self-esteem.

    Lesson Eight: Christian Values Related to Wealth,
    Money, and Poverty.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the terms, values, love. Honesty, reliability, fairness, justice,
    respect, humility, faithfulness,
    persistence and chastity.

    2. State the values related to work
    Values – Beliefs, which guide people on what is right and wrong.


    sont

    – Social values

    – Cultural values

    – Moral values

    Values related to wealth are: –

    – Amour

    – Honesty

    – Reliability

    – Fairness

    – Justice

    – Respect

    – Faithfulness

    – Humility

    – Persistence

    – Chastity

    Love – intense emotion of attachment, affection, warmth, fondness,
    regard for a person or something
    How should love guide a Christian in relation to wealth creation

    ?
    Honesty – quality of being truthful, fair trustworthy, sincere, genuine. le
    opposite of honesty is
    dishonesty.

    Fiabilité

    – being dependable, faithful, predictable, unfailing. The ability
    of being relied upon and
    keeping promises.

    Fairness

    – condition of being unbiased, free from discrimination.
    Justice – fair dealings with the people, as they deserve according to the
    loi. Being fair, giving people
    what’s due to them. Opposite of justice is injustice.

    Respect- Quality of having high regard for somebody or something. Politeness. Ses
    important to respect other
    people’s property.

    Humility

    – quality of not thinking that you are better than others. Being
    humble. Opposite of humility is
    pride, being proud.

    Those who humble themselves shall be exalted.

    Faithfulness

    – quality of remaining loyal or true to someone. Christians
    should be faithful at their places
    of work and in allocating their wealth to God’s work.

    Those who are entrusted with public resources to manage on behalf of the
    people should show a high
    degree of faithfulness.

    Persistance

    – quality to persevere. Quality to continue steadfastly,
    unrelentingly despite opposition e.g.

    the unjust judge and widow, job =, Jeremiah are people who persisted.

    Chastity

    – a state of being pure, holy, innocent modest. It is abstinence
    from actions that may make one
    impure before God.

    -Christians should strive hard not to defile their bodies in search of wealth

    -Christians should strive to live holy lives, avoid prostitution, drug abuse;

    la corruption

    -people use sexual favour to get jobs or promotion. Christians should thus
    avoid such.

    Revision questions

    1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth

    2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth

    3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today

    4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability

    5. Give ways in which the Kenyan government is alleviating the high
    levels of poverty

    6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in
    Kenya today

    Topic Six: Approaches to Law, Order and Justice
    Learning Outcomes:By the end of the topic you should be able to:

    a Define the terms ‘law’ ‘order’ and ‘justice’

    b Describe the traditional African practices that promote law, order and
    justice.

    c Explain the Biblical teaching on law, order and justice.

    d Identify and evaluate the need for law, order and justice in the society.

    e Explain the rights and duties of citizens.

    f Explain the causes and remedies of social disorder.

    g Evaluate the role of Christians in the transformation of the society.

    h Discuss church-state relationship.

    Lesson One: Definition of Terms

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the following terms law, order and justice

    2. State the types of law

    3. State the types of statutory laws

    introduction

    – Law, order, justice are essential for the survival of any society.

    – Following laws leads to order and justice lack of following leads to
    disorder and injustice laws of Kenya
    are laid down in the constitution.

    A. Law

    Established rules by an authority to regulate human behaviour in the
    community Schools laws, religious
    laws, factory laws, hospital laws etc. laws differ from society to society.

    Laws are dynamic. Laws cover all
    aspects of life.

    B. Order

    Condition brought about by obedience to set rules or laws. Order leads to
    peaceful co – existence in the
    society.

    Where there is order, things are done systematically. The opposite
    of order is disorder.

    Types of laws

    1. Non – legal laws – no court action e.g. school rules

    2. Customary traditional laws – based on culture, social traditions.

    Ils
    have to agree with state laws.

    They are respected by state.

    3. Statutory laws / legal laws – laws made by local council or national
    government and citizens are
    expected to obey them.

    Types of statutory laws

    a) Civil laws – made by parliament on issues such as taxes, labour,
    divorce etc

    b) Criminal law – on crime / punishment

    c) Constitutional law – matters of state and governance

    d) Company law

    e) Religious laws e.g. Islamic law ‘sharia’

    C. Justice

    Treating others the way they deserve in relation to the law. Its
    administration of rightful
    dealings in a fair manner according to their actions.

    A just society follows
    rules and administers legal
    action to those who offend others or disobey rules.

    means treating
    people the same way without
    discrimination.

    Lesson Two: Importance of Law, Order and Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State the importance of law, order and justice

    a) They are essential to preserve harmony and protect people

    b) Laws guide people and ensure people’s rights are protected.

    c) They protect people’s property and enable people to live in harmony

    d) They protect the consumer from exploitation

    e) They safeguard religious freedom

    f) Laws control power of those in authority and promote political stability

    g) Provides stability, encouraging economic growth

    h) Helps to control discontentment among people

    i) Helps implementation of taxes effectively

    j) Provides / help in maintenance of security

    k) Ensures human rights are upheld

    l) Enables the government to protect its citizens from internal or external
    threats.

    m) International law regulates relations between countries.

    Lesson Three: Rights and Duties of Citizens

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able: –

    1. Define the terms citizen, rights and duty

    2. List the rights of citizens

    3. State te duties/ responsibilities of citizens

    Citizen

    Person who is a member of a state, kingdom, empire.

    A person
    who has full rights as a member
    of a country by birth, decent, registration, naturalization.

    Rights – legal claims that one is entitled to from the government
    Duty – ones responsibility to the government.

    Droits

    1) Right to life – to live securely

    2) Right to education

    3) Right to liberty / freedom e.g. one should not be imprisoned, detained,

    without trial. One is innocent
    jusqu'à preuve du contraire

    4) Right to protection of property

    5) Right to own a family – right to marry and raise a family

    6) Right to health

    7) Freedom of movement

    8)Right to freedom of association

    9) Right to freedom of assembly

    10) Freedom of religion

    11) Right to own property

    12) Right to equality – non discrimination

    13) Protection of freedom of expression and speech (own opinions, ideas)
    Children have rights e.g.

    Right to life, education, parental care, health, protection from
    exploitation, right to identity etc.

    Duties of citizens (responsibilities)

    1) Pay taxes to the government

    2) Respect the flag and national anthem

    3) Respect those in authority

    4) Respect the laws of the land

    5) Register as a voter and voter in national elections

    6) Be responsible at work

    7) Participate in national development
    Promote peace and harmony in the society

    9) Report errant members of the society to law enforcement agents

    10) Protect the environmental – clean, plant trees, avoid poaching etc

    Lesson Four: Traditional African Practices That
    Promote Law, Order, Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State and explain the traditional African practices that promoted law,
    order and justice

    Some of the practices that promote law, order and justice are

    a) Punishment of offenders

    People who committed offences such as stealing, murder, witchcraft were
    punished through death,
    curses, paying heavy fines etc. this promoted law, order, justice.

    b) Installation of rules, kings, chiefs, elders

    They were installed to maintain law, order and to execute justice in their
    areas of jurisdiction

    c) Administration of oaths

    – Administered by specialists and are used as a method of establishing and
    maintaining law and order

    d) Making of covenants

    – Covenants were made if there was a conflict between two communities.
    They would promise to live in
    peace and harmony.

    e) Observing of taboos and customary law

    Taboos were prohibitions. Those who went against taboos were severely
    puni

    f) The kinship system

    Defined how people related one to another

    g) Rites of passage

    Ensured customs, laws were adhered to

    h) Religious practices

    Such as praying, singing, sacrificing and giving of
    offerings had the effect of
    maintaining order.

    Lesson Five: Biblical Teaching on Law, Order and
    Justice

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Describe the biblical teachings on law, order and justice
    God initiated Law, order, and justice.

    1. God’s creation is orderly. God desires order

    2. Man was created with a conscience to know right from wrong sin has
    consequences or punishment.

    God does punish disobedience i.e. justice

    3. God instituted the laws as part of his plan for salvation e.g. law of
    circumcision, Torah (10
    commandments), circumcision of the heart, laws on what to eat etc.

    4. God’s law governed kingship in Israel. National prosperity depended
    on a king’s ruler ship. Kings were
    to ensure law and order

    5. In the New Testament John the Baptist urged people to observe the law
    (social justice).

    6. Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is based on law, order and justice.
    There should be fair
    treatment for all people.

    7. Jesus said that the law of Moses was given to guide people.

    8. Christians should obey the law of the land and respect those in
    authority.

    9. The apostolic teachings stress the need for law, order, justice (1 Cro.14:
    33)

    10. Christians should be orderly.

    11. The birth of Jesus was orderly. His ministry was also orderly hence
    should Christians.

    Lesson Six: Causes of Social Disorder and Their
    Remedies

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State and explain the causes of social disorders

    2. State the causes of discrimination

    3. Explain the causes of crime

    4. List the forms of punishment

    Social disorder is a state of confusion or lack of order in the society
    Causes

    1) Discrimination

    2) Inequitable distribution of wealth, resources

    3) Crime

    4) Racism

    5) Tribalism

    6) Sexism

    Discrimination

    Discrimination is unfair treatment.

    Discrimination is on basis of

    – Race

    – Tribe

    – Sex / gender

    People or a particular person is singled out and treated with disfavor or
    distaste.

    It is showing bias or
    prejudice.

    Causes of discrimination

    une. Culture

    b. Prejudice – bias original from opinions that have no known basis or
    supporting facts – stereotypes

    c. Ignorance e.g. on HIV /AIDS

    ré. Social status – ones position in a society

    Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources

    – This is when riches of family, community, and nation are not fairly
    shared out due to
    Selfishness or poor planning.

    Some areas are marginalized.

    Racism – unfair treatment of people because of their race

    Tribalism – discrimination on basis of ethnic group

    Crime – an offence against state, normally settled in court. Its antisocial
    behaviour causing disorder.

    Causes of crime (Why people commit crime)

    1. Poverty

    2. Public mistrust for law enforces

    3. Lack of parental guidance

    4. Wide gap between the rich and the poor

    5. Greed for power, money

    6. Materialism

    7. Drug and substance abuse

    Sexism

    – Discrimination against people because of gender

    – Women are discriminated in areas such as jobs, no promotion for
    women, oppression of women at
    home, cultural values demeaning the status of women, wife beating / men
    beating, female genital
    mutilation (FGM) early children marriages etc.

    Remedies to social disorder

    1) Rehabilitation for drugs users / abusers

    2) Punishment for offenders of crime

    Forms of punishment

    – Imprisonment

    – Payment of fines

    – Corporal punishment

    – Probation

    – Being assigned community work

    – Being placed under house arrest

    – Learning in approved schools, Juvenile homes

    3) Equitable distribution of national resources

    – Develop marginalized areas

    – Create jobs

    4) Campaign against drug abuse

    5) The public to use hot lines to report crime to police

    6) Preach against racism, tribalism, and preach equality, freedom and
    interaction with all people

    7) People to be sensitized to appreciate and respect different ethnics
    groupes
    Promote national unity through education /cultural programmes

    9) Creation of more national schools so as to have students from all
    arrière-plans

    10) Encourage domestic tourism

    11) Enlighten women on their rights

    12) Employment on merit

    13) Rich countries to share wealth with the poor

    Lesson Seven: Role of Christians in Transforming the
    Social, Economic, Political Life of
    The Society

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the term transformation

    2. Describe Christian’s participation in social life

    3. Describe Christian’s participation in political life

    4. Describe Christian’s participation in economic life

    Transformation is to completely change the attitude, character, and well
    being of the society

    a) Christian participation in the social life

    – Christians are involved in the preaching of the gospel in many places in
    the country.

    They use print and
    electronic media to spread the gospel.

    – Christians have shown concern for the destitute and victims of violence
    in the society by building
    homes for them and providing them with food and clothing.

    – Christians run schools, vocational institutions, universities providing
    services éducatifs
    – Christians offer medical services to the society
    – They speak openly against sexual immorality, murder, bribery,
    corruption, abortion etc.

    – They show compassion to those in need the poor, HIV / AIDS orphans,
    widows, widowers, aged etc.

    – They offer guidance and counselling to dysfunctional families (the
    pastors, those trained to do
    counselling – almost all pastors get a training in guidance and
    counselling)

    b) Christians participation in the political life

    – Christians participate in the political life by advocating for fair
    distribution des richesses

    – They offer prayers for government, political leaders

    – They exercise their right by voting

    – They also participating in the political life by standing up for elections
    (Vying for elections)

    c) Christian participation in economic life

    – Christians participate in economic life by paying taxes to the
    gouvernement

    – By contributing in collection of funds for construction of churches,
    schools, hospitals

    – They invest in business that promotes their own development as well as
    le développement de la
    pays.

    – They provide financial resources in order to assist others to start
    economic activities or self
    employment.

    – They discourage business practices such as using faulty scales, hiking of
    prices cheating in business etc
    and encourage proper acquisition of wealth.

    d) The Church – State Relationship

    The government and the church interact at various levels and in different
    les zones

    a) Religious leaders give advice to the state

    b) The church speaks against corruption, robbery, rape, abortion, vices
    which the government is fighting

    c) The church is the conscience of the state

    d) Both educate the citizens on the constitution and their rights

    e) The church preaches peace, love, unity, order

    f) The state needs support of the church in mobilizing citizens to adopt
    politiques gouvernementales

    g) Both are involved in rehabilitation of prisoners

    h) The church builds schools and other institutions that supplement
    government institutions.

    i) The church is involved in formulation of educational curriculum.

    However the church differs with government on various issues such as
    a) Use of condoms (Some churches opposed to this)

    b) Use of live bullets by the law enforces when curbing riots

    c) Fight on corruption a thorn to the church since state leaders are
    impliqué

    d) Issue of death penalty – church been fighting against death penalty to
    condamnés

    NB. The government lifted the death penalty as a form of punishment in
    the year 2009.

    Revision questions

    1.state ways in which Christians can promote peace/unity in the society

    2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

    Topic Seven: Christian Approaches to Selected Issues
    Related to Modern Science,
    Technology and Environment

    Learning Outcomes:
    By the end of the topic, you should b able to:

    1. Explain the Christian view on some issues related to modern science
    et la technologie

    2. Explain the Christian view on the effects of modern science and
    technology on the environment

    Lesson One: Definitions

    Science

    Subject field that deals with a systematic study of our
    surroundings and behaviour of materials
    dans l'univers

    It is based on observation, experimentation and measurement.

    Technology – application of science to achieve desired objectives.

    Environment – our surroundings – both natural and human made i.e.

    mountains, lakes, land, forests,
    animals, buildings, flowers etc

    Lesson Two: Positive and Negative Effects of Science
    And Technology

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State the various ways that science and technology has improved our
    vies

    2. State the negative effects of science and technology

    Ways science and technology has improved human lives

    1) Improvement of crop production – a quality seeds, fertilizers leading to
    improved yields

    2) Better nutrition, health care, medical services

    3) Improvement of livestock production through artificial insemination,
    quality medicine leading to more
    milk production.

    4) It has led to development of efficient means of transport – land, air,
    seas.

    5) Work has been made easier and enjoyable. There is use of machines,
    automation, use of computers.

    6) People’s lives have been spared, saved e.g. through life saving
    machines (ICU), incubators.

    7) Business transactions are being done through the internet
    Communication has been made easy – fax, email, short text messages on
    mobile phones etc.

    9) Research is ongoing for incurable diseases i.e. HIV / AIDS, cancer

    10) There is better management of environment

    11) Technology has made the world a global village

    12) Through family planning methods, its easier to control population
    croissance

    13) There’s a better security system through use of scanners, alarms,
    electrified fences etc.

    14) Improvement of learning through e–learning

    15) There’s easier movement from one country to another

    Negative effects of science and technology

    1. People use medicine to commit suicide

    2. Increase of crime, fraud and death through modern means of
    la communication

    3. Destruction of family relationships

    4. Breakdown of community names, values morals, breakdown of
    familles

    5. Terrorism

    6. Greed for money / materialism

    7. Unemployment – replacement of personnel by machines
    8. Health hazards such as accidents in factories

    9. Pollution, air poisoning

    Lesson Three: Christian View on Issues Related to
    Science and Technology.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the following terms euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ
    transplant, genetic engineering and
    chirurgie plastique

    2. Describe Christians’ view on euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ
    transplant, human cloning, genetic
    engineering and plastic surgery.

    3. State the reasons for and against euthanasia, blood transfusion, organ
    transplant, human cloning,
    genetic engineering and plastic surgery

    une. Euthanasia

    b. Blood transfusion

    c. Organ transplant

    ré. Genetic engineering

    e. Chirurgie plastique

    Euthanasia

    It’s a Greek word, which means an easy and painless death. It is ‘mercy
    killing’ ending a person’s life so

     
    as to alleviate them from experiencing pain.

  • Its practiced with the sick person’s knowledge
  • It is involuntary when its practiced against or without the sick person’s
    consentement
  • Its done by

    a) Injecting an overdose of sleeping pills to the sick person

    b) Switching off life support machine

    c) Exposing the person with chronic pneumonia to very cold air.

    Christians view on Euthanasia

    Christians are opposed to euthanasia for several reasons such as

    a) Life is sacred, a gift from God and only God can take away human life

    b) Suffering is part of human life

    c) Euthanasia is against medical ethos, which demands that doctors and
    nurses work for the sustenance
    of human life and alleviation of suffering but not to terminate it.

    d) Jesus has power over sickness and through his name all sickness are
    healed.

    e) Accepting euthanasia discourages medical research on vaccines that
    may cure various diseases.

    f) Euthanasia discourages patients and makes them to lose hope in life.
    They may feel unwanted and
    rejected.

    Blood transfusion

    – It’s the process of injecting a person’s blood into another person through
    his/her veins.

    The giver is a
    donor the receiver is a recipient.

    Reasons for blood transfusion

    1. When a person is suffering from acute anemia (little blood in the body)
    low blood
    niveau.

    2. To restore blood lost during fatal accidents, wars, or childbirth

    3. To maintain blood levels for patients undergoing major operations

    4. To correct the low haemoglobin level of some patients

    5 Blood has to be screened for any diseases, and then kept in blood bank
    after determining

    the blood group.

    The transfusion should be in a hygienic way.

    le
    equipment used
    should be sterilized

    6. Donors should not be below 16 years or above 65 years

    Alternatives to blood transfusion

    a) Volume expanders – increase fluid levels in the body

    b) Growth factors – intra operative / post operative

    c) Blood salvage – same blood when on surgery is saved then transfused
    back to the patient

    Christian view on blood transfusion

    a) Some Christian’s believe it is wrong to take blood from a healthy
    person and transfuse it to another
    la personne.

    b) Blood is life and life cannot be taken from one person to another

    c) Blood transfusion is essential as it saves life

    d) Blood transfusion can transmit dangerous diseases like HIV / AIDS
    and Hepatitis B

    e) God has given Christians the intelligence and capability to make the
    right decision and choice

    Organ transplant

    – This is the removal of a defective organ and replacing it with a healthy
    un.

    Body organs transplanted
    are kidneys, heart and eyes small intestines, pan crease.

    – The purpose is to replace the damaged organ of a recipient

    – Common transplants are the heart, kidney, eyes from living and the dead
    (heart) within a span of
    heures. Eyes can be transplanted from animals.

    Christian view on organ transplant

    a) It saves life hence acceptable to some

    b) Its transferring human life from one person to another

    c) Its wrong to transplant from animals – view by some Christians

    d) Some support organ transplant by referring to the story of creation of
    Eve from parts of Adam

    e) It is part of human beings continuing with the creation work of God.

    f) It is an expression of love and concern for those suffering as taught by
    Jesus Christ.

    Genetic engineering

    – It’s a scientific technique used by scientists to change the biological
    characteristics of living organisms
    by deliberately altering the structure of individual genes.

    – There are genetically modified foods, genetically engineered seeds, test
    tube babies, human clones,
    and genes of human insulin.

    Human cloning

    This is a form of genetic engineering. It’s a creation of genetically
    identical copy of a human being,
    human cell.

  • Twins are a form of natural cloning
  • There’s therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning (human cloning)
  • Therapeutic cloning is when cells from an adult are used in creating
    medicine or for research
  • Reproduction cloning is the making of human beings
  • More than 90% of cloning has failed.
  • Animals cloned have died young, had cancers or arthritis.
  • Human cloning is illegal worldwide
  • Genetic cells are used to treat Alzheimer, heart attack, cancer
  • Test tube babies are different from human cloning. Test tube babies are
    where the egg and sperm is
    fused together outside the body.
  • In cloning, a needle like device is used to draw out the cells from an
    embryo, then preserved using
    chemicals, then put in a womb/uterus to grow.

    Some do not need a sperm
    cell, they use other body cells
    for fertilization.

    Reasons for advocating human cloning

  • Can clone people whose genetic composition is of a genius, people with
    special abilities or talents
  • Can be able to bring, revive back great extinct characteristics.
  • Those who support it believes it can reduce immorality.

    Reasons against human cloning

    1. God is the sole creator. Cloning takes the place of God.

    2. It de –humanizes human beings purpose of human reproduction

    3. It destroys uniqueness of each individual (Cloning is an exact copy)

    4. It can be abused and used to create antisocial people (rapists, thieves)

    5. May create deformed people

    6. It’s un-ethical, immoral experiment. Its destruction of the embryo
    hence abortion

    7. 95% of clones have failed (animal) most animals died

    8. Its illegal

    9. Closed animals died of cancer, had arthritis, deformities and an early
    décès

    10. Cloning may bring a destructive copy of humans

    Advantages of genetic engineering

    1. Implanting genes that are diseases free in people, plant and animals
    could prevent diseases.

    2. Genetic crops yield more

    3. Helps to determine the biological parent in case of dispute on babies
    (DNA)

    4. Helps to increase disease resistance in crops and altering animal traits
    in plants and animals

    5. Assists in classifying blood during screening before it’s transfused to
    another person.

    Christian view of genetic engineering

    1. Christians support genetic engineering that is beneficial to human
    beings e.g. Cure of genetic
    diseases, production of drugs, plant and animals

    2. Human beings are made in God’s image and are loved by God with or
    without defects.

    3. The dignity of the human being is eroded or disregarded and should be
    upheld.

    4. Christians oppose cloning and test tube babies

    5. Its against God’s will or teaching

    Chirurgie plastique

    – It’s to change or mould the shape of something, to enhance or restore an
    area of the body

    – It’s repairing or improving of damaged, diseased or unsatisfactory
    shaped parts of the body with pieces
    of skin or bone taken from other parts of the body.

    – Skin grafting is the most common type of plastic surgery

    – Plastic surgery is done on cleft lips i.e. cosmetic surgery, breast surgery

    – reduction or enlargement,
    surgery done to look younger.

    Reasons for plastic surgery

    – It can help restore ones confidence or self – esteem

    – It enhances beauty, attractiveness or youthfulness

    – It enhances a person’s life and can be a life changing procedure

    – It may help a person to get a new job

    Désavantages

    – Its expensive

    – Can lead to transmission of diseases

    Christian views on plastic surgery

    – Some support it, as it has some benefits

    – Some Christian oppose plastic surgery in order to look younger

    – Some argue that some people do it because of a lack of self –
    acceptance, low self esteem hence
    should work on such issues first.

    Lesson Four: the Christian View on the Effects of
    Modern Science and Technology on the
    Environment (Pollution, Desertification)

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. State the various ways of caring for the environment

    In Genesis 1, man was given the responsibility of taking care of the
    environnement

    Ways of taking care of the environment

    1. Cleaning up the environment, clean up rivers

    2. Educating people on the importance of conservation

    3. Dispose industrial wastes properly

    4. Enforce use of environment – friendly fuel (unleaded fuel)

    5. Factory owners to supply protective wear to factory workers

    6. Planting of trees and flowers

    7. Establishing airports, industries, and disco clubs away from residential
    zones.

    8. Advocate for laws to be passed to minimize noise from vehicles,
    aircrafts, entertainment centres.

    9. Waste to be managed through

  • Reuse e.g. bouteilles
  • Recycle – plastic bottles to be recycled to plastic bins, old newspapers
    to be recycled to tissue papers.
  • Recover – burning waste products to produce electricity

    Waste can be managed to reduce use of ‘Throw away’ goods e.g. piles
    to use of electricity.

    Lesson Five: Pollution and Its Effects.

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the terms pollutant and pollution

    2. Give examples of pollutants

    3. State and explain the types of pollution

    4. State the effects of the various types of pollution.

    It’s introduction into the environment of substances or energy that is
    liable to cause hazards to human
    health, harm to living resources and ecological systems
    In simple terms pollution is the contamination of the environment.

    Substances that cause pollution are called pollutants.

    Certains
    pollutants include;

  • Industrial affluent
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Les engrais
  • Ultra – violent rays from nuclear plants
  • poussière
  • Fumée
  • Noise
  • Waste heat
  • Exhaust gases from automobiles

    Types of pollution

    a) Water pollution

    p) Air pollution

    q) Land pollution

    r) Radiation pollution

    s) Sound pollution (noise)

    Water pollution

    This is the increase of substances in water in excess of its rightful
    chemical components thus making it
    unsuitable for human, animal or plant use.

    – Disposing domestic and industrial waste into rivers, lakes, seas etc
    pollutes water.

    – Disposing agricultural chemicals pesticides into water bodies.

    – Oil spilling into waters.

    – Poor sanitation bathing or washing clothes in rivers or dams

    Effects of water pollution.

    une. Causes diseases, which are communicable such as cholera, typhoid, and
    dysentery.

    b. Leads to death of marine life – birds (Flamingo) fish by oil spills

    c. Mercury (metal) leads, silver is poisonous. They kill organisms.

    ré. Water becomes unfit for human consumption.

    Air pollution

    – Presence of contaminants in the atmosphere caused by

    une. Fumée

    b. Fumes

    c. Dust – from mines, quarries

    – When there is an increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    that’s pollution

    – Other major atmospheric pollutants include gases such as
    chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), and sulphur
    dioxide (SO2)

    – Nitrogen Oxide (NO) i.e. fumes from vehicles, aircrafts, industries

    Effects

    (i) Leads to diseases such as bronchitis, asthma

    (ii) Leads to depletion of the Ozone layer leading to ultra – violent rays of
    the sun penetrating to the
    earth causing skin cancer, cataracts (eye problems), low plant yields.

    (iii) Causes rusting of roofs

    (iv) Causes acid rains

    (v) Carbon dioxide (02) in the atmosphere has led to global warming.

    (vi) Formation of smog (thick fog), which can lead to accidents.

    (vii) Colored rain due to large amounts of dust in the atmosphere.

    (viii) Eyesight loss due to gas leakages from industrial plants.

    Land pollution

    Land pollution is any physical or chemical alteration to land, which
    causes change in its use and renders
    it incapable of beneficial use without treatment.

    – Improper or excessive use of insecticides, pesticides makes land acidic

    – Land is also polluted by improper disposal of waste / garbage, broken
    glasses.

    Effects

    (i) Waste is an eye sore spoiling the beauty of the environment

    (ii) Broken glass can lead to injuries

    (iii) Open mining leaves pits, which are a danger to people and animals.

    Noise pollution

    – Experienced especially in urban centres, near roads, running water,
    mining areas, airports, music from
    bars, nightclubs etc.

    – An instrument called sound meter measures noise. The lowest unit is O
    Decitel, which is okay.

    Plus
    than 80 decibels is harmful to the ear.

    Noise over 80 decibels can cause (effects)

    – Deafness, hearing problems

    – Psychological disorders – frustrations, irritation

    – Insomnia

    – Shock due to sudden noise

    – Cracking of walls

    Noise can be minimized by

  • Construction of sound proof buildings.
  • Location of residential areas away from industries, airports, bars, main
    roads.
  • Banning of unnecessary hooting, playing of loud music in public
    vehicles.
  • Installing silencers in generators.
  • Education people on the effects of noise pollution.

    Pollution caused by radiation

  • Mainly in developed countries

    Atomic explosions e.g. Hiroshima / Nagasaki in Japan in 1945.

    The side
    effects of mutations of born
    children.

    Some children born with deformities. The radiation caused
    chromosome mutations.

    Certains
    mutations on the cells of the parent / grandparents.

  • Nuclear power stations also a danger
  • Medical equipment e.g. X ray machines when one is over exposed to
    these radiations (x – rays) it can
    lead to development of cancer.

    Lesson Six: Desertification

    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1. Define the term desertification

    2. Describe the causes of desertification

    This is slow encroachment of desert – like a condition to land that was
    previously productive making it
    desolate, uncultivatable and uninhabitable.

    Human activity accelerates
    creation of deserts.

    Causes of deserts

    1. Natural

    a) Persistent rains in a semi – arid area

    b) Exposure of an area to very high, very cold temperatures

    c) Inadequate rainfall for a long period of time

    2. Human

    Human activities that lead to desertification are

    (i) Cutting down of trees (deforestation) for land use such as building,
    industries, and not replacing
    leur.

    (ii) Use of water from wells to irrigate land. Its harmful especially salty
    water – salt on soil salination is
    toxic to soils.

    (iii) Incorrect use of pesticides and fertilizers destroy soil nutrients.

    (iv) Industrialization – industries emit carbon dioxide (CO2) leading to
    formation of acid rain, which leads
    to unproductive land hence desertification.

    (v) Overgrazing especially among the pastoralist communities.

    (vi) Poor farming methods like cultivation on riverbanks and slopes,
    which causes soil erosion, leading to
    desertification.

    Lesson Seven: Solutions to Desertification
    Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

    1.state the solutions to desertification

    Land can be restored through the following ways;

    (i) Removal of people, livestock from certain areas e.g. les forêts

    (ii) Installation of good drainage systems

    (iii) Reduction of water logging / salination

    (iv) Use of alternative sources of fuel such as wind, solar, biogas instead
    of cutting down trees to use as
    fuel (charcoal)

    (v) Advocate for penalties to those who pollute the environment –
    des usines

    (vi) Replace trees that are cut down

    (vii) Build water storage facilities to store rain water then use it for
    irrigation

    (viii) Educate people on the importance of the environment

    (ix) Use of manure instead of harmful fertilizers

    Emulate Prof.

    Wangari Maathai implanting trees – 8th October 2004 she
    was awarded the Nobel peace
    prize, an international award, for her efforts in preserving the
    environment.

    Revision questions.

    1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological
    découvertes

    2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?

    3. How has science and technology improved human life?

    4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society?

    C.r.e. – Questions and Answers

    Topic One

    Christian Ethics

    Q1. What is the meaning of Christian Ethics?

  • This is the study of human conduct or behavior.
  • It is about how Christians make choices in their daily lives guided by
    Christian principles and value.

    Q2. What is the basis or sources or foundation of Christian Ethics?

  • The Bible/Biblical scripture (holy)
  • The natural law
  • Human experience and reason
  • The Christian community – preachers
  • Situation Ethics
  • Secular/Civil Law

    Q3. List the basic life skills that one needs to be able to lead a better life

    (a) Critical thinking

    (b) Creative thinking

    (c) Decision – making

    (d) Self-esteem

    (e) Assertiveness

    Topic Two
    Male/female Relationships

    Q1. Explain seven Christian teachings on male/female relationships

  • Male/female were created as equal human beings: created in the image
    and likeness of God.
  • Male/female created for companionship, help/ partners/ compliment
    each other.
  • Both are co-creator with God – done through procreation.
  • Union between both is consummated in marriage.
  • Relationship is based on love and respect/chastity.
  • Man/husband is the head of the family.
  • Each man to have his own wife and wife own husband.
  • Husband and wife should not deny each other conjugal rights.
  • Youth should abstain from sex until marriage.
  • Male/female body is temple of the Lord.
  • Short periods of abstinence are allowed among married people but with
    consent from each other.
  • Christians appreciate different roles of men and women in the church
    e.g. leadership in choir for
    women and men.

    Topic Three. Human Sexuality

    Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of human sexuality

  • Human sexuality is regarded as sacred and secret in many African
    communities.
  • The sacredness of sex is related to the power to transmit life –
    procreation.
  • It is taboo to discuss sex matters freely especially in the presence of
    children.
  • Grandparents who are free from any tying job teach sex education.
  • Young people are prepared for adult life in the context of age group e.g.
    games of sexual nature take
    place within an age group.

    The age group has control of each other and
    there is no sex whatsoever.

  • During initiation ceremonies, vigorous sex education is provided to the
    initiates.
  • They are taught about sex, its secrets and the mystery of manhood and
    womanhood.
  • Girls are expected to remain virgins.
  • Rape offenders are severely punished.
  • Boys and girls are not allowed to mix.
  • Division of labour is on the basis of sex.
  • Roles of boys and girls are taught from childhood e.g. by copying their
    Parents.

    Q2. Explain Christian attitude towards human sexuality

  • Sex is sacred.
  • Man and woman are equal before God.
  • It is for procreation.
  • Man and woman are complimentary.
  • Both were created in the image of God.
  • They became one in marriage.
  • Sex is only allowed in marriage.
  • Virginity is valued.
  • Human beings have the ability to control sexual desires.
  • Chastity is a virtue.
  • All forms of irresponsible sexual behavior are condemned.

    Q3. In what ways is sex abused in Kenya?

  • By practicing fornication/sex before marriage.
  • Adultery – sex outside marriage
  • Through prostitution
  • By practicing bestiality
  • Through homosexuality/lesbianism/gayism
  • Incest
  • Rape/defilement of minors
  • Masturbation
  • Pornographic literature – using of technological devices in sex

    Q4. Why do you think minors are defiled or sexually abused in Kenya
    daily?

  • Lack of self-control among some men.
  • Drugs and drug abuse.
  • Permissiveness in society.
  • Influence from the mass media.
  • Mental illness – mad people.
  • Erosion of the African culture/moral values.
  • Devil worship/strange cults/false religion.
  • Breakdown of religion values.
  • Irresponsible parenthood.
  • Indecent dressing.
  • Leniency of the Law/no punishment for criminal.
  • Idleness.
  • Poverty.

    Responsible Sexual Behaviour

    Q 5. What is the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior?

  • Responsible sex is between male and female.
  • Sexual intercourse is allowed between married people.
  • Faithfulness is a virtue in this: Both partners must avoid adultery.
  • Responsible sexual behavior means exercising self-control.
  • It entails obedience to God’s commands hence a Christian has to shun
    forbidden sexual behavior e.g.
    fornication.
  • Body temple of the Lord. Our sexual relationships should uphold human
    dignity and respect for our
    bodies.
  • The Bible teaches that whatever we do with our bodies should be for the
    glory of God (1 Cor. 7:19-20).

    Q6. List the difference types of irresponsible sexual behavior

    • Homosexuality (lesbianism, sodomy)

    • Bestiality

    • Masturbation

    • Rape

    • Incest

    • Prostitution

    • Fornication

    • Abortion

    Q7. Explain the Christian teaching on responsible sexual behavior

  • It defiles the body, which is the temple of God.
  • It is wickedness.
  • It is unholy and dirty before God.
  • It is spiritually unclean.
  • Those involved break the commandment of God.
  • It involves coveting – a sin.
  • Polygamy is condemned and considered irresponsible.

    Q8. State the effects of irresponsible sexual behavior

  • It can lead to sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS).
  • Can lead to pregnancy and then abortion.
  • If married people are involved (adultery) divorce may occur.
  • Separation
  • Children suffer lack of parental care due to divorce as a result of
    adultery.
  • It may lead to street children.
  • It discourages young people from marrying.
  • It can lead to fights, quarrels, misunderstanding and friction.
  • Young people can chop out of school due to pregnancy/AIDS.
  • Can lead to single parenthood.
  • Withdrawing from family and society.
  • Self-pity and loneliness.
  • Psychological problems e.g. depression.
  • Stress.
  • Suicide and death.
  • Unwanted/unexpected pregnancies.
  • Aggressiveness and violence.

    Lesson Three: the Family
    Q5. State the different types of families

  • Nuclear family
  • Single parent family
  • Polygamous
  • Élargi

    Lesson Two: Marriage
    Q1. Explain the Traditional African understanding of marriage

  • Marriage is viewed as the focus of existence, i.e. the point where the
    three members of the
    community meet (i.e. living, departed and the unborn).
  • A rhythm of life through which everybody must participate.
  • Marriage is a duty/a must/compulsory.
  • Failure to marry means the person has rejected society and the society
    rejects him in turn.
  • Those who do not marry are considered as sub-human or lawbreakers.
  • Marriage is God ordained.
  • Young boys and girls are prepared for this sacred institution during
    initiation.
  • They are taught everything pertaining to marriage e.g. sex.
  • Children cement the marriage.

    Q2. What is the importance of children in Traditional African Society

  • They help their parents at old age.
  • Cement a marriage: One without children is considered incomplete.
  • Children (boys) provide security at home and the community.
  • They help in the perpetuation of the family and community name.
  • The departed are reborn through naming of children.
  • Provide labour.
  • It is through children that (new) members meet and get to know each
    other.

    Young children are
    introduced to their relatives e.g. during initiation, marriage etc.

  • Children uphold the statue of parents.

    Q3. What is the Christian teaching about marriage?

  • The church defines marriage as a covenant.
  • The Bible teaches that marriage is a divine institution.
  • Marriage is for procreation.
  • Marriage is for companionship.
  • It is for fulfillment of mutual love.
  • Marriage is a remedy against sin – fornication.
  • It should be monogamous.
  • Marriage should be permanent – no divorce.
  • Without or with children marriage is complete.
  • Sex outside marriage is forbidden.

    Q4. What is the importance of courtship period in Traditional African
    Societies?

  • It helped in identifying a suitable marriage partner.
  • The two families involved established a firm relationship.
  • The boy and the girl had a chance to learn each other’s character.
  • It gives an opportunity to know whether the boy and girl are related.
  • Allows time for exchange of gifts between the two families, thus a firm
    relationship is established.
  • Time to negotiate the bride-wealth.
  • Boy and girl are instructed about their duties and responsibilities.

    Q5. Why are many people opting for celibacy instead of marriage today?

  • Celibacy is used to refer to the unmarried.
  • Many remain single today because of Christianity – to serve God.
  • Some are born Eunuchs – cannot father children.
  • Education – one may want to pursue education.
  • Career demands – too demanding to allow one get time for a family.
  • Lack of guidance and counseling on marriage and family.
  • Discouragement from failing marriages.
  • Economic reasons – one may not have money for a big house, wedding
    and bringing up a family.
  • Poor health e.g. épilepsie
  • Economic independence – whereby young people feel satisfied when
    they have enough money.
  • Parental interference – or whom their son should marry.
  • Disappointing relationships.

    Chapter Six
    Christian Approaches to Work

    Q1. What is work?

    Répondre

  • Work means any human activity, be it manual, intellectual or both.

    Q2. List any six reasons why people work

  • People work for self-satisfaction and fulfillment.
  • For personal development.
  • In order to acquire basic needs of life.
  • To give life meaning, direction and dignity.
  • To provide service for the community.
  • To acquire wealth and status in the community.
  • In order to socialize and grow as a member of a community.
  • To attain independence and stop depending on others.
  • In order to help others e.g. beggars.

    Q3. Explain the Traditional African attitude towards work

  • Work was understood as a fundamental dimension of human existence
    here on earth.
  • It is through work that human beings were able to change, reorganize
    and restructure their society.
  • It was regarded as a recreational activity as through it, people built their
    houses, places of worship,
    produced art like sculpture and carving.
  • Work was highly valued and the dignity of work was taught early in
    la vie.
  • Each member had his own role to play e.g. men went out to hunt, herd
    etc accompanied with boys
    while mother did house work with the help of daughters.
  • Grandparents taught the youth how to behave and baby seated.
  • They believed work was God’s will and so they invoked God’s name
    through prayer, sacrifice to bless
    leur travail.
  • They had freedom over their work. No supervision. They decided when
    to work, when to rest but rest
    came after work.
  • Work was related to leisure, for people sang, danced and told stories as
    they worked.
  • Through work, many people exploited talents or learned e.g. bâtiment
    houses, song etc.
  • All were workers – work was compulsory.
  • Work brought people together – solidarity. This is because they shared
    work (communal work).

    Q3. List some of the factors that have changed the attitude towards work
    dans la société moderne

  • Level of education – determine the type of work.
  • Availability of job opportunities.
  • Stiff competition
  • Work is personal unlike in Traditional African Communities where it
    was social.
  • Negative attitude to work. This is where some people hate manual work.
  • People work for personal gain and gratification.
  • Work is a commodity to be sold to the highest bidder.

    Q4. What are the rights of employers?

  • They have a right to a fair taxation in their business.
  • Get profits from their business.
  • Have association with other employers.
  • Expect loyalty form their employees.
  • Receive from their employees work input as agreed upon on the
    employment contract.
  • Operate without being black mailed by trade unions.
  • Open business ventures without Government restrictions.

    Q5. State the duties of employees

  • To carry out their duties to the best of their ability without supervision
    e.g. be punctual, present etc.
  • To respect and protect the property of the employer.
  • To resort to peaceful means of solving problems, and not destructive
    ways e.g. strike.
  • To work diligently for self – fulfillment and development.
  • To respect the employer and fellow employees.

    Q6. Why has child labour become common in Kenya?

    Definition: – This is the employment of children on a full time basis.

    Reasons:

  • Their labour is cheap.
  • They are not unionisable and can therefore not fight for proper terms
    and conditions of service.
  • They can easily be lured and fired.
  • They do no have qualifications in any skill so as to negotiate for their
    terms.
  • They are looked at as a source of income by their parents or guardians.

    Q7. What are the causes of unemployment in Kenya?

  • High population – There are too few job opportunities as compared to
    the many young people.
  • Hatred for manual work – many youth are looking for white-collar jobs
    despising the available “blue
    jobs.”
  • Bribery and corruption – In the job market whereby the rich are able to
    give while the poor though
    with good qualifications cannot secure a job.
  • Lack of skills and capital to start self-employment.
  • Bad governance and poor economic policies from the government.
  • SAPS – Structural Adjustment of Programmes i.e. Policy – not giving
    funds has led to poverty.
  • International policies of globalization that have affected the agric sector
    that has been the greatest
    employer in Kenya.
  • Retrenchment of workers in the Civil Service and Private Sectors.
  • Increase in crime that has aggravated insecurity in the country. This has
    discouraged local and
    international investors.

    Q8. What can the Government do to reduce unemployment in Kenya?

  • By creating more job opportunities.
  • By starting more industries.
  • Increase of workers by 10% after every 10 years.
  • Encouraging self-employment whereby loans and space are given.
  • Starting of a school curriculum (8.4.4.) – starting that gears students
    into blue-collar jobs.
  • Starting the District Funds for Rural Development = C.D.F.
  • Stopping rural –urban migration.
  • By Africanisation of jobs – sending away foreign workers.

    Chapter Seven
    Christian Approaches to Leisure: and the Use and
    Abuse of Drugs

    Q1. Identify five (5) reasons why the taking of alcohol as a way of
    spending leisure is condemned

  • It leads to conflicts/quarrels within the family.
  • Misuse of family resources.
  • May lead to addiction.
  • Leads to irresponsible sexual behaviours e.g. prostitution, adultery, and
    fornication.
  • Could lead to loss of income.
  • May lead to irresponsibility, which leads to accidents such as motor
    accidents.

    Q2. Write down 5 ways in which modern Christian use their leisure time

  • Organize/attend religious seminars.
  • Participate in church choir/concerts.
  • Offers services to the aged.
  • Read religious literature e.g. Bible.
  • Keep the church and its environment clean.
  • Have fellowship with other Christians.
  • Initiate self-help projects to assist the needy.
  • Provide guidance and counseling to the community.
  • Preach the word of God.
  • Visit relatives and friends.
  • Be with family members.
  • Listen to Christian preaching/songs on radio.

    Q3. Give 5 ways in which drug abuse could affect a Christian family

  • Drains family resources.
  • Fights in families may occur.
  • Leads to diseases.
  • Leads to family break-ups/separation/divorce.
  • It reduces one’s capacity to be productive in the family.
  • Results in making wrong decisions/judgement.
  • Leads to denial of conjugal rights.
  • Leads to loss of religious values.
  • Leads to poor role models for children.
  • Leads to crime/imprisonment.

    Q4. Identify ways in which Christians can overcome temptations to drug
    abuser de

  • Practicing self-control.
  • Praying against being tempted.
  • Seeking guidance and counseling.
  • Avoiding the company of those who misuse drugs.
  • Reading literature on the correct use of drugs.
  • Participating in activities that promote proper use of drugs/healthy
    Activités.

    Q5. Why is leisure important in the life of Christians?

  • Gives one time to visit the sick/needy.
  • For dedicating oneself to God/worshiping God.
  • Provide an opportunity to fellowship with others.
  • It allows one to develop the different talents given by God.
  • It gives one an opportunity to meet new friends/family.
  • One is able to read the word of God.
  • Provides an opportunity for one to preach/evangelize.
  • Provides an opportunity to take care of the environment.
  • Provides an opportunity to guide and counsel others and be guided.
  • Provides time to rest to gain lost energy.

    Q6. What factors have contributed to the misuse or leisure in Kenya
    today?

  • Too much money/wealth/availability of drugs/contraceptives.
  • Inadequate facilities.
  • Lack of proper guidance/education on how to use leisure.
  • Poverty
  • Inability to make right decisions.
  • Bad company/peer pressure.
  • Watching/reading phonographic materials/negative media.
  • Misunderstanding in families/frustrations.
  • Inability to balance between different activities.
  • Permissiveness
  • Lack of role models
  • Idleness/boredom/unemployment

    Q7. State the factors that have led to the misuse of drugs in Kenya today

  • Poor role models.
  • Stress/depression/rebellion.
  • Peer pressure/curiosity.
  • Irresponsible parenthood.
  • Influence of mass media.
  • Availability of drugs/wealth.
  • Lack of guidance and counseling.
  • Corruption/greed.
  • Poverty.
  • Moral decay/permissiveness in the society.
  • Lack of knowledge/ignorance on use of drugs.
  • Idleness.
  • Urbanization/west culture.

    Chapter Eight

    Christian Response to Issues Related to Wealth,
    Money and Poverty

    Q1. Explain the biblical teaching on wealth

  • It is a blessing from God.
  • When wealth come with responsibility.
  • Wealth can create a sense of false independence.
  • It should be acquired in just and honest way.
  • Wrong attitude to wealth leads to idolatry.
  • One should seek spiritual wealth, which is permanent and more
    fulfilling.
  • It is wrong to discriminate others on basis of material possessions.
  • Christians should share whatever wealth they have.
  • Wealth is not supreme good.
  • Wealth gives people independence so that they do not beg.
  • Wealth may bring suffering and insecurity.
  • God is the owner of wealth and people should realize that they are only
    stewards.

    Q2. Discuss the biblical teaching on acquisition and use of wealth

  • Riches acquired through just and fair means are not condemned.
  • Even if wealth is acquired through just means it should not be idolized.
  • Failing to use wealth to glorify God.
  • God is the source of all riches.
  • Wealth is acquired through obedience to God’s laws.
  • People ought to take care of their wealth not misuse.
  • Wealth should be equally distributed and not concentrated in the hands
    of a few.
  • Wealth should be used to develop the nation’s infrastructure.

    Q3. Explain ways in which people misuse wealth in Kenya today

  • Indulge in alcohol and drugs.
  • Engaging in immoral practices e.g. prostitution.
  • Gambling which might lead to loss of wealth.
  • Being luxurious/extravagant.
  • Unfair class competition among the wealthy.
  • Using wealth to undermine others e.g. assassination.
  • Using wealth to promote crime.
  • Engaging in risky/dangerous sports or projects e.g. motor racing,
    wrestling.
  • Using wealth selfishly/lack of social concern.
  • Using wealth to engage young people into immoral practices e.g. sexe
    tourism.

    Q4. Show how misuse of wealth leads to family instability

  • One may indulge in alcohol/drug abuse at the expense of family needs.
  • Engage in immorality/extra-marital sexual relations/prostitution.
  • Leads to misunderstanding on how to use wealth/invest.
  • One uses wealth to engage in gambling.
  • Spoils children/encourages laziness.
  • Arrogance/pride/showing off.
  • One becomes obsessed with wealth and fails to care for the family love
    – has no time for the family.
  • Inheritance squabbles in case of death.
  • One fails to meet the basic needs for the family.

    Q5. Give ways in which Kenyan Government is alleviating levels of
    la pauvreté

  • Offering free education.
  • Provision of C.D.F.
  • Allocation of bursary to the needy.
  • Creating and enabling environmental employment in formal and
    informal sectors (easy access to
    loans).
  • Providing market for agricultural products e.g. K.C.C, Cereal Board.
  • Provision of low cost health services.
  • Improving infrastructure e.g. roads, electricity.
  • Providing youth fund through the Ministry of Youth Affairs.

    Q6. State the factors that have contributed to high levels of poverty in
    Kenya today

  • Geographical factors e.g. adverse climate conditions.
  • Historical/colonialism and social factors e.g. poor family background.
  • Political instability, which may lead to civil wars.
  • Poor governance.
  • Regional imbalance of natural resources.
  • Low level of technology.
  • Unemployment.
  • Laziness.
  • Over dependence on foreign aid.
  • Abuse of alcohol and other drugs.
  • Lack of formal education hence no employment.

    Chapter Nine
    Christian Approaches to Law, Order and Justice
    Q1. State ways in which Christians can promote unity/peach in the society

  • By reporting criminals to the police.
  • By being good example to others as peacekeepers.
  • Praying for criminals.
  • Building and counseling criminals.
  • Teaching the society the importance of keeping peace.
  • Condemning evil and evildoers.

    Q2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

  • They belong to the society and leadership affects them.
  • It is a God-given duty.
  • In order to choose righteous leaders who will encourage values/virtues.
  • In order to help reduce bribery and corruption and other vices in the
    society.

    Chapter 10

    Christian Approaches to Selected Issues Related to
    Modern Science, Technology and the
    Environnement

    Q1. How can modern Christians evaluate scientific and technological
    discoveries?

  • They should keep in mind that God gave them high-level power of
    thinking.
  • Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.
  • They should not be used as an insult to God who created all things e.g.
    in things like plastic surgery,
    test tube babies etc.
  • Discoveries must be used intelligently to solve man’s problems.
  • Discoveries should not erode Christian values by increasing man’s trust
    in scientific and technological
    production.
  • Acknowledge God as the source of all truth including science.
  • Should help man make moral decision and judgments e.g. effet de
    alcohol, smoking, etc.
  • Man should not be a slave to scientific discoveries instead he should
    control it.

    Q2. Why is the church in Kenya opposed to plastic surgery?

  • It is against God’s plan of old age and death.
  • It is a sign of lack of appreciation to God’s work of creation.
  • It can lead to death if the operation fails.
  • It interferes with God’s image given at birth.
  • May be very expensive.
  • Emphasis on beauty and pleasing which are seen as idolatry.
  • Certain diseases can be transmitted especially where tissues may be
    detached from a donor with an
    infectious disease.
  • Can bring about other operations like diseases.
  • Scientists use it to compete with God’s creation.
  • Leads to vices such as pride.
  • It may lead to criminal activities by the victim due to different
    appearances.
  • It is a sign of lack of faith in God’s power of creation/healing.
  • It is against human dignity.

    Q3. How have science and technology improved human life?

  • Modern methods of transport and communication have improved social
    interaction and faster
    movements.
  • It has improved efficiency at work where machines are used.
  • Has improved agricultural development hence increasing food
    production.
  • Irrigation and wealth forecasting have too increased in food production.
  • It has brought better health care through modern medical technology.
  • Human beings are now better placed in terms of security matters by use
    of radar, alarms and electrical fencing.
  • It has led to the creation of job opportunities through industrial
    développement.
  • Formal education and training has equipped human beings with new
    skills for survival.
  • Trade has been promoted through the use of computers and the Internet.

    Q4. What are the consequences of science and technology in our society
    today?

  • Unemployment is acute in our society today because computers have
    taken over.
  • There is exploitation of workers by the employers because they want
    maximum profits.
  • It has caused pollution and air poisoning.
  • It has caused health hazards and accidents in factories, roads etc.
  • Machines have replaced human labour.
  • Families are separated due to employment whereby a mother lives in the
    rural with children while the father goes to town to work.
  • It has destroyed family relationships and replaced it with individualism

    2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people

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